Skip to main content

Full text of "A new and literal translation of Juvenal and Persius: with ..., Volume 1"

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at http : //books . google . com/| 

Digitized by 


-^/' /^./^^ 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Digitized by 


. U-^-^^- 





BT wnoa 


Br THE Rev. M. ^ADAN. 


SoAL. in Jmr. 



rni'ST^n by jr. blims^ fob m, bussj jhd x. blisSj ^ux. 






, Google 

Digitized by' 


:.i (J ;- , 

ru :'■''• '^^C- ^T - 

r' J;'/ii :j/;' ■■'.;.;■ 

/> ,'>•.,' ■:''.-'';\, ..I-' v" ■~':F/i 

V ' * T '''-'•', .■ ,: ' ;. , '; .^ f . ,' ' 'i * ♦. •'..'! ' '' • w^/'t ''i.4 


y • • T 

.J .1 ' < t 

' . v' 









.- ». 



u t-^^^^--^ 

*v n v } 

• . •• ..,. .j.i.ka?>i^i- ^ . i?.-^tf -^nJ?* ^^' ''"''^-^ * 

'u- ..: J A>i; ,:*.-. 

Digitized by 






Bum, a town of the Vdsci, a people of Latiiun: hence, 

fixun the place of his birth, he was called Aquiiias. It 

is not certain whether he was the son^ or foster-child, 

ef a rich fiieedman. He had a learned education, and, 

m the time of Claudius Nero, pleaded causes with great 

reputation* About his middle age he applied himself 

to the study of Poetry; and, as he saw a daily increase 

of vice and folly, he addicted himself to writing Satire :^ 

\ffity having said something (sat. vii, L 88-^92.) which 

was deemed a reflection on Paris the actor, a minion 

of Domitian's, he was banished into -Egypt, at *eighty 

years of age, under pretence of sending him as cc^aiii 

of a company of soldiersi This was looked upon as a 

sort of humorous punishment for what he ha4 said, iti. 

making Paris the bestawer of posts in the army^ 

However, Domitian dying soon after, Juvenal re-» 
turned to Rome, and is said to have lived there to tiie 
times t of Nava and Trajan^ At last,^ worn out witU 
dd age, he expired in a fit of cou^ng^ 

^ Quanq(aaia OetogeHarins.— ^-Mav^hajll, in Vit Juif. 

f Ibique ad Nenrae et Trajftni teiiq>o(a tuperiixifse dioit&r, 

A « 

Digitized by 


•Uecnemyto Yicein^HfiyK^WB.K ' : v^ - rv; 
A3 a water, bis. styl^ is; cprif^f^l^ii in pwtcjoftjte*? 
g^oe and beau^, by any ^i^kii^.t^Mreaare MCitteiDtlQdi 
with, Hprace not exce^e^. .-Thfi>plwo*efti oi-Jm^mbi 
^xpssion$ are derived irom th^^honesty^^f^int^lgif*:^ 
bki own imnd: his great aim wBarr-'' to^ hAdftfmxip 
•* were, thi(?; mkror up to nature; Uf :ejm^1^irtmhiss^ 
" own feature, Scorn her owp* ioi^, aj(4 jtl^ ^g^fjli^ 
•' and body of the time his form nfp4 .|y«»VJ? u>jT^fe 
meant nol^ theppfore, to corrupt .tbe.<fnui^^ Itj^^V^^fy. ' 
dew^bing the Jpwd practices of W&^cq^li^Bwmje fei^^ 
relieve pyery veil, even of langfi^ jij^fplg^i^ichf^c^^ 
si^xm the features, « hide tij^ M.^d^ij^ty iff^y^ 
%3m the observation of his.^ead?^ 9pd t^^s ((>r9tli|i^ 
the. VM(i ^ith due al^horrence of wh^tjfie ,i^jisi«Ntoiw 
All this is done in so masterly a i^y^ aS;,f0i^i?ende3; J»m^ 
w^ worthy Scajtigers encomiu^i, rwhen.})Q^|yl€$ ^limrtr 
O^f^um Satyricortfm facile Frino^^H!^ ws^&ipjj^y 
l^vj^ and . respecte4 by t Martial.. Q^jja^an flfifii&&k 
of luna^ Imt.^ Orat. lib. .x. aa tb? <^^9^j^^ 8*(^s; 
$ Aminianus, Maroelliuus say8,,ths* ^me :HjtoQ;;!ii^ 
test learning, djd, notwiftstanding,; ii| ^^^ ^nqsl^ptft^ 
found retiFedness, dUif^tly cmp^oy^d^ewieliv^svi©^^^ 

w.orks. •_, - •;..•.•• '-.. .:^-'; {\::>^ A ^noijiBi 

, The attentive reader of Juxenalu3ia5i.a?€5ija^cinim 
g)|ass, a truQ portraiUjre of ^ Roma« ^i^iJiiH^s^rMtihi^. 
time : here he may .gee,, ^^"^ rto, t^?^ ft,|^efljrfe ,8w«fc:, 
in slotli, luxury, and dehaucheiy, ^^^-eixl^^ JfljuSi 

♦ Hamlet, act iu. scene 2. + Scc^Mart. 4ib. tii. epig. 24. 

j: Hist lib. xxTiii. 

f. * 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

However polite and-iSWfemd thfe^pebpte was; H^^^M* 
spktvtotjdti^diltiktiM W^ letters, afts, arid sdefi€es, 

kMiv^g^ of'0(M, tlley'were u))Oh a'fbolitig^^^ 
m»i'i«0^MfbA c^ #ieir cotemporaries, and' cotisc^' 
^eMdy n^e^ eqoalfy "Aitlt thetn, sunk into til mahnfer 
<i^irMil^diies»"oiid abomination. The descrip^n df the 
fitoifiBesr itf gtii^li My St PadI; Rom. i 19— 92. is 
ftttprml^ 'tisi1x>^ Romans in jmrticular. ' •' 
Zlify^ptiitit HM^ be looked upon as one of those rai^' 
AktltflA's/^^^iii^ stione fe eren in tlie darkness of Hea^ 
tlfellltoi»* 'The iiimd and eortecience of this grfeat mifr 
«tre,3Al>&^-from* whence he knew hot, s6 fat* enV 
Sl^blto^ *d to IteFCei^ the ligHness of vice, and*^s6* 
iaflttelie^ Witif a desim to^ inform itj as to tna*e-iiimt 
^sKie&rdblg-lo tbe^ li^t he had, a severe and tittle te-- 
pra«^ a pi^ erfitl and dfligwit witAei* against the* Vicei? 
diid^H^ bf the pedple amon^ which he liVedj-MJ}^^ 
iildlESI!^) i^Ast^^lIy who, Kk^ thein, give a lo6se «b i^^r 
(te^Tttfiii A]^p*tites, as if there were no otlier libSiy to 
'beUafii^itPa^f»,'Mt the most uiVrestrained indnTgence o/ 
yilA^'ftSeMrih dtid ;gratifieaiioris, : . c . :: > t 

^'^Hl^W^fBif 'ISdliie-€hft§^ possessed of divhie reve-* 
latioQf is better than Heathen Rome witliout it, is hot. 
&r nuief ^ to^ deter^ne^ r but I feafr, that ' the perusal of 
Meildp^tiliM^isfif us \viil)^^ too serious a reason to bb-- 
^blf^,^ikDl^%dt ci^^moAfirh Roihe, bitt every metropolis' 
io/tSife PliHlWlSa»^vbrH/aste^ t^ of its hian-^ 

ners and pursuits, hilars a most unhappy .resembjanfje jto 

* Rom. ii. 15. Comp. Is. xk. 5. See sat. x, 1. ^63, and tiiste. 

Digitized by 




a^ objects of; tbe-Mcwini^ 11%rey itre, >ttietie;\ 

iap^, too ftpplid^e termite. times iti Mf^kbA wci Ihte, and, 
iq jtM view, i£ rightly understood, may, p^ha(», ^e' 
serv^coaUe to many, who will not ccme within the read) ' 
qf l^ightr instruction. . 

.jpiishpp J^net .observes, liiat the ^^' satirical fkiet^ 
" Horace, Juvenal, and Peraus, rnay contribute ifcsi- 
" der&lly to give a man a detestation of vice, and a 
*' contempt of the ccmunon methods of mankfaid; which 
" they have set out in such true colours, that fhey inust 
^*^ve a very generous sense to those: who delist in 
" reading them often." Fast. Carty c. viL 

This translation was begun some yeai*s agp, at hours 
oi leisure, for the Editor's own amusement: when, on 
adding the notes as he went along, he found it useftd to 
h^9e}f, 1% began to think that it mig^t be so to others, 
i£: pursued to tfie eiid on the same jplrin. The work was ^ 
ciiTied on, till it increased to a considerable biidk. The 
addition of Persius enlarged it to its present 3ize, in 
wiiich it appears in print, with a design to add its Hs-^ 
sj^taofliim explaining these difficult authors, not only to ' 
school-boys and young beginners, but to tiumbers inii 
more advanced age^ who, by having been^ throne intoi 
various scenes of life^ rejnote itom 'classical improve-- " 
mentj; have so far forgotten tbetf Laitin, is to tender 
these ele^usft and iiustructive reriiiins oC antiquity almost 

. inaccessible to their comprehension, Jiowever des^ua 
they may be to ren?w their acquaiirtance withdierai l " 

i^ totte old:Oi))ection, thattrai^atiimsctf 'tilil$ QtM^ ' 
3ic8 tend to rnake boys idle, this cte never happen; btit 

^ Ibmuj^ liie fault of the master, in riot properly watch^ ' , 
ing over the method of their studies. A master shoidd 


Digitized by 


n^^rffuffS ^^ to^^ooOBttrqefriliis 3e3S(m iA the school^ 

bqt .^om .tli? totJa by itoelf, JH>r Widxwt making Ac- 

hqy psun^ ,,9cdA. py^ an afioount of eveiy tieces^ai^^ 

woo^^ tfife; wiU. di^ him to his grammar and rfic- 

iiofmry^ near as much as if he had na translatiicm s^- 

M^.p^t ia grivate, when the boy is preparing Ms lis- 

sq][|^..]^ Utf^ ^anslatidfif and explanatory notes^ do fti- 

cij^tsit^ tbexrightiCcmiprehensiQn) and understanding; of 

t^/aiMi^9^':& l^tx^age, meanings and design, as t6 im- 

pyjig^^ jtb^ with ease on the leamar's mind; to form liis 

ta^fB^^jWd :to enable him^ not only to construe and ex- 

plaiUj, but to get those portions of the author by heart, 

yv^^i^^e^iSf at certain periods, to repeat at school, and 

w}4ph^« if judiciously selected, he may find useftd, ai pmifmentai td him, all his life. 

l^p 4^.e^d, X have considered, that there are thre^ 
pui|go^ j^ be answered. First, that the reader should 
ki^w wha^ .the' author says; tliis can only be attained 
b^.^literaVtroBslation: as for poetical venaons, which ' 
arg,^pf):§^n)iscalled. translations, paraphrases, and the 
lil^ ^y.are but ill cakulated for this ^ndamentai 
ai]^ nepe^^ purpose. 

JXtey, j;jfiniud one of a performer on a musical instni'« 
me^t^^wt^ shews his slall, by playing over a piece of' 
mjji^^with so many variatioos, as to disguise, almost: 
^^ urig^ial. simple melody, ioscnnuch tiiat 

* 1 tmBb^t^l ihaHnot'be ret:koi^ed gutltj of inconsistencj, if, 
^^ )4SM^ J^ilE»^<4MfVi> J^^'^ ^^ pamphrase, whieb { ha^e 

so iU|i|ipj^,9r|t9^ded, tl^fl^fb ike rest ,of Ihe. work, becais^ thtf V 

teraLsc^se of these is fetter, obscinred than e^lawied, espcpally^^K. 


Digitized by 


*j4lT translators should trans^r to themselves the di- 
rections, which our Shakespeare ^ves to actors, at leas^^ 
if iliey mean to assist the student, by helping him to pe 
constructionj^ that he may understand the language of 
the ^uthor.^— As the actor is nbt'^^ to olsrstep tlie niCH 
" desty of nature" — sq a translatqr is ijot to o^rstjep 
fhe simplicity of the text— As aii^ actor is " n^ to 
^^'speak mbre than is set down for him"— so a transla- 
tor is not to exercise his own fancy, and let it 16ose into 
phrases and expressions, which are totally foreign Jrom 
thoise. of the author. He should therefore sacrifice le- 
nity to usefulness,, and forego the praise of elegant writ- 
ing, for the utility . of faithful translation. . ' 

'llie ri^xt thing to be considered, after kifiowing'tt;^^^ 
the author says, is how he says it; this caii only be 
learnt from the original itself, to lihicH if tefer the rea- 
der, by printing the Latin, line for line; opposite to the 
Epglisfc aiid, as the lines are nuinbered, tlie eye/wifl 
readily . pass J^^^ the one to the other. 'The informa- 
tfoh wiiich has been received from tlie transiation, will 
feadijy assist id the grammatical construction.' The 
third! particular, without which the readei' would Tali' 
very short of understanding the author, is, to know 
whatM f&eaiisi to expjlam this'^^J^^ 
nples, for mapyqf which, 4^^^^ 
^If chj^y indebted Jtei^adimis :^baQi^-$atfmeMial0fls,< 
bi£t . whid, 4i«^^ minifsmisi' Isa&v^ #dfaiifiMl wiif of ^e' 
reads 6irmsb%} whiftn^tfife wtrfk'^ft ^riWdfSfl^ih-' 
ferid^d^ Heir^^ ffln^ \^^ypy X^5^' 'sefected'?some '^ 
from English writers T this' indeed th^ student «^kib^ 

Digitized by 


have dniie ifoir nims^; Imt FlSHpc he ¥ill hot take it 
amisSj^ that I hay^ brought^ so Qiimy ^iitertot comment 
tiu)^ inio one view, and sav^ iiiuch troable to him, at 
ft^^cxpefii^ bf my ownrlaboiff. The rest of the nobes^ 
aha uuke' h^ ii^copsrderable number, perhaps the most, 
are fty own. Ky whicb^ if 1 have been happy enough, 
to supply 'ftiiy deficiencies of others, I shall be glad. ., 
-upon the whole, I anj, from long observation, most 
peffecfly convmcedy that the early disgust, which, ia 
tdo^'manv ms^nces, youth is apt to conceive against 
das^cal !eai;iiing< (so tiiat the school-time is passed in 
a ^te. 91 * labour and sorrow,), arises mostly from the 
crabbed and difficult metiiods of instruction, which are 
too' ofEeii Imposed upon them;, and that, tlicrefore, all 
attempts .to reduce the number of the difficulties, which, 
like ^*inahy thorns, are laid m tlieir way, and to 
trewfler the paths of instruction pleasant and eajsv,. 
wiU'encoumge and invite their attention, even to the 
i^u^^ of thif'most difficult authors, among the/orenk)s^ 
of which we^inay r^nk Juvenal and Persius. Should 
the present publication be, found to answer this end, 
riot dhly tp scnodl-boys, biit to tliose also who w'ould 

be^ad to recover isu^h ^ competent knowledge of the 

ilijT bii^jv: .:"'}i" '5 ^'\\] r .A^'' :./ ?; ' :^' -^ ' •; r 

* « The books Ihatyeleaipi]^ at school arc getterall^ laid aside, 
'^^M^^t^s^'pNJttSi^^^'^^^^^^ weU a^ the sor. 

"^I^Kf^^^t^oi^i^^^^i^Ah&M'y^ ^Jta&n ; btti ^^^ among the 
^^4l6ftlM.1bOS*f^tll#i6«aac :^aliii>K^iiiaii ktrfhors hate a spirit in 

mm, 'qnam si Bocemus atqua ^rudtmug jaYentatein ? Cic« dip IKtIiu 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

^i«W%<w^f^^^ .tbiet:QB8^ (W-^5?»^ <yfQ^f?g? ^P0;J3<*ly 

^,;)Br||ltai iri li^^ and whiidi[P<wie bufc ijm^^gm^:^^ 
j/^t0ess,c^\uBdca:vatoe,) it will afford Jiij?. 54*^^ t^ 
^ ^ddi^a&al satfefact^on. Still uiQi:^ , if it pr9^y)B t«wfeJl 
;:t^ foreigners; such I mean as ajpe aGftuaijit«4'1[^'Mii..t|ie 
v.J^n> aivi wish to be helped in their, sj^y of i,fte 
; Eii^ifch.languf^, which i^;; njuch .cult^ 
.j»ai^ parts of Europe. ., . : ^^ '>w; .::;. */ u.v 

i. The iJeligous. readei^ will phs^^rvie, \imi^,f^0y w\iO 
*^ in times, past suffered.'f all the ii^tioxkSi {israrr^ffift^&if^t 
\ ^\ i^ 0[,. all the heathen) to walk ift their own rT^^fSiy/i, ne- 
^ * ' veytheless left not himself withojut ^itpes^H flo^roniy *y 
..4;b^ outw^d m^wxifestations of his power fl^d.gpodi^^jas, 
.^ Ijbe^w^rks of t creation and providence,, but 
'j^^ wlio, in th^iir several generations, have so, for 
shewn the work of % the taw written mthdr hearts, 
as to bear testimony against the unrighteousness of the 
world in which they lived- Hence, w^ find tjie great 
apostle of the Gentiles, Acts xvii. 28. quoting apas- 
/ sage from his countryman, Aratus of Cilicia, against 
idolatry, or imagining there be gods made with hands.. 
We find the same apostle § reproving the prices of ly- 
ing and gluttony in the Cretans, by a quotation fi-om 
the Cretan poet Epimenides, whom he calls " a pro- 
" phet of their own,"* for they accounted their poets 
writers of divine oracles. Let this teach us to distinguish 

* See Whitby on Acts xW. 16. 

+ Comp. Rom, L 19, 20, with Acts xir, 17, 

J See Rom. ii. 15. § Tit. i. 12. 

Digitized by 


•^6^J»feirf the ii^ dWse of ckssfcal blowtedg&" 

vj^i^ifetfit Ifehds to ftiform the judghient, to irefeic the maoi- 
i'"iil5fey tad to eml)ellfeh 4e cbnveriatioti ; wMn it kee{>s 
^^'S^cKftf^ dtibordhiatibn to dtat which is divine, makes iis 
n*r«y^ftknIrfHl of the superior li^t of Gad's in^llWe 
^^^iti;^and teaches us how little can be truly known •by 
Mh€f-Sv!sist of men, without a divine revelation — tiien it 
'4fau^^ "use — ^stiD more, if it awakens in U5'a jealousy 
••*itS?^dttrselves, tiiat we duly improve the superior li^t 

with which we are blessed, lest the very heathen rise 
*^^44^ jildgmehl t «^^ us. If, on the contrary, it tends 
«'1io>iiiafee us proud, vain, and conceited, to rest in its it- 
' fftiififietits as the summit of wisdom and knowledge; if 
vitisdiStiil^tes to harden the mind against superior in- 
f^[^ifi§^n,^br fills it with that sour pedantry which leads 
if©'tK6 cohtempt of others — ^then I will readily allow, 

that all our learning is but " splendid ignorance and 

" pompdiis folly," 

♦ 1 Cor. 1.20, SI. + Luke xu. 47, 48; 

'"'[ >j^ '•'^' 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 










Digitized by 



J u Kj I J TJT E :ej A L I s 





Jx^fkaiAt- begins fkis saiire teiih giving tome humourous reasons 

'" for kis TBDrittng : such as hearings so ofien^ mamf ill poets rehewse 

^keir works, and intending to repag^ them in kind* Next he in. 

forms us, tcAy he addicts himseff to satire, rather than to other 

poetry, and gives a summary and general view of the reigning 

oEMPER ego auditor timtum ? nunqiiaiiine reponam/ 
Vexatiw Uytie» rauci Theseide Codri i 
Impune ergo mihi recitaverit ille togatas, 

Satires'] Or satyri— ^coneerning Ibis word^— see Ci»Min»s'f Die* 
liohary. . . 

Lkie 1. Only an hearer,] Jarenal complains of llie iricsome re* 
dtals, which the scribbling poets were continnally maktng of thdc 
tile compositions, and of whic4i he was a hearer^ at tlw public assenw 
blies where they read them over. It b to be obsenred that, saiiiete' 
times, the Romans made private recitals of their poetry, among their 
particular friends. They ako had public recitals, either i&^t&a 
temple of Apollo, oir in spacious houses, which were either hinid^ 
or lent, for the purpose, by some rich and great man, who w» 
highly honoured for thb, and who got his clients and dependentivto. 
gcther, on the occasion, in ord«r to incsease the audience, and to 
encourage the pOet by their applanses. See sat vii^ L 40^-*-4. Pevi- 
st^s, prolog. 1. 7, arid not6. Ijton. lib. I. sait* Ir. 1. 7S, 4. 

" R epay.] Reponam^ h&f^ is used metaphoikally ; it.8l<» 

Digitized by 







^okes andfofUes of kis Ume. He laments the restrairUt vAkh ike 
uOirists then /ay under from a fear of punishment^ andprqfessee 
t0 treat rOf ike diadypersonatmgf under their names^ eertam Uwig 
. vicious daraders* His great aim, in this, and in all his other 
eaUree^is toes^se and reprove vice itself , hotoever mncti/Mify 
emstom, or dignified hy the examples of the great* 

oHALL I always be only a hearer f-^-^hall I never repay. 
Who am tenM «o often widi the Tbeseis of boarae Co^htu^f ^ 
Shall one (poet) recite his comedies to me with impunity, 

ludes to-the borroiring and repajrment of money. When a man re- 
paid BAOofi^^ winch, he had borrowed, he was said to replace, it«- 
reponere* So our poet, looking upon himself as indebted to the 
TeciieKii'ix£ithcfar eompositioas, for the trouble which they had.g)Ten 
him) ^>eaks^^a« if he intended to repay them in kind^ by wnNiag 
iodeBedtidgviiisiTesses^ as they had done theirs. Sat, yii. 1. 40 — ^ 
BsEstc^ pr<^b0^<L 7..: Hon. lib. L sat It. 1. 73,. 4. 
. ift: ^Jheeeis'^ ^A'poem, of winehTheseos was the subject 
oJj ui < < rj Sfearw Codrut.'] .A very mean .poet : sq poor^ that he gare 
]i•0itolih0pK»9«rb^ ^ Codro.paiipeiiorO^ He is here supposed to 
harre uladohiBise^ lK)aiV0^ with Ireqveiif and loud residing his poem. 
- i^r^owetiiesf\::Tog^t9Sf-*i^0r'^ irom. the iom • ^common 
pe^fie, who? were tlwcmbjectsrof thenfr. Thi^e woiie gi^wm by 
whkb tiiey. weiie .disiiag wbed ^l&»i» 

There wese^ throe dtSeient. sorts .^f e^oi^edyy each denominated 
iam thf diHi8iQ^.tiie.pmonft wjM^ tbej:jrfi|^^sented% ^ ^ . 

B S 

Digitized by 


4 JUViSNALI^ SAtlftA. tATliu 

Hie elegos ? impune diem consumpserit ingcns " ;.; 

Telephus ? aut sumnii plen^ jam margine liferi • S 

Scriptus et in tergo necdum nnitus Orestes ? 

Nota magls nulli donius est sua, quam mihi lucus ^^^ 

Mi^rti^, et^^oliis vicinam rupibus antrum 
Vulcani. Quid agant venti ; quas torqueat umbrw " '^ 

^acus ; unde alius furtivse devehat aurum ' ^P 

First : The Togata — ^which exhibited the actions of the lower: sort ; 
and was a species of what we call low comedy. 

Secondly : The Praetextata— so called from the pnctexta, a whit« 
robe ornamented with purple, and worn by magistrates and nobles* 
Hence the comedies, which treated of the actions of such, were 
called praetextatae. In our time, we should say, genteel comedy. 

Thirdly : The Palliatar— from pallium, a sort of upper garment worn 
by. the Greeks, and in which the actors were habited, when the man- 
ners and actions of the Greeks were represented. This was also a 
species of the higher sort of cnmiedy. 

. It is most probable that Terence's plays, which he took from 
Menander, were reckoned among the palliate, and represented in 
the palHum, or Grecian dress : moro especially too, as the scene of 
crery play lies at Athens. 

' * 4. EkgiefJ] ' These were Iktie poems on moumfu) subjects, and 
tsonsisted of hexameter and pMtamet^r verses alternately. We sinst 
tiespair of knowing the first elegiac poet, since Horace says-^-Art* 
Poet. 1.77, 8. 

Quis.taraen exlgiioa elegos emiserit aoctor^ 
Grammatici certant, et adhuc sub judice Us est. 

By whom ioYented critics yet contend* 

And of tbeir Taio disputing find no end. . FsAweiSb. 

Elegies were at first mournful, yet, afterwards, they were com- 
]^09ed on cheerful subjects. Hon. ib. 1, 75, 6. 

Versibns impariter junctis querimonia primnni» 
Post etiam iucluaa est voti senteutia compos. 

Unequal measures first were tun'd t6 flow. 

Sadly ezprewive of the lover's woe ? 

Bvt now to gaver subjects fonn!d they move*. 

In sounds of pleasure, and the joys of love. Fbanq^», 

-*-~Bi«% Dslephfis.] Some prolix and-tedions play, written on 
•Ae subject of Telephus, lung of Mysia, who was mortaHy woimd^ 
by the spear of Achilles^Dut afterwards healed by th^ rust of (he 
same spear. Otid. Trist v. 2. 15. - ■'■•-• 

WasitMiiay.'] In hearing it read orer, wfaidi took ii{i « 

whole day. 

5. Or 0reU9s.'\ Another play on the story, of Orestes, the soit 
«f Agamemnon ahd Clytemnestra. fie- slew his own mother, mxkd, 
iBgysthus; her^idullerer, who had murdered his father. This tooy 

Digitized by 


t^%j^ J^i^NAL'S SATIRES; » 

Another his elegies/. ^iuJl bulky Telephus waste a day 
With impunity i or (Drestes — ^the margin of the whole bool^ al« 
ready full, • . j^ 

And vrritten on the hack too, nor as yet finished ? 

No man's house is better known to him, than to me 
The grove of Mars,, and the den of Vulcan near 
The JBolian rocks : what the winds can do : what ghosts 
^Babus may be tormenting : from whence another could convey 
^ the gold -10 

hy the description of it in this line, and the next, mi]$t have been a 
T«ry long and tedious performance. • It was usual to* leaver a margin, 
hut this was ail filled from top to bottom— ^t was unusual to write 
4n the out^e, or back, of the parchment; but this author had 
filled the whole outside, as well as the inside. 
■ -*S. Of the tckole bookJ] Or--of the whole of the book.<— Li. 
her primarily ^guifies the inward bark or rind of a tree; hence a* 
book or work written, at first made of barks of trees, afterwards of 
paper sad parchment. Summus is derived from supremus, hence 
anDiBi]iBi.i, the top, the whole, tlie sum. 

^''8. The grane of Mars J] • The history of Romulus and Remus, 
whom Ilia, otherwise called Rhea Sylria, brought forth ki a grove 
^hmed to Mars at Alba : hence Romulus was called Syltius — also, 
Hie son of Men. This, and the other subjects mentioned, were so 
dinned perpetually into his ears, that the pUices described were as 
familiar to him as his own house. 

■ The den of Fulcan.'] The history of the Cydops and Vulcan, 
the scene of which was laid in Vulcan's den. See Virg. JRn, viii. 1. 

' 9. The jEoHan rocksJ] On the north of Sicily are seven rocky 
islands^ which were caHed ^olian, or Vulcanian ; one of which was 
caUed Hiera, or saercd, as dedicated to Vulcan. From the frequent 
breaking forth of fire and sulphur out of the earth of these islands, 
particulariy in Hiera, Vulcan was supposed to keep his shop and 
forge there. 

Here also ^olos was supposed to confine, and preside over the 
winds. Hence these islands are called ^olian. See Vino. ^n. i. 1. 

Whet the winds can do.] This probably aljudes to some te- 

^6lis poetical treatises, on the niture and operations of the winds. 
Qr, perhaps, to some play, or poem, on the amours of Boreas and 
%|thya, the daughter of Erec^heus, king of Athens^ 
iiiCh j^f9cuf may he tormenting.'] iSacus was one of the fabled 
judges of hell, who with his two assessors, Minos and Rhadaman- 
thus, wiare supposed to torture the ghosts into a confesrion of their 
crimes/ See Vino. iEn. vi, 1. 566—69. 

J ., ,mFrom tdhence anothefy 4pc*] Alhidlng to the story of Jason, 
idt^ aiole the golden fieece from Colchis. 

Digitized by 


5 JUVilNALfS 8(aWrJB- 6at. i . 

. Pellicttte : quantas jaculctur Moiiychris bmoa ; 
Frontonis platani, convulsaque marmora clamant 
Semper, et assiduo ruptae fectore cblumnaB.. ' -^ - - 

Expectes eadem a sunima, nilniriibque poeti. ' :^ 

Et nos ergo manum ferulae snbduximus : et nos ' ' 15 

Consilium dedimus Syllse, privatus ut altum s 

Dormiret. ffStulta est clementia, cum tot ubique 
Vatibus occurras, penturae parcere chartsBj) 
Cur tamen hoc libeat potius decurrere campo. 
Per quern niagnus equos Aururicae flexit alumnus : 20 

f Si vacaty et placidi rationem admittitis, edam.) 
Ciim tener uxorem ducat spada: Maevia Tuscum 

11. Mon^ckus/] This alludes to some play, or poem, which had 
been nrritten on the battle of the Centaurs and Lapithae. 

The word Monychus is deriTed from the Greek /mm^, solas, and 
owl, nngttla, and is expressire of an horsa's hoof, which is /whole 
and entire, not cleft or diTided. 

The Centaurs were fabled to be half men, and half horses ^ so 
that by Monychus we are to understand one of the Centaurs, of 
such pr^gious strength, as to make use of large trees for weapaos^ 
which he threw, or darted at his enemies. 

12. Hie plane-trees of Fronto.'] Julius Pronto, a noble and 
learned man, at whose house the poets recited thieir works, before 

' they wf^re read, or performed in public. His house was planted 
round with plane-trees, for the sake of their shade. 

■■ ' 'The amouU^d marbles.'] This may refer to tfae^marbie statues 
which were in Fronta's hall, and wei« almost shaken off their pe- 
destals by the din and noise that were made— or to the marble with 

. which the walls were built, or inlaid; or to the marble pavement; 
all which appeared, as if likely to be shaken out of their places, by 
the incessant noise of these bawling reciters of their works. 

13. The columns broken.] The marble pillars too werje in the 
same situation of danger, from the incessant noise of these people. 

The poet means to express the wearisomeness oi the continual re* 
petition of the same things over and over agsdn^ and to censure the 
manner, as well as the matter, of these irksome repetitions ; which 
were attended with such loud and vehement vociferation, that, even 
the trees about Fronto's house^ as well as the marble within :tt, had 
reason to apprehend demolition. This hyp^b#le is faumouroiiB, and 
well applied to the subject. 

14. You may expect the same thingk^ 6(cJ] L e. The sarae^ubgects, 
treated by the worst poets, as by the best. Here he satirizes the 
impudence and presumption of these scribblers, who, witkoat ge&ius 
or abilities, had ventured io writer and expose tlieiv verses to* the 
pubUc ear ; and this, on subjects which had been treai^tcd by men of. 
a jsnperior cast. 

. l^. Tiierefore.] i.e. In order to qualify myself as a writer and 

Digitized by 


Of the stolen fleece; how.great wildrash trees Mojaychus could 
throw. ... 1 

The plane-trees of Tionto, arid the cbuvuls'd marbles coiTipIalii 
Always, and the columns broken with the coutii)ual reader : 
You may expect the saine things from the highest and from the 
least poet. "(45 

And I therefore have withdrawn my hand from the femie; and I 
Have given counsel to Sylla, that, a private man, roundly 
He should sleep. ^It is a foolish cienjency^ when every wlie^e 
r SO many 

Poets you may meet, to spare paper, that will perish. 
But why it should please me rather to run along in the very fietd. 
Through which the great pupil of Aurunca drave his horses, £0 
I will tell you, if you have leisure, and kindly hearken to my reason. 
When a delicate eunuch can marry a wife : Maevia can stick 

dedaimer. His meaning seems to be, that as all, whether good or 
bad, wrote poems, why should not he, who had had an education in 
jeanung, write as well as they ? 

H. Uaoe mthdraam my kand^ S^c.^ The ferule was an instra. 
ment of punishment, as at this day, with which schoolmasters .cor- 
rected their scholars, by striking them with it over the palm of the 
hand : the boy watched the stroke, and, if possible, withdrew his 
hand from it. 

Juvenal means to say, that he had been at school, to learn the arts 
of poetry and oratory, and had made declamations, of one of which* 
the sobject was : ^' Whether Sylla should take the dictator^ip, or 
^' live in ease and quiet as a private man ?" He maintained the, latter 

18. Paper that mlt perish.'] t\ e. That will be destroyed by others^ 
who will write upon it if I do not ; therefore there is no reaspn why 
I should forbear to make use of it. 

19. In the veryJieldJ] A metaphor, taken from the chariot* races 
in the Campus Martius. 

^0. The great pupil of Aurunca^ ^c] X«iiciUus, the first and 
most famous Roman satirist, born at Aurunca, an ancient city of 
Latium, in Ita]y« 

He means-*-Perhaps yon will ask, " how it is that I can think of 
^ taking the same ground as that great satirist Lucilius-^-and why J 
¥ .should rather choose this war of writing, when he so excelled in 
" it, as to be before all others, not only in point of time, but of 
^^ ability In that kind of writing ?'' 

31. Hearken to. my remon.'\ Literally, the verb admitto signifies 
' -Act adail.:. but it is sometimes used with auribiis understood, and 
i.thcn it denotes attending^ or hearkening, to something: this I sup. 
: posfttobfe^he jsense of Jt lo this place, as it follows the si vacat. 

22. MoBxna^ The name of some woman, Avho had the impndence 

toiightiB the CliwHw With a Tuscan boar. 

The Tuscan boars were fcckoned the Oercest. 

a 4 

Digitized by 


Slgat aprttsi, et Qudft tei^t v^^i^fcuk mammi':* . 
PatricioiT omnes opibus cum provocet unus, 
Qao tondente gravis juveoi miki barba sonabat: S5; 

Ctim pars Niliacae^ piebis, cuni v^ma Canopi 
Oispinusy Tyrias huinero revocante lacernas, 
Veptilet aestivum digitis sudantibus aurum, 
Kec sttfferre qaeat majoris pondera gemmae : 
X>ifficile est Satiram non scrib^r^, • Nam quis iniqiue " 3Q 

i Tam patieos urbis^ tarn ferrc^is, ut teneat se f < ;^ 

Catisid^ nova cum veniat lectica Matbonis 
Plena ipso :' et post bunc magni delator amici, 
£t cito raptiirus de nobilitate con^es-^ ^ 

S3. With a n($ked breast'] In imitation of an Amazon. Undep 
the name of Maeria, the poet probably means to reproye all the W ^ 
^es at Rome, who exposed themselyes in the pursuit of mascuUue ex- ' 
^ frcises, , which were so shamefully contrary toall female delicacy* . 

94. T%e patridims,'] The nobles of Rome. They were the den 
Sqendants of such as were created senators in the time of Romulus. 
pi these there were, originally, only one hundred — afterwards, more 
were added to them. 

25. Who clippings Sfc.'] The person hqre me^nt, is supposed to, 
be Licinius the freedman and barber of Augustas, or perhaps Cinna-* 

* jnus. See sat. x. I. ^25, 6. 

'--^^Sounded,'] Alluding to the sound of clipping the beard 
with scissars. Q. D. who with his scissars clipped my beard^ wlien 
I was a Young man, and first came under the barber's hands. 

26. Fart of the commonalty oj the Nik..'] One of the lowest of 
the iBgy ptians who had come as slayes to Rome. 

■ « Canopus.] A city of iEJgypt, addicted to all manner of efi- 

feminacy and debauchery-^-famous for a temple of Serapis, a god of 

the iEgyptians. This city was built by Menelaus, in memory of his 

pilot, Canopus, who died there, and was afterwards canonized. See 

" jat.^xT.1. 46..' 

r 27, CW^pntfs^};Be^ from a slave, (ad been made n^ster of the 
kone tp Nero.. . . 

— — -fftr shoulder recalling.] ReTocante---The Romans used to. 
lasten their cloaks round the neck with a loop, but in hot jireather,: 
perhaps, usually went with them loose. As Juvenal is now speaK**/^ ^ 
Uig of the summer season, (as appears by thenes^t line,) he describes^ 
the shoulder as recalling, or endeayouring to hoist up, and replace^ 
the cloak, which, from not being fastened by a loop to the neck, 
was' ofte9 slipping away, and sliding downwards from the shoial* 
ders,^" .^/^T- 

— — ?35^ria» d/naks.] t. e. Dyed with Tyriao purple, which wa* 
▼ery expensiyei. By this he marks the extrayagance and luxury of. 
fhese upstarts. 

^. FentHate the summeV'^old^ Sfc] The Romans were arciyed 
at such an height of (Hxury, that they had rings for th^ winter, and 

Digitized by 



A Tuscan boar, aodiioU hiMMlB^-i^arir VFith « nadtedHbreakt : ^ 
When one can vie with ail the p^ricmns in riches, - ' ;^ 

Who clippings my beard trcmbteaome %o me a youth sou^oded : 25 
When a part of the coinmoiial^ of the Kiie, ^hen a slave of 
CanopuSy : • 

Crispinusy his shpulder recallfOg the Tynan cloaks^ 
Can ventilate the somaicar-^^d on his s^'eating fingers, . U 

Nor can he bear die freight of a larger gem ; \ ^^ 

It is difikult not to write satire. For who can so endure ;5CU 
The wicked city — ^wfao is so insensible, as to contain himsdf f :C 
When the new litter of lawyer Matho comes . --* 

Fullof himself : and after him the secret accuser of a great frienfc^" 
And who is soon abpiit to seize from the devoured nobility 

others fot the summer, which they woi^ according to the season. -^ 
YentUo sigDifiea-^tQ ware any thing to and fro in the air. », 

CHspinus is described ^s wearing a summer.ring, and cooling. U 
by, perhaps, taking it off, and by waving it to and fro in the air « 
wi^ his hand — which motion might likewise contribute to the slip^ ' 
ping back of the clo^k. 

31. So insensible,'] Ferreus —literally signifies any thing made 
ol iron, and is therefore used here, figuratively, to denote hardaeas - 
or insensibiltty. . „.^. 

3^ Tlie new litter J] The lectica was a sort of sedan, with a bod 
or conch in it, wherein the grandees were carried by their servants i «. 
probably somediing like the palanquins in the East. This was a ' 
piece of luxury which the rich indulged in. 

■ ■ Lawyer Matho,'] He had been an advocate, but had amassed •• 
a large fortune by turning informer. The emperor Domitian gjaye 
so much encouragement to such people, that many made their for. - 
tones by secret informations ; insomuch that nobody was. safe,. how« v - 
e?ear innocent ; even one informer was afraid of another. See be. v 
low, I. 35, 69 and notes. 

33. Full of himself ,] Now grown bulky and fat —By this ex. 
pression, the poet ipay hint at the; self-importance of this upstart fei- ' 

— ^— TTie secret accuser of a great friend,] This was probably Mar^ 
ens Regtilns, (mentioned by Pliny in his Epistles,) a most infamous 
informer, who^ oc(^ioned, by his secret informations, the deaths of 
many ^of the nobility in the time of Domitian. 

Stymie: think that the great friend here mentioned was some great 
man; ^^ntimate of Pomitian's ; for this emperor spared not even 
his greatest and most intimate friends, on receiving secret infornuu 
tious against them. 

B«t, hfiBe poetV manner of expression, it shqi:^ ratjier seem, v 
that^hj^ person meant was some great man, who had been ^friend - 
to Rsguluit, and whom Regulus Jiad basely betrayed. / r 

3rf* i^Hffn the devoured nobditif*] 1. >. Destroyed thrpiij[K secret ..? 
acci^satioHB, oi pillaged by inform.ert for hush-money. 

Digitized by 


10 JUV;JBNA.HSU:*Aiait«l Mt^u 

Quod superest : quern Mftssa tinlet ; (|Ulem iiiuner^fal^t S5 
Carus ; ek a trepido Thymele summiasa JLatino : 
Cum te summoveant qui testamcnta mer^tur : ' 

Noctibus, in co&Inm quos evehit optima sumzm 
KuQc via m-ocessiis, vetulas vesica beatae. ^^ 
Unciolam JProculeius habet, sed Gillo deuncem : 40 

. Partes quisque auas, ad mensuram ii^inis hasres ; 
Accipiat sane mercedem sanguinis^ et sic 
Palleat, ut nudis presisit qui calcibus anguem^ 
Aut Lngdunensem rhetor dicturus ad aram. 

Quid referam ? quanta siccum jecur ardeat ir^, 45 

Cum populum gregibus comitum premat hie spoliator 
Pupilli prostantis ? et hie damnatus inani 
Judicio ^uid enim salvis infamia nummis ?)| 

35. TVkom Massa fearsS] Babius Massa, an eminent ififomier ; 
but so much more eminent was M. Regains, above mentioned, ia 
this way, that he was dreaded even by Massa, lest he should inform 
against him. . 

36. Carus sooths,'] This was another of the same infamous pro- 
lession, w|h> bribed Hegulus, to ayoid some secret accusation. 

7%OTefe.] The wife of Latin as the famous mimic ; she was 
sent j[>l^ivately by her husband and prostituted to Regaius, in order 
to avoid some information which Latinus dreaded, and trembled na- 
der the apprehension of. 

37^ Can remove ^ou.'\ t. e» Set you aside, supplant yon in the 
good graces of testators. 

■ ■ Who earn last. vmUs^ 6^cJ] Who procure miHs to be made in 
their favour. The poet here satiriases the lewd and indecent prac- 
tices of certain rich old women at Rome, who kept men for their 
criminal pleasures, and then, at their death, left them their hein, in 
preference to all others. 

39. The best way^ <^c.] By this the poet meuis to expose and: 
condemn these monstrous indecencies. 

Into heaven,] t. e. Into the^ highest state of affluence. 

40. Froculeius-^Gillo,'] Two noted paramours of these<* 

" ' 'A smaU pUtance^-^a large share, ] Unciok, literally signifies 
a .little ounce, one part in twehe. — Deunx^— a pound lacking an 
ounce — eleven ounces— eleven parts of any other thing ^vtded into 

42. Of his blood,] i, e. Of the rtun of his health and consttlu- 
tion, by these abominable practices. 

4^. Pressed a snake,] fiy heading on it. S^ ViRo. JSa^ ii. I. 
379, 80. 

^ 44. TAfaZ/aro/X^on;.] The emperorCalignla instituted, at tfaift 
place, games, wherein orators and rhetoricians were to contend 
iat a prize. Those, whose perforaaances were not approved, "irere 
to ^i^ them out with a sponge, or to tick tfaenr out with their 

Digitized by 


IXThat raM«[fi9t tArte« MassriiM^ wlibur iwith a >gift 35 

Cams soothsyAiidTbyi^eleieatfA-mitetyfpom trem^U^ Laliims. 

When they can remove y^xXf wb& euKi hst iviUs 

By nighty and wfaom th^ hist of Mime rich eld woman 

(The best way of the bigheist success now-a^^ys) lifts up into 

" • heaven. 

Proculeius has a small pittance, Gdio has a large share : •^ 

Every one takes his portion, as heiiv according to the favour hie 

Well let him receive the reward of his blood, and become as 
Pale, as one who hath pressed with his naked heels a snake. 
Or as a rhetorician, who is about to declaim at the altar of Lyons. 
What shall I say ? — With how great anger my dry liver burns, 45 
When here a spoiler of his pupil exposed to hire presses on 

the people 
With flocks of att^dants f and here condemned by a frivolous 
Judgment, (for wha( is iniiuBy when money is safe ?) 

tongue: or else to be punished with ferules, or thrown into the 
sea. . 

45. Wkai than I say?'] Q, D.— How shall I find words to exu 
'press the incygnation which I feel ? . 

■ ■ ' M ^ dr^ liver humsJ] The ancients considered the liver as ibe 
seat of '^ irascible and concupiscible afibclions. So Ho&. iy>. I. 
ed. xiH. 1. 4. says : 

Difficili bile tumet jecur—«to express his resentment and je^dnsy,. 
at hearing his mistress commend a rival. 

Again, Kh. IV. od. i. I. 12. Si torrere jecar quaeris idoneum-^-bj 

- whkh be means*— kindling the passion of Ipve within the hreast. 

' Oar poet here means to express the workings of anger and resent. 

mcait within hfan, at seeing so many examples of vice and folly 

around him, and, particukrly, in those instances which he is now 

' going to mention. 

46. A spoiler of his pupil^ Sfc."] The tutelage of young men, who 
had lost tiietr parents, was committed to guardians, who wer« to 
take care' of thdr estates and education. Here one is represented 
as spoliator — a spoiler — t. e, a plunderer or pillager of his ward as 
'te Ids afhirs, and then making money of his p^^on, by hiring him 
ewt^for 'the vilest purposes. Hence, he says— 'Prostantis pupilli. 

i fc hiii i iPreyggs an the people^^ Grown rich by the spoils of his 
ward, he is supposed to be carried, in a litter, along the streets, 
ins&, sudi a crowd of attendants, as to incommode other passen. 

47,^8.: Sy a frioolous judgment J] Inani judicio *-* because, 
tiiough inflicted on Marius, it was of no service to the injured pro* 
' irhiee ; for, kistead of restoring to it the treasures of which it had 
iwen plundered, fiart of these, to a vast amount, were put into the 
IpublM! trea9ury.r As for Marius himself, he lived in as much festivi-* 
tj as if nothing bad happened, as the next two verses inforai us. 

Digitized by 


12 JU¥BKAL?S SAXIIMfc iat,^ 

Eiul ab octev^ MiriuB bibit, et fhitlar Dk 

Iratis : at tu victrix provincia plbras ! 56 

Haec ego non credam Venusin^ digna lucern^? 

Haec ego non agitem ? sed quid magis Heracleas^ 

Aut Diomedeas, aut mugitiun labyrintki, 

Et mare percussum puero, fabrumque volantem ? 

Cum leno accipiat mts^lii bona, si capiendi 5if 

Jus nullum uxori^ doctus spedare lacunar, 

Poctus et ad calic^m vigilant! stertere naso :|| . 

49. The exiie MariusJ] Marius Priscus, proconsul of Africa^ 
^hOy fpr pillaging the prorince of yast sums of money^ was e(m- 
demned to be banished. 

-r — From the eighth hour. 2 Began his carousals from two o'clock 
ia the afternoon, which was reckoned an instance of dissf^lnteness 
and luxury, it being an hour sooner than it was ^^omary to fit 
down to me^^s. See note on sat. xi. L ^4, and on Persius^ 
(sat. iii. 1. 4. 

49 — 50. He er^oys the mgry gods."] Though Marius hfA in- 
curred the anger of the gods by his crimes, jet^ regardless of this») 
he enjoyed hiituetf in a state of the highest joUity and ll9S.Utity. ~ 

— *— Vanquishing province^ 4'^.] Victrix— wa§ used as a forensia 
tep^9 to denote one who had got the better in a law-suit. . The pro* 
y^q^ q^[ Africa had sued Marius, and had carried the cause agan^ 
him, but had still reason tp deplore her losses : for thou^ M^^oft 
was sentenced to pay an immerise fine, which eamcv^out of what he 
had pillaged, jet this was put into the public treasury, and no ps^ 
of it given to the Africans ; and, besides this, Marips had res^rred 
sufiicient to maintain hiozself in a {^ixufipus manner. See abot^y note 
on.1.47, 8. ^ ' :,(■ 

51. Worthy the Venusinian lamp?"] i. e. The p^ c| Horace Kiai-* 
self ?— rThis charming writer was born at Venusium, a city of Apu-. 
lia. When the poets wrote by night they made use of a lamp. 

b% Shall I not agitate^ ^c] Agitem-^implies pncsi9iQg,r as hun^ 
ers do wild beasts— ^hunting — chasing.-<.>So iuTeighing againsjt hy, m^. 
Hre, driving such vices as he mentions out of their lur](4)f plaices^ 
aiid hunting them down, as it were, in order to destroy tjiem* :7 

, — But uhy rather Herackans*'] JuTena} here antiqipaiM^. ttod 
supposed objections of some, who might, perhaps,. ad>^s0;;liin;i ixtr. 
^nploy his talents on some fabulous, and more poetical s^bjap^ — 
such as the labours of Hercules, &c. — '^ Why should I preto'^ese 
" (as if he had said) when so many subjects in real liipB-pecjEtf*, to 
*^ exercise my pen in a more useful way ?" 
, 53. Or DiotnedeaniJ] i. e. Verses on the expioils «f B^medy a 
kfng of Thrace, whD f(ad his horses with man's flesh, .H^^Ies«Je>r 
him, a^d threw him to^ be de^^ouredHby his own h«»^ ^ - :. 

— The lozcing of the lal>yrinth.\ The story of the Ill|l^|no<9|lF^.. 
the monster kept, in the labyrinth .^ Crete, who wa^^^.half a.huil, " 
and slain by Theseus. See Ainsw. M^otaujputiy .x ; . .^ ; :v;r 

Digitized by 


Ht. t. JVf%tfAL^t SATIRES. 13 

The exile Marius drmitk flom ihe ei^lli iMur)' andenjojrs the 
Angry gods ? but thou, vfmqi&liitig proviiioe, lanieiitest \ 50 
Shall I Bot believe the»^ tbiii^ ^wtAy the Venumii^ iMnp ^ 
Shall I not s^tatetheke (subjects f)-^btit ^hy rather Heracleatuf, 
Or DiomedeanSy or the loiivuig of the labyrinth, 
And the sea striciken by a boy, and the flying urdficer ? * [55 
When the bawd can take the goods of the adulterer, (if of taking 
There is no right to the wife,) taught to look upon the ceiling. 
Taught also at a cup to snore with a vigilant nose.- 

54. Tke s^a Hrickin btf a boyJ] The story of Icarus, who flying 
loo near'tlie eun, melted the trax by which his wit^s were fastened 
together^ and fell into the sea ; from him called Icarian. See Hob. 
iab» IV. od. ii. 1. 3— 4. 

' Tke fiying mrtffieer*'] Daedalus — who invented and maife' 
wings for himself and his son Icams, with which they fled from 
Cretiew See AtNsw. Daedalns. 

55. 7^ bawd*'] The husband — who turns bawd by prostituting 
Ihb wMe for g^, and thus reoeiTes the goods of the adulterer, as the 
jMfioe of her chastity. 

56. There is no fight to the wife."] Domkian made a law to for- 
bid the use of litters (see note, i. 3S,) to adulterous wives, and to 
deprive them of taking l^acies or itiherittnces by will. This was 
«v«ded, by making their husbands panders to their lewdness, and so 
causing the legacies to be given to diem* 

■ Taught to look upon the eeiUng.'] As Ui<rf>servant of his 
wife's infamy then transacting before him — this he was well skilled 
IB. See Hoa. lib. IIL od. vi. 1. 25—39, 

57. M a cup, ^e.'] Another device wasjto set a large cup on the 
taMe, whidi the husband was to be supposed to have emptied of the 
M^or which it had centred, and to be noddiag over i<^ as if in a 
drunken sleep. 

■■ 7h more voUh a vigUant nose,"] Snoring is an evidence that a 
man is fast asleep, therefore, the husband knew well how to exhibit 
this proof, by snoring aloud, which is a peculiar symptom of a 
.dnmkeia sleep. The poet uses the epithet vlgilanti, here, very hu« 
mourously, to denote, that though the man seemed to be Uxt asleep 
by Itis snfifing, yet his nose seemed to be awake by the noise it 
iffiMie. So PjLAut* in Milite. 

An doroit Scekdms iatua ? N«n asso quidenv 
Nna-eo magno magmim clamat. 

If Sceiedros ssleep witlnn ? 

Why, traXyt not with his nose ; for with tluit large instroment he makea 

.'Our Fairqidiar, in tiie description which he makes Mrs. Sullen 
fire of her drunken husband, represents her. as mentioning a like 

<^ My whole n%hf^s comfort^ h the tUnl^ble sereiisde of that 
<^ vrakeful]ii^iCifigaie^-4iisikose.'' 

Digitized by 


14 SmrmfALIE SATmM;. gm.4i^ 

Qui bona donavk pnesepibusy et cttret otnni 
Majornm censu, dum pervokt axb citato " 6^ 

Fiamhiiam : pner Aiitomedon nam lora tenebat^ ' 

Ipse lacernatae cum se jactaret arnicas. 

.^onne hbet medio cents impierc)^ capaces ' 
Quadrivio--cum jam sext^ cervice f«ratur 
(Hinc atque inde pateni»^ ac niidi pene cathedrft^ 6S 

Et multum.referens de Maecenate ^supino) -^ T 

Signator false, qui se lautum, atque beatum 

58. J cohort,'] A company of foot in a regiment, or legion, 
which consisted of ten.cohorts. ?.. , ■^ 

99. Hath given his estate to stables."] i, e. Has isqnapiered Away 
aHliis pairtmony in breeding and keeping, luwste* Prassepe aoine^ 
times means-^a cell, stews^ or brothel. Perhaps, this may be the 
sense here, and the poet may mean, that this^ sp^dthfift had. Ia« 
Tished bis fortune on the stews, in lewdness and debauchery. 

59-r^60. Lacks ali the income^ ^c] Has spent the famifty estate* 

eOw While hejiies^ S^.] The person here meant is n^ fron 
csertaki. Commentators difier much in their ccmjectnre «b tfaeaiib^i 
ject. Britannicns gives die matter up. '^ This passage," says he, ^ is 
*^ one of those, concerning which we are yet to seek.'' 

But whether Cornelius Fuscos be meant, who when a boy "was 
charioteer to Nero, as Automedon was to Achiltes, and who,, after 
wasting his substance in riotous living, was made commander of a 
T«gtment«^Or Tigillinus, an infamous favourite of Nero's, be here 
des^^ned, whose character is supposed to have answered to the de* 
scription here given, is not certain — one or other seemato be meant.' 
—The poet is mentioning various subjects, as highly proper fos sa- 
tire ; and, among others, some favourite at court, who, after spend* 
ing all his paternal estate in riot, extravagance^ and debauchery, waa 
n^ade a commander Jn the army, and exhiMted his ctuiriot, driving 
full speed over the Flaminian way, which led to the emperor's vHia;. 
and all this, because, when a boy, he had been Nero's charitiiteer,-or, 
as the poet humourously calls him, his Automedon, and used to drite 
out Nero and his minion Sporus, whom Nero castrated, to make 
him, as much as he could, resemble a woman, and whom be used as 
a mistress, and afterwards took as a wtfe, and appeared pnhlictyria 
his chariot with him, openly caressing, and making love, as. he paissed 

The poet humourously speaks of Sporus in the feminine gender. 
—•As the lacema was principally a man's garment, by lacemati^ 
amicae, the poet may be understood, as if he had called Sporus^ 
Nerd's male-mistress— -being habited like a man, and caressed a» «a 

The abere appears to me a prob^e explanation of this dbscwns 
and diihcttlt passage. Holiday gives it a daSereat turn, as msay bi» 
seen by his annotation on this place. I do not presume to be posiw 

Digitized by 


When he can think it ligMt ta^iopefocidiednige of « sofaort,^ 
Who hath given his estate to ittMei^ Blid Jaeka all [60 

Hie income of his ancest^siy whUe he fiies, widi mmift axle, ov^ 
The Fiaminian wa^-: fortfae b6y Aotomedon was heMing the xein^. 
When he boasted himself to hiii elcxriked mirtress. 

Doth it not like one to fill eapadQuanraxen Uibleta in Ike nod' 
die of a 
Cross-way— when now can be camtd on a sixth neck 
(Here and there exposed, and in almoin a aakad diair, 6$ 

And much resembling the. supine Maecenas) 
A signer to what is false; who himself splendid and happy 

iSre, but will say with Britannicus : ^^ Sed qaam in ambigao at^ d^ 
'^ qu0 p0Cta poiisskBinn intelHgat, rniusqusque, si nentriim fawam 
^^ pinaiuibae::Tftttm foerk, qaod ad lod explanatioiMin faciat, e^ 
« ^<^et*" 

6U'The Fiimifiiafkwmf.'] A road made by Caias Flamimas^ codU 
league of Lepidiif, from Rome to Arinunam. 

62. When he bhasted himself.'] Jactare se alkal^Hiigaifies to re. 
commeBd, to lii^iiaate one's self into the farour, or good graces ol 
another**— as when a man is courting his mistress. By ipse, accordiag 
to the above interpretation of this passage, we must unikntaad tha 
emperor Nero. 

^ii^,Capaeiom udxen iabieis,] These are here called ceras, soiae* 
times they are called cerate tabelle—- because they were thin pieeeft 
of wood, corered over with wax, on which the ancients wrote with 
the poiat of a sharp Instrument, called stylus, (sec Hon. Ufa. I. sat- 
X. I. 72) : it had a blunt end to rub oat with. They made up pocket* 
bodlLs widi tiiese* 

.644:Cr99g^tmy.'] Juvenal means, that a roan mi^t please himself 
by &^g a large book with the objects of satire whkh he meets in 
passing along die street. Quadririum properly* means 9 place where 
foar ways meet, and where there are usually most people passing--* 
a firopo' stand for obsertation. 

> ■ ■■ ' i)n a sicih neck,] i, e. In a litter carried by six slaves, 
who bate. the poles on the shoulder, and leaning against the side of 
the neck. These were called hexaphori, from Gr. II, six, and ^^»y 
tftbear or cany; See sat. Tii. 1. 141, n. 

:^d6^ Rcposedj ifc.] Carried openly to and fro, here and there,, 
thfoagk the. pubtic streets, having no shame for what he had done to 
enrich himself. 

.^^.Thg^ supine MmcenoiJ] By this it appears,^ that Mxcraas was 
gH^n to hiziness and effeminacy. See sat. xii. 1. 39. 

>H<Mrace eaHs Mm Malthiniis-«-from jM^xi^oHiOf, which denotes softs 
nesa and ^Beminacy. See Hon. lib. i. sat. ii. Ir 25. 

67. A signer^ ^c] Signafibr signifies a sealer or signer of eon** 
tacts iar af^s. Here it means a species of cheat, who in^posed false 
wQls aad^testameats iA.the heirs, of the deceased, supposed to be 
nad^ in iheiv own faroor^ cnr in £sTOur of others with whom they 

Digitized by 


Sxiguis tabttUsy et g^emA^hcemii tuik ? 

Occurrit matrona poteoa, qiia& mdie Calemim ^ 

Porrectura viro iniscet stti^ate rubetani, « . ' ^ 70 

Instituitque rude& melior Locu.$ta propinquas^ . ^ 

Per famam et populiim/ oigros efFerre maritx^ _ 

Aude aliquid brevibus Gyarii , et carcere dignuniy . « , 

Si visease aliquisi'^PROBiTAs laudatur^ bt AhifS^iB^%*t 

CriminibuB debent hortos, praetoria, mentas, 7A 

Argentum vetus, et stantem extca pocuh. capniffi«^ 

Quern patitur dormire nuriis x:Qrruptor avapft? 

Quern spoiiBse turptes^ et prsetextatus adulter I ■ ^ v . . 

shared the spoil. See sat. z. T. 836. and note. Soi^e suplioie. Bob 
•to be particularly meant of TigeUrans, a farontite of NeTo%whtk 
poisoned three uncles, and, by forging their wills, made hunsdf ^eil^ 
' to all they had. 

68. J% snudl tiihks.'] S&ort testam^is, eontained Hi a few words* 
Comp. note on 1. 63. 

. " ' ' "^ ' A wet gem.'] u e, A seal, which was cat on some preeioui 
«tone, worn in a ring on the finger, and occasiotraiiy made nse of t« 
seal deeds or wills — this they wetted to pre^ekit the wax sticjting to 
iU This was formerly known among our finrefathers, by the name 
of a seal.ring. 

69. A potent matron occur i."] Another subject of satire the poet 
hefe adTerts to, namely^^women who poison their husbands, and 
this with impunity. The particular person here uituded to, under 
the description of matrona potens, was, probably, Agripptna, tibe 
wife of Claudius, who poisoned her husband, that she might make 
her son Nero emperor. 

— — Occurs.'] Meets you in the public street, and thus oecutt to 
the obserration of the satirist. Comp. 1. dS, 4. 

60. Caienian vcine.] Caletium was a city in the kifigdom of N%» 
pies, famous for a soft kind of wine. 

70. About to reach forth.] Porrectura— *the husband is supposed 
to be so thirsty, as not to examine the cont^ts of the draught ; of 
this she avails herself, by reaching to him some CalenUn Wtne^ with 
poison in it which was extracted from a toad. 

71. A better Locusta.] This Locusta was a vHe woman, tkilfttl in 
preparing poisons. She helped I^ero to poison Britaiinicus, the son 
of Claudias and Mcssaltna ; and Agrippina to dispatdt Ciaudiiii* 
The woman alluded to by Jutenal 1. 69. he here sfyles— -^ndiar 
Locusta— a better Locusta — i. e. more skilled in poisoning than 
eren Locusta herself. 

— Her rude neighb^ursi] i. e. Unacqoainted-^and nnilciBed 
before, in this diaboKcal art. 

72. Through fame and the peoplf.] Setting all teputaitioii and 
public report at defiance ; not caring what peoplei should say. 

• • To bring forth.] For burial — which efierre t>ecttliarly 

means. See Ter. And. act* L sc. i. 1. 90. 

Digitized by 


%mn. J^lTVENAL'S SAtifeES- If 

Has made^ i^ith small tBbies, ttid witb a wet gem f 

A potent tii«tr6n o^curs^ who soffc Caleukin wine 

'Aboi^ to reach forth, h^r httsbaad thiivtiiig, mixes a toad^ 70 

And, a better Looti»ta« mMructB her rude tieighbourn, 

l%rtxigh fame and the people, to briag forth their black husbands. 

Daie something; wofthy tile narrow Gyans, or a prison, 

If y»i'woi)ld be somebody. Probity is pnAisB0 anp 


To crimes they owe gardeiss, palaces, tables, 75 

Old siher, and a goat standing on the outside of ciips. [to deep f 
Whom does the corrupter of a covetous daughter-in-law sti^r 
Whom base spouses^ and the noble young adulterer i 

72. ]Sla<^ husbands.'] Tbeik* corpses turned ptitrid and black, 
with the effects of the poison. 

7i, Dare J] t. e. Attempt— presume — ^be riot afraid^^^to commit. 
;; ■ - SemeihingS] Some atrocious crime, worthy of exile^ or inv> 

, •*— Th^ narrow G^arce."] Gyaras was an island La the iEgean 
sea, smaJl, bctrren, and desolate — to which criminals were banished. 

74. Tf ^ou would be somebotf^,'] u e. If you would make your* 
self taken notice of, as a person of consequence, at Rome^ A se« 
vere reflectieti on certain favourites of the emperor, who, by heiog 
informers, and by other scandalous actions, had enriched themseires. 

' " »* Probity is praised^ ^c] This s^ms a proverbial saying-— 
and applies to what goes before, as well as to what follows, wherein 
the poet is shewing, that vice was, in thos^ days, the only way to 
riches and honours. Honesty and innocence will be Commended, 
but those who possess them, be left to starve. 

75. Gardens.^ t. e. Pleasant and beautiful retreats, where they 
bad gardens of great taste and expense. 

■■ PalaeesJ^ The word prastoria denotes noblemen's seats In 
the country, as well as the palaces of great men in the city, 
i ....;^^ To^/w.] Made pf ivory, marble, and other expensive ma- 
terials, i 

76. Old siher.^ Ancieott plate — very valuable oU account of the 

• r ^goat statiikng^ SfC,"] The figtire of a goat in curious bass- 

xdlief^'-^'Which animal, as sacred to Bacchus, was very usually ex* 
pr«j9^,4>n (friftiMUg caps. 

-^» iVham/l t. e» Which of the poets, or writers of satire, can 
b^ ^' rest from writing, or withhold his satiric rage ? 

— — *' The corrupter,'] i. e* The father, who takes advantage of 
tt(^ love (^ money In his son's wife, to debauch her. 
7S. Base spouses,] Lewd and adulterous wives. 
- ■■ ■ 7'he noble young adulterer,] Prj^textatus, «. e. the youth, 
not having ^dCi aside the prsetextata, or gown worn by boys, sons of 
the nobility, till seventeen y^ars pf age — yet, in this early period of 
life, initiated into the practice ol' adultery. 
VOL. I. e 

Digitized by 


18^ ' JU^BNALIS SAtl^iE. ift,^. 

Si natura negnt, facit indignatio versum, 

Qualemcunque potest: qualea ego, velCjuylenus.,^ .. ,< QO 
Bx quo Deucalion, nimbis toUeutibus aaquor, i . . . 

Navigio raontem asceudit, sortesque poposcit^ , _:. 

Paulatimque anima caluerunt mollia naxa^ , \,:\f 

Et maribus nudas ostendit Pyrrha puellas : /;» 

i Quicquid agunt homines, volum, timor, ira, volMpts(9,ft >. 8^ 

{ Gaudia, discursus> nostri est farrago libellLi 
Et quando uEerior vitiorum copia ? quando , 

Major avaritiae patuit siuus ? alea quando 
Hos animos ? neque enim loculis comitantibu3 itiir , 
Ad casum tabulae, posits sed luditur arcL ./ ;.90 

79. Indignaiion makes Tferse."] Forces one to write, however na- 
tvraliy without talents for it 

80. Such as /, or Cluvienus.'] t. «. Make or write. The poet 
names himsdf with CluTienus, (some bad poet of hili tiMe,) lliat be 
might the more freely satirize him, which he at iiie satn^ time dbes^ 
the more scTerely, by the comparison. ^ 

81. From the time that Deucalion.'] This and the three following 
lines relate to the history of the deluge, as described by Ottd. See 
Met. lib. i. 1. 264—31 5. 

82. Ascended the mountain^ Sfc.'] Alluding to Ovid i 

Mons ibi verticibas petit arduos astra duobus, ■ 

Komine Parnassus — 

Hie ubi Deucalion' (nam csetera texerat aequor) 

Ctom consorte tori part4 rate vectus adhesit. 

-—r— Asked for lots.] Sortes here means the oracles^ or ,billQts, 
on which the answers of the gods were written. Ovid, (ubl snprft,5 
I. 367, 8. represents Deucalion, and his wife Pyrrha, resolving tp. 
go to the temple of the goddess Themis, to inquire in what maimier 
mankind should be restored. 

• plaCuk csleste precari 

Kumen, et auxilium per sacras qtuerere tortes. 

And I. 381. Mota Dea est, sortemque dedlt. 

Agaiii, 1. 389. Verba datae sortis. 

To this Juvenal alludes in this line; wherein sortes may be rfgo- 
dered— oracalar answers. 

83. The soft stonesy Sfc] When Deucalion and Pyrrha, barings 
consulted the oracle how mankind might be repaired, were answered, 
that this would be done by their pasting the bones of their great 
mother behind their backs, they picked stones fro,m oflf the earth, 
and cast them behind their backs, and they became men and women. 

Jussds lapides sua past vestigia miltunt : 
• "Saxa ' ■ i i •■ 

Ponere duritiem csepere, suTimqce rigorem, 

Mbliirique mord, molUtaquc duclve tormaoi, &c. Ib>#» 399— -403. 

Digitized by 


If nature denies. indigpafliSfetAkked'tnerse^ . * " - 

Snch as it canf Wcfi as 1, or Ouwuii*. - 80 

From the time that I)i^U(!^aH6n (the showers lifting up the sea) .: 
Ascended the mountain with hi3 bark, and aslcfed for lots. 
And the soft stones by little ^nd little grew Warm with life, 
And Pyrrha shewed to males naked damsels, 
'^^hatever ni^n do — desire, fear, anger, pleasure, 85 

Joys, discourse — is the composition of my littk book. 
And when was there a more fruitful plenty of vices ? when 
Has a greater bosom of avarice Iain open ? when the die 
These spirits ?^they do not go, with purses accompanying. 
To the chance of the foble, but a chest being pot down is played 
for. 90 

H^Q^fayei^ljiays— ^OUia saxa. 

> t^lp a^t likdjK th^ the whole account of the dekge, gif^n by 
Pfid^ ^ a^ q^rryptioii of the Mpsaical history, of ^t event-— 
I^ntarch mentions the dove sent cot of the ark. — ' 

B^k The composHiony SfeJ] Farrago signifies a mitture) an hodge- 
podgo^^^^as we «ayy of various things mixed togetJiw. The poet 
means, that the various pursuits, inclinations, actions^ and passioiis 
of men, and aU those human follies and vices, whtch hare exijited, 
and bav^ been increasing, ever since the flood, are the subjects of his 

88. Bosom of avarice.'] A metaphorical allusion to the sail of a 
ship when expanded to the wind*— the centre whereof is called sinus 
—-the bosom. The larger the sail, and the more open and spread it 

^"h'j ^e greater flie capacity of the bosom for receiving the wind, and 
" tfife more powerfully is the ship driven on through the sea. 

^Thtts avaiice spreads itself fsLt and wide ; it catches the inciina* 
lloftstif miEin, as the sail th6 wind, and thus it drives them on in' a 
full course — when more than at present ? says the poet. ^ 

The die.'} A chief instrument of gaming — put here for 

gaming itself. Meton. - 

89. These spirits ^"^ Animus signifies spirit or courage; and in 
this sense we are to Understand it here. As if the poet said, when 
was gaming s,o encouraged ? or when had games of hazard, which 
w^efis f6*bliideiriby the law, (except only d^uring the Saturnalia,) the 
courage to ^pear so open and frequently as they do now? The 
sentence \k elliptical, and must be supplied with habuit, or some 

■ ithef v^rb of thd kind, to govern— ^hos an imos. 

,'" ^ They do not go^zoiih purses^ ^x.] Gaming has now gotten 

" t<r^uch an eitravagant: height, that gaipesters are not content to play 
fiiT what c^ be carried in their purses, but stake a whole chest of 
money at a time — this seems to be implied by the word posita. 

'Pono sometimes signifies— laying a wager. ■■ ,» pntting 4awp as a stake. 
See an example of this sense^ fypm Plautusj Aiksw. poao, No. 5. > 

-: -.•': ^ ■ :•- •• ■■■' ^ c-2 ■ 

Digitized by 



Praelia quanta illic dispensalore videbis 

Armigero ! siniplexne ftiror sestertia centum 

Perdere, et horrenti tunicam non reddere servo ? ; . 

Quis totidem erexit villas ? quis fei cula septeift 

Secreto coeuavit avus ? nunc sportula pi inio 95 

Limine parva sedet, turbse rapienda togatxe. 

Ille tamen faciem prius inspicit, et trepidat ne 

Suppositus venias, ac falso nomine poscas : ^ 

Agnitiis accipies. Jubet a praecone vocari 

Ip.sos Trojugenaa : nam vexant limen et ipsi lOQ 

91. Ilot^ many hcUtles^ 4'c-] <• ^- How many attacks on one aa« 
^ther at play. 

— ^7%« stewardJ] Dispensator signifies a dispenser, a st^ward^ 
oue that lays out money, a manager. 

92. Armour 'bearer, '\ The armigeri were servants who .followed 
their masters with .their shields, and other arms, when they went; to 
fight. The poet still carries on the metaphor of prxlia tn the pre#^ 
c^ing line. — ^There gaming is Compared to fighting ; here he hu«. 
jnourously calls the steward the armour-bearer, as supplying his 
master with money, a necessary weapoiT'at a gaiuing-tabll, to 
stake at play, instead of keeping and dispensing it, or laying it nut 
for the usual and honest expenses orthe family* 

— — Simple madness^ S^c.'] All this is a species ,of madness, but 
Aot without mixture of injury and mischief; and therefore may be 
reckoned something more than mere madness, whete such imqiense 
sums are thrown away at a gaming-table, as that the servants of ihe 
family can't be afforded common decent necessaries. The Romans 
had their sestertius and • sestertium. The latter is here meant, and 
contains 1000 of the former, which was worth about \\d. See 
1. 106, n. 

93. And not give a coai^ 6fcJ\ The poet here puts one instaace, 
for many, of the ruinous consequ^ces of gaming. 

Juvenal, by this, sev9rely censures the gamesters, who had rather 
lose a large sum at the dice, than lay it out for the comfort, happi* 
ness, and decent maintenance of their families. 

94. So many villas,'] Houses of pleasure for the summer-season. 
These were usually built and furnished at a vast expense. The poet 
kaving inveighed against their squandering at the gaming-table, now 
Attacks their luxury, and prodigality in other respects; and then, 
the excessive meanness into which they were sunk. 

95. Supped in secret, S^c.'] The ancient Roman nobility, in or. 
* der to shew their munificence and hospitality, used, at certain times, 

to make an handsome and splendid entertainment, to which they in* 
vited their clients and dependents. Now they shut out these, and 
provided a^ sumptuous entertainment for themselves only, which 
-they sat down to in. private. Which of our ancestors, says the poet, 
did this? 

— -— iVb» a Httle basket, ^c] Sportula— a little basket or pan- 

Digitized by 


«1T.,*. JUVENAL? Si SATIRES. 21 

How many battles will you, see there, the stewaid 

Armour-bearer! is it simple madness an hundred Sestertia 

To lose, and not give a coat to a ragged servant ? ' 

Who has erected ao many villas f What ancestor on seven disheA 

H|i8 supped in secret ? Now a li^e bai^ket at the first ^5 

Threshold is set, to be sndt(:hed by the gowned crowd. 

But he first inspects the face, and trembles, lest 

Put in the place of another you come, and ask in a false name. 

Acknowledged you will receive. He commands to be called 

by the crier 
The very desceudents of the Trojans : for even they molest the 

threshold 100 

nier, made of a kind of broom called sportum. Kcnnet, Antiq. 
p. 375. In this were put victuals, and some small sums of money, 
to be distributed to the poor clients and dependents at the outward 
dopr of the house, who where no longer invited, as formerly, to the 
entertainment within. ^ 

96, 7b be snatched^ Sfc."] L e. Eagerly received by the hungry 
poor clients, who crowded about the door. 

The gowned croiprf.] The common sort of people we*e 
called turba togata, from the gowns they wore, by which they were 
distinguished from the higher sort. See note before on 1. 3. 

97. But he."] t. e. Th^ person who distributes the dole; 

First inspects the face.'] That he may be certain of the pert- 
son he gives to. 

And trembles."] At the apprehension of being severely re- 
provied Hy his master, the great man, if he should make a mistake^ 
by giving people who assume a false name, and pretend themselves 
to be clients when they are not. 

99. AcknQwledgedy S^cJ] Agnitus — owned^— acknowledged, as one 
for whom the dole is provided. 

Perhaps, in better days, when the clients and dependents of great 
men were invited to partake of an entertainment within doors, there 
was a sportula, or dole-basket, which was distributed, at large, to 
the poor, at the doors of great men's houses. — Now times wei» 
altered ; no invitation of clients to feast within doors, and no dis. 
tribution of doles, to the poor at large, without — ^none now got any 
thing hete, but the excluded clients, and what they got Mras distrr- 
buted with the utmost caution, 1. 97, 8. . 

He commands to be called,] i. e. Summoned — called toge^ 

ther. The poet is now about to inveigh against the meanness of 
many of the nobles and magisMles of Rome, who could suffer 
themselves to be sumi)ri6ned, by the common crier, in order to share 
in the distribution of the dole-baskets. 

100. The very descendents of the Trojans,] Ipsos Trojugenas-**- . 
from Troja«H.or Trojanus — and gigno. — The very people, says he, 
who boast of their descmit from £neas, and the ancient Trojans^ 
who first cam(0 to settle in Italy ; even these are so degenerate, as to 

c 3 

Digitized by 


2« JtJtfeNALIS ' SXrTTtttt. ixt. I. 

Nobiscum : da Praetori/da deinde THbiino. ; 

Sed libertinus prior est : prior, inqiiit, ego adsiiitl ^ • 

Clir timeaih, dubitemve, locum defendere ? quamvis ' '- 

Natus ad Euphratem, molles quod fa aure fene&trar - ' ' 

Arguerint, licet ipse negem : sed qiiinque tabemst ' '1^<5 

Quadringenta parant : quid confert purpura majus ^ 

Optandum, si Laurenti custodit in agro ' * 

Conductas Corvjnus oves ? Ego possideo plus 

Pallaute^ et Licinia : expectent ergo TribunL . '*^ 

come and scrainke, as it were, among the poor, for a part of the 
sportula. The word ipsos makes the sarcasm the stronger. 

100. Molest the threshold.'} Crowd about it, and are Vefjr tr6a- 
blesome. So Hor. lib. i. sat. tuI. 1. 18. — hunc vexar^ locu^. 

101. With us.} Avec nous autres^— as the French srff . ' ' • ^* 
'Give to the Praetor,} In JureinaPs time this was% tSde'ef a 

chief magistrate, something like the lord-mayor of London-^He 
"was called Praetor Urbanus, and had power to judge matters 6f law 
between citizen and citizen. This seems to bethe dffi^ev hero>i«f«ant 
— ^bnt for a further account of the Praetor, see AinswJ— Prtetor. 

101. Tlie Tribune,} A chief officer in RoiAe.— The^ribut^' at 
their first institution, were two, afterwards came to be ten«— 'they 
were keepers of the liberties of the people, against tie eifcraach- 
menis of the senate. They were called tribunes, be^MM 'at>^rst 
s^t dyer the three tribes of the people. See AlNsw.-i-Tl4bttnus — 
and Tribus. ' * ' ' 

Juvenal satirically represents some of the chief - magistratea and 
-officers of the city, as bawling out to be first sei<ved out of the 

102. The libertine,} An enfranchised islaTe. There w6re many 
of these in Rome, who were very rich, and very insolent ; of »6iie of 
these we have an example here. ' * . 

■ ■ ' Isfirsty 4'c.] " Hold," says this upstart, " a freedman^flch as 
^< I ain, is before the praetor ; besides I came first, and f^ "be first 
*^ served." ^ 

103. fVh}f should Ifear^ 8^c,} i\ a I'm neither afraid nor ashamed 
to challenge the first place. — PJI not give it up tb any body. '^ 

108 — 4. Alitho^ born at the Euphrates,} He owns that h0 was 
bom of servile condition, and came from a part of the worid)from 
whence mkhy were sold m slaves. The river Euphtates took kk rise 
in Armenia, and ran through the city of Babylon, whielk if divided 
in the midst. ' . 

104. The soft hole^^ ^c] The ears of all slaves^ in tlie East were 
bored, as a mark of their seffitude. They wdre bitS' df<gdld by 
way of. ear-rings; which custom a Still in th^ Eastl^die^, and in 
otlier parts, even for whole nations • ^hb bpreprodigioui? holes in 
their cats, and wear vast weights at them. DttYU^B)«i Plin. 
lib. xi. c. St. . , , . 

The epithet molles may, perhaps, inidUiate^ that 4his custom was 
looked upon at Home (as among us) t& a i^ark of ^minacy. Or 

Digitized by 



Together with u8:,".Qiyf^ Jtp 4Ue Praetor-^jh^Q giy.e.ta the 

"Tribui^,^;../''. , . / -.V "r'''\~,.'' \"-':. ■; 

But the lll^rUi^ia firstt I ti*e fir^t^ $aj8 .](ie, am here present. 
Why should; I, fe^f Qf dpubt to defend ?ny place ? altho* 
^rn at the Eupliratea, Whichjthe soft holes in my ear 
Prove, thoug^h i sht>uld deny it : but five houses . . 105 

Procure 400 (sestertia)^ what does the purple eonfer more 
To be wished for^, if^ iu' the field of Laurentum, Goiviiius 
Keeps hired sheep ? I possess niore 
llian Pallas and the Licini : let the Tribunes, therefore, wait. 

the poet, by JEIypallage, says— Molles in aure fenestra! — for— fenes- 

106^ live, houses.'] Tabemae here may be understood to mean 
shops or ^fff^rc^ouses, \vhich i/fere in the forum, or market place, and. 
lihliail^ t>y raasan oC/Uieir situation, were let to merchants and tra- 
,4ei» at^^^re&t rent. . 

. -i06t ■JJrociire. 400.] In reckoning by sesterces, the Romans had 
.«iiTiirt«irhM)h may be understood by these three rules : 

.Fiir^:-ICja, numeral noun agree in uumber, case, a^d gender, 
vith.^teHins, then it denotes so miiny sestertii— as decern sestertii. 
.^.Seeoodty: If ^.numeral npun of another caae be joined with the 
gfikitive plural of sestertius it denotes so many thousand, as decern 
S€»^eriiiyRi signifies 10,000 sestertii. 

• r'£]NMly-* If the adverb numer^ he joined, it denotes so many: 
100,000 : as decies sestertium signifies ten hundred thousand sestertii. 
Qrif^ the numeral adverb be put. by itself, the signification is the 
^iime .: dieck».. or, vigesies stand for so many 100,000 sestertii, or, 
sis they say, so many hundred sestertia. , ^ ; 

f 'JThe sestertium contained a thousand sestertu, and amounted to 
9b(mt 17/. 169» Srfrofonr money.. Kennett, Ant. 374, 5. 

After 400— quadringenta— sestertia must be understood, accord- 
^in^ to the thq^ rule above. 

Th0 freedman brags, that the rents of his houses brought him in 
400 sestertia, which was a knight's estate. 

:, '-.n, to , , , What. does, (he purple, <^c*] The robes of the nobility and 
magistrates were decorated with purple. He means^that, though 
he can^t de^iy that he was born a slave, and came to Rome as such, 
(Aftdif he:W;]erc to, the holes in his ears wopld prove it,) yety 
he WAS now a firee citizen of Ronft, possessed of a larger pri- 
vate fortune ti»«a the pnetor or the tribune. — What can even a 
patrician wish for more? Indeed, ^' when I see a nobleman re- 
" duced to keep sheep for his livelihood, I can't percdve any great 
{^ advantage he derives from his nobility ; what can it^ at best, con- 
^' fejf, beyond what I possess ?" 

107.^ CorvinusJ] One of the noble family of the Corvini, but so 
reduced, that he was obliged to keep sheep, as an hired shepherd, 
near Laurentum, in his own native country. Laureptum is a city 
gf Italy', now called Saato Lorenzo. 

109. Pallas.'] A freedman of Craudius. 


Digitized by 


24 JUVJ?fJ-W% §!^3?I*^r •^•«*^ 

Vincant divitiae; sacro 9ec,c^dQ4lK^99^,,.. . : . :- . .: IKH 
Ntiper in banc urbem pedibiis quiyen^rataBiift: .. ^^^"^ 

Quandoquidem inter nos sanctissima divitiarum :"- 

Majestas : etsi, funesla Pecunia, tempio V i 

Nonduni habitas, nullas nummorum ereximus araSy ^i:. 

Ut cbKtur Pax, atqne Fides, Victoria, Virtus, VX$r 

Quseque salutato crepitat Concordia itido. 

Sed cuin summus honor (iiiito computet anno, 
Sportuia quid refcrat, quantum ratiouibus addat : 
Quid facient comites, quibus hinc toga, calceus hinc eat, 
Et panis, fumusque domi f densissima centum 126 > 

Quadrantes lectica petit, sequitarque maritum 
Languida, vel praegnans, et circumducitur uxor. 
Hie petit absenti, iwt^ jam callidus arte, 
Ostendens vacuara, et clausam pro conjuge sellam : 
Galla mea est, inquit ; citius dimitte : moraris? I2ir 

Profer, Galla, caput. Noli vexare, quiescit. 

109. TVie Licini,'] The name of several rich m^, particniariy df ■ 
a freedman of Augustus i ^nd of Licinius Crassus, viho was sur- 
named Dires. * 

HO. Let riches prevail.'] Vincant—^overcome— defeat ail othei^ 

■ ■-■ ■ Sacred honour.'] Meaning the tribunes, whose office wa« 
held so sacred, that if any one hurt a tribune, his life was deroted tp;, 
Jupiter, aod his family was to be sold at the temple of Ceres. 

lli. With xchUe feeU] It was the custom, when foreign slaves 
-wtjre exposed to sale, to whiteh over their naked feet with chall^. 
Thb was the token by which they were known. 

112. The moQesty of riches.] Intimating their great and universal . 
sway among men, particularly at Rome, in its corrupt state, where , 
every thing was venal, which made them reverenced, and almost 
adored. This intimates too, the command and domMlton which the . . 
rich assumed over others, and the self-importance which they 4%.. 
sumed to themselves — a notable instance of which appeals in this, 
impudent freedman. , . .. i 

113. Baleful money.] i. e. Destructive — ?the pccasiqn of many:. > 
cruel, and ruinous deeds. 

114. Altars ofmonei/.] i. e. No temple dedicated, no altars calkd t 
arsB nummorum, as having sacrifices o^ered on them to rich^.aut ; 
there were to peace, fajth, concord, &c. 

116. Which chittters^ $^c.] Crcpito here signifies to chatter like ' 
a bird. The temple of Conpord, at Rome, was erected by Tiberiu% 
at the request of his mother J^ivia. About this, birds, such aa 
choughs, storks, and the like, used to build their nests. What the 
poet says, alludes to the chattering noise made by these birds, parti* 
cularly when the old ones revisited their nests, after having been out 
to seek food, for their young. See Ainsw. — Salutatus, No« 2. 

117. The highest honour ^ ^c] e. e. People of the first rank and 

Digitized by 


Let riches prevail : nor l^lf&n'ytfeM Xp tlie sacred h6u^iyr,,4.1Q 
Who lately came ilifo tfiis <fity with white feet : . I ,,[ .; 

Since among us tb'ife^ttiajfesty of Hchesis ,.., 

Most sacred : altho'y O baleM money ! in a temple 
As yet thou do^ B6f tfweil, we have erected no altars of money, 
As Peace is worshipped, and Faith, Victory, Virtue, . . 1 15 
And Concord, which chatters widi a visited nest. 

But when the highest honour can compute, thcyear/being 

What the sportula brings in, how much it adds to its accounts. 
What will the attendants do, to whoitn from hence is a gown, 

from hence a shoe, [^^^ 

Arid bread, and smoke of the house ? A thick crowd of lit|;er» 
An hundred farthings seek ; and the wife follows the husband. 
And, sick or pregnant, is led ab6ut. 
Thia asks for the absent, cumiing in a known art, 
Shewing the empty and shut-up sedan instead of the wife. [125 
" It is my Galla," says he, " dismiss her quickly : do you delay l? 
*^ Galia put out your head"-^" don't vex her— she is asleep.** 

1 17. Can compute^ <^c.] t. e. Can be so sank into the most sordid 
and meaaest avadce, as to be reckoning, at the year's end^ what 
they have gained out of these doles which were provided for th* 
pooli^ , " ' 

11^*^ ^Plo! QitendantSj 4*c.] The poor clients and followers, who^ 
by these doles, are, or ought to be, supplied with clothes, meat, and . 
fire." What will these do, when the means of their support is thus 
take» from ^em by great people ? 

— F— . From hence.^ i. e. By what they receive from the dole-basket. . 

— ^ A^HoeS]' Shoes to their feet — as we say. 

130* Smoke of the house.'] Wood, or other fewel for firing— or ^ 
' firings -09 we say. The effect, smoke — for the cause, fire. Mstont. 

■ ' " Grotdd of inters.] The word densissima here denotes-^^ 
very ^reat number, a thick Crowd of people carried in litters. .• 

1^1* Jn ^uni^ed farthings.] The quadrans was a Roman coin^ 
the fourth part of an as, in value not quite an halfpenny of our 
monefi- An hundred of these were put into the iportula, or dole, 
basket : and for a share in this paltry sum, did the people of fashion 
(for i%i^ were earried in litters) seek in so eager a manner, as that 
they ^owded the very do6r up, to get at the sportula. 

122. Is led about.] The husband lugs about his sick or breed* 
ing w^fe ill a fitter, and claims her dole. 

12^' Tl^B asks for the absent.] Another brmgs an empty litter, 
pretending his mfe is in it. 

-■ ^ " K^fiing in a known art.] t. e. He had often practised tfait 
trick with success. 

125. Uis my Gedla.] The supposed name of his wife. 

19,6. Put out your head.] i. e. Out of the Utter, that I may se^ 
jou ar« thore^^i^ys the dispenset of the d^le. 

Digitized by 


Ipse &e» pulchr (^ dintingiiitui? ^drdHie rermii ; : r 
Sportuia, deinde fecumy j^risiqiue peritus ApoUa, - is f 
Atque triumphaks, inter ^iki{ ausus hs^bere 

Nescio quis litulos -33gyptius, atque Arabarches ; 13d 
Cujus ad effigiem non tan turn mtjcie fas est. 

Vestibulis abeunt veteres, la»sique clientes, : 

Votaque depouunt, qu^nquam longiasima coenie j f 

126. DonU vex her,'] " Don't disturb her," replies the husband ; 
*^ don't disquiet her, she is not rery well, and is taking a nap." By 

.these methods he imposes on the dispenser^ and gets a dole for 
his absent wife ; though, usually^ none was given bat to those ^o 
tcame in person*-^and in order to this^ the greatest caution was :GQin« 
monly ttsed. See 1. 97, S. , -t;^^ 

The violent hurry which this impostor appears to b« in j^L, !?$•) 
waa, no doubtj occasioned by his fear of a dkcovery, if he^tud^o 
long.. , : . . ., .'i'. .*,.-o 

. Thus doth our poet satirize, not only the mieannes^ of the rich in 
coming to the sportula, bdt the tricks and shifta which l^ey fiyide 
use of to get at the contents of it. 

127. The day itself^ <^c.] The poet having satirised . tjbe ^,i»ian 
avarice of the higher sort, now proceeds to ridicule^ tbieiif v^xVKm^ 
ner of spending time. .... * 

128. The sportula,'] See before, 1. 95. The day began with^at- 
tending on this. .: -. 

-""-r- The forum.] The common place where coHfts of jii^ce 
were kept, and matters of judgment pleaded. Hither th^« 
sorted to entertain themselves with hearing the caus^ which vere 
there debated. . ,.- . 

A pollo learned in the law,] Augustus builiaiiilr4edlcated a 
temple and library to ApoUo, in his palace on inQunt P^ls^^np y in 
which were large collections of law-books, as well as the. w^ai^s of 
all the famous authors in Rome. ,..,.. 

Hon. lib. i. epist. m. 1. 16) 17. mentions this— - 

Et tangere vitat . ' 
Scripta Palatinas quaecanque recepit>ApoIk>r 

But I should rather think, that the poet meant here the forum 
which Augustus built, where, it is said, there was an ivory statue of 
Apollo, which Juvenal represents as-^leamed in the law, from the 
constant pleadings of the lawyers in that place. Here idle people 
used to lounge away their time. 

129. The ttiumphals.] The statues of heroes, and kings^ and 
. other great men who had triumphed over the enemies of the state. 

These were placed in great numbers in the forum of Augustus, and 
in other public parts of the city. 

'-Jn j^gifptiariy &;c,] Some obscure low wretch, who for no' 

desert, but only on account of his wealth, had his statue placed 

130. An Arabian prwfect.'] Arabarches-^So Pom'pey is called by; 

Digitized by 



The day itself is di$thi^imhed by a beanttfut' order, trfdiings: 
The sportula, then the fohim^ and ApoHo learoed in the hw^ 
And the tnumphals : aaiong which, an iSgyptian^ 1 know not 
'^-'- who, • 

Has dared to havq tillee^ : and «i Arabian praefect ; 130 

At whose image it is not right so mtioh as to make water. 
The old and tired clients go away Irom the vestibules, 
And lay aside their wishes, altho* the man has had a very long 

{ ftic. epfct ad Altit. 1. 2. epist. xvii. because he conquered a great 
part of Arafifta, and made it tributary to Rome. But Javenal 
^ieari*^ here some iii&mous character, who had probably been prae- 

^fWt, or we-roy^ over th^t country, and had, by rapine and extor- 
tion, returned to Rome with great riches, and tlius got a statne 
%r€Jcted to him, like the iBgy ptian above mentioned,* whom some 
'^ujp^ose to have been in a like occupation in .£gypt, and therefore 
called .£^ptius. Arabarches — from A^u^ or A^ecSiog and »f;^* 
-'• rat/'x^ tnakB water.'] There was a very severe law on those who 

''' dM this^, zt or near the images of great men. This our poet turns 

. into a jest on the statues above mentioned. Some are for giving the 
'Mile ano^r turtle as if Juvenal meant, that it was right, or lawful, 
trot ^ly to do-this-r-iion tantum meiere, but something worse. But 
I take the first interpretation to be the sense of the author, by which 
"%e would latiniate, that the statues of such vile people were not only 
erected among those of great men, but were actually protected, like 
them, from all marks of indignity. So Peiis. sat.*i. 1. 114. Sacer 
•est locns, ite prophani— extra mejite. 

132. Tke aid and tired clients.'] The clients were retainers, or de- 
pendents, on great men, who became their patrons: to these the 
i^nrtep^ all reverence, honour, and observance. Tha patrons, 
on' their part, afforded them their interest, protection, an4 defence. 
'J^ey also, in better times, made entertainments, to which they invi- 
ted their clients. See before, note on 1. 95. Here the poor clients 
are represented, as wearied out with waiting, in long expectation of 
fL supper, and going away in despair, under their, disappointment* 
Cliens is derived from Greek xXew, celebro — celebrem reddo— for it 
> w^ na small pari^f their business to flatter and praise their patrons. 
, .m^^^r-J^estHmUs^] The porches, or entries of great men's houses. 

Ves^bulum ante ipsuni, primoque in limine. Viro. Ma. ii. 1. 469. 

134. Potmherbs.] Caul is properly denotes the stalk or stem of an 
berti, and, by Synecdoche, any kind of pot-herb«— especially cole- 
worts, or cabbage. See Ainsw. Caulis, No. 2. 

■ " ■ ■ Td ie bought J] The hungry wretches go from the patron's 

door, in order to lay out the poor pittance which they may have re- 
ceived from the sportnla, in some kind of pot-herbs, and in buying 
a little firewood, in order to dress them for a scanty meal. 

The poet seems to mention this, by way of contrast to what foU 

digitized by 


28 J^qV^NAl-lS .S^AJ](^JI^ SAT. A 

Spes bomini : caules miseris^ atque ignis emendus,; 
Optima syl varum iuterea^ pelagique vorabit 135 

Rex horam, vaciusque toris tautuiii ipse jaeebit : ,^ 

Nam de tot pulciiiis, et latis orbibus, et tarn 
4ntiquis, un& coi^^dunt patrimonia inensd^ 
. Nullus jam parasitua pirit : sed quis feret istas* 
Luxuriae sordes I quanta est gula^ quse sibi totos . 149 

Pouit apr^^amoial propter convivija natum ?. , i^ 

Pobna taitien praesens, cum tu deponis amictus i 

TurgiduSy et crudum pavonem in balnea poxtas : 
Hiuc subitae mortes^ atque iiitestata senectus. 
It nova, nee tristis per cunctas fabula'ccenas : 145 

Pucitur iratis pl^udendum funus amicis. 

135. Their lard.'] i. e. The paftron of these clients. Rex not 
only signifies a king — but any great or rich man : so a patron. Sec 
Jut. £at. y. L 14. This from the power and dominion nrhieh he 
exercised over his clients. Hence, as well as from his protection 
and care over them, he was called patronus, from the Greek wxTfoi^. 
•—wjwff-*- from tsr«T»jf, a father. 

■ " • Mean whiles] i. e. While the poor clients are forced -to take 
up with a few boiled coleworts. • ^ 

■ ■■ The best things of the wodds^ S^c] The woods are to be 
ransacked for the choicest game, and the sea for the finest sorts of 
fish, to satisfy Jthe patron's gluttony : these he will devour, without 
asking any body to partake with him. 

136. On the empty beds-l The Romans lay along on beds, or 
couches, at their meals. Several of these beds are here supposed to 
be round the table which were formerly occupied by his friends and 
clients, but they are now vacant— not a shigle guest is invited to oc 
cupy them, or to partake of tjie entertainment with this selfish glut- 

137. Dishes,] Which were round— in an orbicular shape — hence 
called orbcs. 

BeauiifuL'] Of a beautiful pattern — ancient — valuable for 

their antiquity ; made, probably, by some artists of old time. 

138. At one wiea/.] Mensa — lit. table-r— which (by Meton.) 
stands here for what is set upon it. Thus they wjvste and devour 
their estates, in tl^is abominable and selfish glnttony. 

139. No parasite,] From irra^at, 'near — and o^tov, food. 

These were a kind of jesters, and flatterers, who were frequently- 
invited to the tables of the great ; and .who, indeed, had this in view, 
when they flattered and paid their court to them. Terence, in his 
Etinuch, has given a most spirited and masterly specimen of para- 
sites, in his inimitable character of Gnatho. 

Dnt so fallen were the great into the meanest avarice, and into the 
most soi'did luxury^ that they could gormandize by themselves, with- 
out even inviting a parasite to flatter or divert them. Rut who, even 
though a parasite, would endure (feret) such a sight ? 

Digitized by 



^ Expectation of a stipfjer : pot-lierW for the wretches/ and fire is 

to be bought. 
Mean whiie their lord wiU devour the best things of the woods^ 

andofthesea^ 13^ 

And he only will lie on the empty beds : 
For from so marry beautiful, and wide, and ancient dishes^ 
They devour patrimonies at one meal. 

There will now be no parasite : but who will bear that £l4d 
Filthiness of luxur}^ ? how great is the gullet, which, for itself, puts 
Whole boars, an animd bom for feasts? 
Yet there is a present punishment, whienyou put off your clothes, 
Tn^d, and carry an indigested peacock to the baths r 
Hence sudden deaths, and intestate old age. [145 

A new story, nor is it a sorrowful one, goes thro* all companies ; 
A Sui^^l, to be applauded by angry friends, is carried forth. 

\4X>4 Filfhifiess of luxury, 1 Sordes— nastiness — a happy word to 
de^ribe t^e beastliness of such gluttony with regard to the patron 
faimsetf — and its stinginess, and niggardliness, with respect to others* 

— Hqzd ^reat is the gullet J\ The gluttonous appetite of these 

Puts,"] Ponit — sets — places on the table. 

;' 141. Whole boars J Sfc.'] A whole boar at a time — the wild boar, 
esped^lfy'the Tuscan, was an high article of lirxury, at all grand en- 
tertainnfcnts. The word natum is here used as the word natis. Hoa« 
lib. I. od. xxvii. 1. 1, — See also Ovid, Met. lib. xv. 1. 117. 

Qaid meruUtls, oves, placid urn pecus, inque tuendos 
Natum homines? 

jTuyenal speaks as if boars were made and produced for no other^ 
purpose thao convivial entertainments. 

14^. ji present punishment,'] Of such horrid gluttony. 

— Put offyouf clothes,] Strip yourself for bathing.*' 

lA^, Turgid.] Turgidus — swoln-— puffed itp with a full stomach. 

■I ■ An indigested peacock,] Which you have devoured, and 
which is crude and indigested within you. 

_ ■ To the baths,] It was the custom to bathe before meals ; 
the contrary was reckoned unwholesome. See Pers, sat. iii. 1. 98— 
105. and Hor. Epi&t. lib. I. Ep. vi. 1. 61. 

144. Sudden deaths,] Apoplexies and the like, which arise from 
too great repletion • Bathing, with a full stomach, must be likely to 
occasion these, by forcing the blood with too great violence towards 
the brain. • 

— Intestate old age,] i, e. Old gluttons thus suddenly cut off, 
without time to make their wills. 

145. A new story ^ S^c] A fresh piece of news, which nobody is 
sorry for. 

146. A funeral is carried forth,] The word ducituris peculiarly 
tised to denote the carrying forth a corpse to burial, or to ihe fune- 
ral pile. So ViRG. Geor. iv. 256. 

Digitized by 


30 JOVENAtIS SATlftiE- aAtiR 

INiI erit tilterms/qaod liostm ^norilms addat fr '' ■ ' t 

tPosleffiiasi eadem etipiefrt, facietitque niinOfes.V - 

tO-MNE IN PRJECiPiTi viTiUM STETIT itutere veltf, 

Totos pande sinus. Dicas hie forsitan, ^^ unde 1 ^ 

^< Ingenium par materise ? unde lUa priomm : ^ 

" Scribendi quodcunque animo flagrante iiberet 

" Simplicifas, cujus mm audeo dicere nomen ? 

** Quid refert dictis it;noscat Mutius, an non ? ' ' 

" Pone Tigellinum, tseda lucebis iu illti, 155 

'^ Qun 6tante*j ardent, qui fixo gutture fument, 

'' £l latiun nitidia sukuin deducis areni. 

Exportant tectis,ettrifitia funera DveuNT. ' .. ' k '* 

Owing, perhaps, to the proc«8»ion of the friend«^ to. of fte dcf* 
ceased, nhich went before the corpse, and led it to the place oi 
burning, or interment. 

146. Applauded by angry friends,'] Who, disobliged by hB.^j^ 
nothing left them, from the deceased's <lying suddenly^ and witj^w^ a 
ivill, express their resentment by rejoicing at his deatii^ inste^^d of, 
lamenting it. See Pers. sat. vi. 33, 4. 

148, To our morals,'] Our vices and debaucheries, owing to thQ 
depravity and corruption of our morals. 

— r — Those horn after us,] Minores, i, e, natu — our descendeilts ; 
the opposite of majores natu — our ancestors. v 

149. Ali vice 16 at the height,'] In praecipiti stetit — hath^ stood— 
hath been for some time at its highest pitch — at its summit— so tb^t 
our posterity can carry it no higher. . Compare the two preceding 

Vice is at stand, and at the highest flow. Drtdcit. . 

On tip toe. Ainsw. -•■.•■- ^ 

. 141^^50. Use soils-^-^pread^ Sfc] A metaphor taken from sli^Qifs; 
who, wben they have a fair wind, spread open -their sails as mnch as 
they cto. The poet here insinuates, that there is now a fair o)[>por. 
tunity for satire to display all its powers. 

150 — 1. Whence is there genius^ Si'c,] Here he Is supposed to be 
interroptedby some friend, who starts an objection, on his invoca- 
tion to Satire to spread all its sails, and use all its powers agains>t 
the vices of the times. 

Where shall we find genius equal to the matter ? equal to range 
so wide a field — equal to the description, and due eorreclion of so 
much vice? 

laj. Whence thai simplicity y Sfc] That simple and undisgulsffd 
freedom of reproof, which former writers exercised. Alluding, per- 
haps, to Lucilius^ Horace, and other wrifers of former tinies, ' * ^ 

153i Jl burning »nnd,] Infiatned with zeal, and burning #i& «a. 
titfec rage against the vio^ and abtises of their times. ' ' 

J,- ."^^•^Ofuhich I' dare not^ dpcj] It is hardly safe now to name, or 
mention, tbfe liberty of the old writers ; it is so sunk and gone, that 
the very naming it is dangerous. . ■ - - 

Digitized by 


UTi 4. JtiJlftBBf Afc'Sl S AT:tRI»w n 

There will be nothiBgnfortibftf > ii^bi^ln <pooteffitj|vcsii<aM * • 
To our morals : ik^a& bi>m after vs^ "UMiU'deMne^ tnd dodiesame 
things. ' ' n . . ; r • " 

4l<L VICE IS AT T»il HEliGHT. Use ^tUs, 

Spread their whole bottoms op^n^, , Hei^, perhfips^ you'll say — 
" Whence . : 150 

" Is there genius equal >io the fliatter? Whence that aimplieity 
" Of former (writei s)> of writiag wliatever they might like> with 
**:A burning mind, of which I dare not tall the c^me. 
" What signifies it, whether Mutius'might forgive what they toid, 

or not ? 
" Set down TigelHnus,* and you will shine in that torch, 155 
" In which standing they burn, who with fi*ed tliroat smoke j 
*^ ArtS you dl^w out a wide furrow in the midst of sand. 
•: ^'^ s ■■ ■ ■ 

1 54. Mutius.'] Titus Mutius Albutius — a yery great and powerful 
waxiki Hie waft satirized by Lucilius, and this, most seycrely by name. 
Seenotfe on Pbrs. sat. i. 1. 115. 

liQctlias feared no bad consequences of this, in those days of li- 
berty. ' 

155. Set down TigelHnus.'] «. e. Expose him as an object of sa- 
tire — satirize this creature and infamous favounte of Nero's, and 
tnost terrible will be the consequence. 

■ In that torch.'] This cruel punishment seems to have been 
proper to Ihcendtaries, in which light the poet humourously* supposes 
the satirizers of the emperor^s faTOurites, and other great men, to be 
looked upon at that time. 

After Nero had burnt Rome, to satisfy his curiosity with the pros- 
pect, he contrived to lay the odium on the Christians, and charged 
thein with setting the city on fire. He caused them to be wrsq[)ped 
r^und with garments, which were bedaubed with pitch, and other 
xombustiblematters, and set on fire at night, by wny of tor^^s to en- 
lighten the«tj:eQits — and thus they miserably perished. See Kcnnett, 
Ant. p. 147. 

, 156. Standing.] In an erect posture. 
. — r- fViibfi^pe^ throat.] Fastened by the neck to a stake. 
. J 57, And ymi draw, out a wide furrow^ 6(c.] After all the danger 
which a satirist runs of his life, for attacking Tigellinus, or any 
;49t^r^Bun^{i.of .tlie.eipperor'8-**all his labour wUl be in yain ; there 
is UQ. hope (4 doing any .good. It would be like ploughing in 
the barren sand, which would yield nothing to reward your 
. j^in«* :: 

{ Cftoapieiitators have. given various explaoa^ons of this line, which 
is Yety, difficull;) aiid almost uhintelligibie where the copies read de- 
ducet,asif relating to the the preceding line ; but this 
cannot well be, that the plural should be expressed by the third person 
singular. They talk of Mio, sufiVrers making a trenek in the sand, 
hY ruufl^iig TijivaiA the post,, to fivoid the flames-^ cmn this 
be, when the person has the combustibles fastened rcmiid himy and 

Digitized by 


» SvrEHJdjU SATIU*. UfM. 

^^.' Q^ dedit etgo tribiiv patruis aconito, Telietur : r *' 

"•* Pensilibus plumis^ at^ie illinc despiciet nos ? 

*^ Cvm veniet contra, d^ito compesce labeQum : - H6(i 

" Accusator erit, qui verbum dixerit, hie eSt* 

f' SecuruB licet ^neam, Rutilumque ferocem 

" Committas : nuUi gravb est percussus Achilles : ^ ' 

'^ Aut maltum quaesitus Hylas, urnamque secutus. 

must be in tjie midst of fire^ go where he may ?«— Berides^ ty» IfidI 
does not agree with fixo gulture, which implies beiog^ftataieil^ or 
fixed, so as not, to be able to stir. 

Instead of deducet, or deducit, I should think dedncis the right 
reading, as others have thought before me. This agrees, in number 
and person, with lucebis, 1. 155, and gires us an easy and natural 
solution of the observation ; viz. that, after all the danger incurred^ 
i}y satirizing the emperor's favourites, no good was to be expected i 
they were too bad to be reformed. • 

. The Greeks had a proverbial saying, much like what I contended 
lot here, to express labouring in vain— bw. 'A/ut/xoK fAtlpug — Arenam 
jpetiris, you measure the sand — i, e, of the sea. 

Juvenal expresses the same thought, sat. vii. 48, 9, as I would 
suppose him to' do in this line : 

Nos taroen hoc agimus, tenuique m pulvere sulcos 
Duetmus* et littoa sterili versamus aratro. 

V 158. fVoif^S'bane.'] Aconitum is the Latin for this poisonous 
herb ; but it is used in the plural, as here, to denote other sorts of 
poison, or poison in general. See Ovio, Met. i. 147. 
Lifrida terribiles miscent Acokita noverce. 
M ^ ■' Three undes.'^ Tigellinus is here meant, who poisoned three 
uncles that he might possess himself of their estates. And, after 
their death, he forged wills for them, by which he became possessed 
of all they had. He likewise impeached several of the nobility, and 
got their estates. See more in Ainsw. under TigelKnus. 

■ ShcUl he, therefore, Sfc,'] '' And because there may be dan* 
^^ ger in writing satire, as things now are, is such a character as this 
^^ to triumph in his wickedness unmolested? 'Shall he be carried 
•*' about in state, and look down with contempt upon other people, 
^^ and shall I not dare to say a word?-'— This we may suppose Ju.* 
venal to mean, on hearing wh^t is said about the danger ot writing 
satire, and on being cautioned against it. 

159. With pensile feathers*'] ]Pen«iIis means, literally, hanging in 
the afr. It was a piece of luxury, to have a mattress and pillows 
stufied with feathers ; on which the great mtui reposed himself in his 
litter. Hence the poet makes use of the term pensilibus to^pIumiS) . 
as being in the litter which hung in tlie air, as it was carried along by 
the bearers. See before, 1. 32, and note ; and 1. 64, 6, and notfei :. 

■ From theiwe,! From his easy Utter. 
-—^ 1^00^ (/oz&n.j With contempt and disdain. 

160. HHien he shall come oppoHie*'] Tk^ momiCTt you meet hiiny 

Digitized by 


^ Shall hcy therefiMW> wbo^ave ^vmcdf s bftfie to Qiree tmc1«8, be 

ffjWith pensile featfaeiiS) aid from thence look down On iM ?* 

** When he riiall cobb^ opposite, restrain your lip with your fin- 
ger— 160 

** There will be an accuser (of him) who shall say the word — 
" That's he." 

** Though, secure, iEneas and the fierce Rutilian 

•* Y«tt may match : smitten Achilles is grievous to none ; 

** Or- Hyns much sought, and having followed his pitcher. 

carried along in his stately litter, (says Juyenal's supposed adviser,) 
instead of saying any thing, or taking any notice of him, let him 
pass quietly — ^iay yoar hand on your mouth— hold your tongue-^ba 
aiieut, , 

161. TTiere wUl be an accuser."] An informer, who will lay an 
accusation before the emperor, if you do but so much as point with 
your finger^ or utter with your lips — " That's he." Therefore, that 
neither of these may happen, lay your finger upon your lips, and 
make not the slightest remark. 

— (Of him) who,'] liii or illins is here understood before qui, &c. 

162. Though^ fSecure.] Thongh you must not meddle with the liv- 
ing, you may securely write what you please about the dead. 

— j/Eneas and thejierce Rutilian,] t. e, iEneas, and Tumus^ 
a king of the Rutilians, the rival of ^neas, and slain by him. See 
Vino. Mn, xii. 919, &c. 

163. You may match.] Committas — ^is a metaphorical expression, 
taken from matching or pairing gladiators, or others, in single 

Martial says : 

Cum JuvENALE meo cur me committere tentas ? 

^^ Why do yon endeavour to match me with my friend Juvenal?" 
t. e» in a poetical contest with him. 

By committas we are therefore to understand, that one might very 
safely write the history of iEneas and Turnns, and match them to- 
getiier in fight-^ as Virgil has done. 

Smitten AMiies.] Killed by P^ris in the temple of Apollo. 

'^■^^^l9griffV4nu io none.] Nobody will get into danger, or trou- 
ble, by writing the history of this event. 

164k. Jfylas much sought.] By Hercules when he had lost him. 
See Vinoi «cl. vt. 4S, 44. 

-A— FeUmed his pitdker.] With which he was sent, by Herctt- 
ie% io the river Ascamus to draw some water : where bang seen, 
and falkm in Jove with, by three river-nymphs, they pulled him into 
the stream. 

On subjects like these, saith the adviser, you may say what you 
please, and nobody will take offence ;- but beware of attacking the 
vioei of living cbaractevf, however infamous or obnoxious, 
vol.. 1. n 

Digitized by 


" Infremuitv ririJei«^tl«iitor|teui iWgkte ' — : - *i '^ 

'' Criininibus/ttfd^^^cbat prcig«or^af:ieidp& : [^^ 

" |litde im, et kchrymse.f l^tfm'^rius'eirge mhita ^ » 

'* Poenitet." Experiar quid concedatur in illos, . 176 

QUKJ^um i^iuminii tegiiixr ciflis/ atqae Latin^. f '" ' 

165. ^r<2e/i^.] Inflamed with satiric rage against the vices of his 

n%6. Raged.'] Infremuit — ^roared alond^ in his writings, which- 
were as terrible to the vicious, as the roarirng of <a Ijon^-r^lhiolti 
the verb infremo signifies : hence Met. to rage violently, or tumut- 

Reddens.'] With anger and shame. 

166 — 7. Frigid with crimes.] Chilltjd, as it were, with horror of 
conscience — their blood ran cold — as we should say. 

167. 7%e bosom.] Praecordia— lit. the parts about the heart^ 
supposed to be the seat of moral sensibility. 

-r Sweats.] Sweating is the effect of hard lalK>ur. — Sudan tf» 

here Used metaphorically, to denote the state of a mind labouring, 
and toiling, under the grievous burden of a guilty conscience. This 
iiaag^e is tindy used — Mat. xi. 28. 

168. dinger and tears.] Anger at the satirist — ^tears of vexQ^tico 
and sorrow at being exposed. 

169- Before the trumpets.] A metaphor taken from the manner 
of giving the signal for battle, which was done with the sound of » 

Think well, says the adviser, before you sound the alarm for your 
attack — weigh well all hazards before you begin. 

The helmeted^ &;c.] When once a man has gotten his helmet 

on, and advances to the combat, it is too late to change his mind. 
Once engaged in writing satire, yon must go through, .there's no 

170. /'// trtf^ 6^c.] Well, says Juvenal, since the writing satire 
on the living is so dangerous, I'll try how f^r it may be allowed me 
to satirize the dead. 

Hence he writes against no great and powerful person, but under 
the feigned name of some vicious character that lived in past time. 

171. Whose ashes are covered.] When the bodies were cpn- 
siiined on the funeral pile, the ashes were put into urns and buried^ 

The Flaminian and Latin way.] These were two great 

roads, or ways, leading from Rome to other parts. In the via Fla- 
minia and via Latina, the urns and remains of the nobles were bu- 
ried, and had monuments erected* See sat. v. 1. bb. Hence have 
been so often found in ancient Roman inscriptions on monuments — 
Siste viator. 

It was ordered by the law of the twelve tables, that nobody 
fthould be buried within the city ; hence the urns of the great were 
buried, and their monuments were ofected, on those celebrated roads 

Digitized by 



I ail;* JUVJWAl'SfiWBIRtat » 

I <^.'As with a drawn sword^ aaioft^niii^'Ijii^iliuftiinleaf - i X^S' 

' « Raged — the hearerr^reddei69.wiiho ba9.aimi^d frigid I 

! <' With crimes ; th« b^sonaweckti^idi aileiK guilt : - 

I ** Hence angtraori 4easSii, TliMefole firfl revolve, witb tbjsidf, 
^ These things in thy mind^ before the toitiaipela: the iielsadled 

I (« late of a fight . - .^ . ' 

j " Repents." I'll try what may be allowed towards tbdse^ . J17CI- 

I Whose ashes are covered in the Flaminian and Latin way. 

or ways. For the Fhrnunian way, see before, 1. 61, note. The'. 
VlaXatioa. was ef gteat extait, reaching from Rome, throng msdfy 
famous cities, to fbe £irthest part of Latiuin. 



Digitized by' 

J-'l:- >-^i--iii s 



TTie Poet^ in this satire^ inveighs against the h^oerfsy'of^fhi^ht^ 
losof her 8 and priests of his time — the effeminacy vf mtHfe^ of* 
ficers — and magistrates. Which corruption of makn^riy^as^kcell 

U LTRA Sauroihatas fugere hinc libet, et glacialem . ^ 

Oceanum, quoties aliquid de moribus audent ^ 

Qui Curios simulant, et Bacchanalia vivunt. /""T^V 

Indocti primum : quanquiim plena omnia gypso '' .1 

Chrysippi invenias : nam perfectissimus horum est, . 'V,:,5 

Si quis Aristotelem similem, vel Pittacon emit, '' 

Et jubet arclietypos pluteum servare Cleanthis. ' r 

Line I, I could zoish.'] Dbet— lit. it liketh me. 
— Sauromatce,'] A northrern barbarous people : the saintiwith 
the Sarmatas. Ot. Trist. ii. 198, calls them Sauromatas truces. 

1 — 2. lof The northern ocean, tvhich was perpetiiaily 
frozen. Lucan calls it Scythicum pontum (Phars. L 1.)— ^Scjthia 
bordering on its shore. 

^ , . . . . • ' "<.; 

Et c^ua bruma ngens, et nescia ycrc remitli, 

Astrmgit Scythicum glaciali frigore pontum. 
The poet means, that he wishes to leave Rome, and banish him. 
. self, though to the most inhospitable regions, wheneyer he hears ,5uch 
hypocrites, as he afterwards describes, talk on the subject fG^,.ipo- 
rality. ^ * 

% They dare.'] i. e. As often as they have the audacity, ti^c j^ar- 
ihg impudence to declaim or discourse about morals. 

3. Curii.'] Curius Dentatus was thrice consul of Rom^': ^e was 
remarkable for his courage, honesty, and frugality. " > 

Live (like) Bacchanals.'] Their conduct is quite o^osite to 

their profession ; for while they make an outward shew Qf.Tjrtue 
and sobriety, as if they were so many Curii, they, in truth^ a^ict 
themsehes to those debaucheries and impurities, with wbi^h.the 
feasts of Bacchus were cdebrated. These were called Baccliaii^a. 
See them described, Li v. xxxix. 8. 

Bacchanalia stands here for Bacchanaliter. Gr9>ci$m.---rT%^se are 
frequently found in Juvenal and Persius. . ^ . 1 .* .1"^ 

4. Unlearned.] Their pretences to learning are ^^T^n Jmli elipty , 
as to yirtue and morality . ' 

Digitized by 




pmpng then^y w among others^ and^ more parfiadarfy^ terfain 
T.. unnatural vtces^ he wtputes to the atheism^ and infideUig^ zdiich 
V then pr^a^M among all ranks. 

1 COULD wish to fly heiicei beyond the Saiiromatse^ and the ' 

^ icy - ' . ^ 

Ocean; as often as they dare any thing concerning nioralsi 

.Who feign (themselves) Curii, and hve (like) Bacchanals. 

First they are unlearned : tho' all things full with plaster 

Of Chrysippos you may find ; for the most perfect of these is^ 5 

If any one buys Aristotle hke, or Pittacus, 

And commands a book-case to keep original images of Cleanth&t. 

4-T-5. Blaster of Chrysippus.'\ Gypsum signifies any kind of par*. 
get or plaster (something, perhaps, like our plaster of Paris) of 
which images, busts, and JQkenesses of the philosophers were VGiade, 
and set up, out of a reneration to their memories, as ornaments, in 
the libraries and studies of the learned : in imitation of whom^ these 
ignorant pretenders to learning and philosophy set up the busts and 
images of Chrysippus, Aristotle, &c. that they might be supposed 
admireirs and followers of those great men. 

Omnia plena — denotes the affectation of these people, in sticking 
up these images, as it were, in every corner of their houses. Chry. 
sippus was a stoic philosopher, scholar to Zeno, and a great logician. 

5. The most perfect of these.'\ If any one buys the likeness of 
Aristotle, &c. he is ranked in the highest and most respected class 
among these people. 

6. Aristotle likej\ An. image resembling or like Aristotle, who 
was the scholar of Flato, and the father of the sect called Peripate* 
tics, from «ref iT«TE&;, circumambulo — because they disputed walking 
abont the school. 

^^^^PtitacusJ] A philosopher of Mytelene. He was reckoned 
otte of the seven wise men of Greece- 

7. Original imagesr\ Those which wejre done from the life 
were call^ archetypi : from the Greek afy^n — ^beginning, and tvwo? 
—form. Hence af;cETi;9ro», tat archetypus, any thing at first 
band, that is, done originally. , 

— -^ CleanthesJ\ A stoic philosopher^ successor to Ze;io the 

founder of the sect. ^ 

D 3 

Digitized by 


38 JUVENAL IS SATIRuE. sat/i*. 

I^ihti M>l4 ^deft 3 quis eoim nou vkus abundat . 

Tristibu^ obscoenis i* casiigas turpia, cum sis 

Inter Socraticos^ uotisbima fossa ciuaedo^ ? \¥^ 

Hispida membra quidem, et dursi per brachia setae 

Promittuat atrocem aoMiium : «ed podice laevi 

Caeduotur tiimidse, medico xideiite, mariscae. 
(Ilarus se^mo Ulis, et magna bbido tacendi,) . 

Atque supercilk) brevior cotjia ; verius ergo, t5 

£t niagis ingenue Peribanius :\ bunc ego fatis , 

)Imputo, qui vultu raorbura, inces^uque feteturl 

IHorum simplicitas miserabilis, bis turor ipse 
Dat veiiiansi: sed pejores, qui talia verbis 

Herculis invadunt^t de virtuie locuti , « .^ 

4|plunem agitant :| ego te ceventem, Sexte, verebor, ^ p 

8. No credit y Sfc.'] There is no trusting to outwwd apjpear- 

9. With grave obscenes.l L e. Hypocrites of a sad countenance: 
graTe'ahd severe as to their outward aspect, within full of the most 
%dri^ lewdness and obscenities, which they practise in secret. 

The poet uses the word obsccenis substantively, by which he marks 
ihtsin'tliB mote strongly. 

Dost thou reprove^ ^c] Dost thou censure such filthy things 

(turi^ia) in btfcers, who art thyself nothing but obscenity ? 

The poet Here by an apolstfopbe, as turning the disconrfie to 
some particular person, rqiroves all such. Like St. Paul, Uom. ii. 

\0. Amoiig the, Socraik^ S^cJ] i. e. Among those, who^ though 
iafiUkionsly vicious, yei profess to be followers, and W '.ciders of the 
doctrine and discipline of Socrates, who was the iir&t and great 
teacher of ethics or moral philosophy, 

Bu^'lt is not improbable, that |he poet here glances at the incon- 
imence vdiidi was chained on Socrates himself. See Fakn^bt, n. 
on this line ; and Lei^ano on Christian Rqv. vol. ii. p. 133^ 4 y and 
HoT^tnAY, fiote c. 

1% I wonld here, once for all, advertise the rieadcr, that, in 
^his, and in all other passages, which, Ukis this, must ap|H«u^ fiifhy 
ttnd odbasive'in a literal translatioi^ I shall only give a gcnei;^! 

15. And hair shorter than^ the e^J>rewS\ te. Gut so short as 
not to reach so low as the eye«^bpow« This was done to avoid the 
suspicion of being what th«y were, for wearing Ipng.v hair was 
looked upon as a Shre^vd .sign, of effeminacy. It; was a proverb 
amOnj^ thtfe^ Gte€>ks, that *' none who wore long hair were free 
*< from the 'tthnatural vlees «f the Ci^aedi." ]Viay not St. 
lude to this, 1 Gor/kt.^ 14. whiere !^i« may m^xx an infused habrt 
Of 'cuiftdm. See- WitsiaEiN; ia lo6« and. PAai^piDEST, Gr. and Kiig. 
Lexicon, ^tjnj, No. III. 

J 6. r^ribomus.'] Some horrid character, who made no secret of 

Digitized by 



"~ "■ ' "-'■ • '- -' ■ '- " ^ -/ . . . . t>'' 

No credit to the countenance : for what street does not abound 

With grave obafeeiies>d6Ps% tfeo« «e|M»fa;.baa^/(«^ 
,,, thou art ^■'. -.• - f i,--..." .:.- . : . .... . -■ 

' A most noted practitioneramong^lhe&Kiaitic jcttSMpoik^ 10 

Rough limbs indeed, said haitibriftks on ttie iiunii^^ . ^ ^ f 
Promise a fierce mind r but evident effects o£ uminliual •{ 

Lewdness expose you to derisiofl and cuMitt«;ipt.. .. 

Taik IS, rare to them, and tlie fancy of keepii^ttilQDqe' great, . 
And hair shorter than the eye-brow : therefore more truly, ^ \o 
And more ingeuuousfy, Peribbuius: him: I to tbe^ fates 
Impute, wlio m countenance and gait confesses hiai disease. 
The simplicity of these is pitiable ; these madness iiseif 
l^xcustts : buc Avorse are they who such things with words 
Of Hercules attack, who talk of virtue, and indulge 20 

I'hemselves ni horrid vice. ShuiU I fear tli^/ SeJitus^ 

fits imj^nrrtirs, and, in 4I»fs^ acted more ingenuously, and jnoreac* 
cording to truth, than these prct(»Tided philosophers did. 
, " 1 fe. Impiiiehim.'^ Ascribe aU his vile actions. 

'' "' ■ ; To the fdie.ff.'] To his clestiity, so that he can't help befa^ 
what he is. The ilndetits had high- notions of judicial astrology^ 
and held that persons were 4nflutuiced all their liires by the stars 
which presided at their birth, so as to guide and fix their destijiy 
«ver aFti^r. ••,-., 

17. His dipea^e,'] His besetting sin, (Comp. sat. it. I. 49. n.) or 
father, perhaps, a ccrtaih disease which was the consequence of his 
iui purifies, a hd which affected his countenance and his gait, so as to 
procJaim his shame to every body he met. What this disease 
was, initty appear from lines 1^, 13, of this. Satire, 'as it stands iq the 

, original. Perhaps Rom. i. 27, latter part, may allude to somcthiag 
of this sort. 

18. The simplicify of theHi] The undisguised and open raauAer 
of such pi<0ple, who thus procUira tlieir vice, is raiher pitiable^as it 
may be recrVotied a misfortune, rather |||ian any>$hing elise^.to be 

''borh'wfth such a propensity; See notes on L 16. \ 

•; — -^Th^se miidvess iUelj) ^c] Their ungovernable madness in.tie 
"service of their vices, tht^r inordinate passion, stands as some excuse 
; for tSelr ; practices, at least comparatively with those who affect to 
coni^mn such characters ^s Peribonius, and yet do the. same that be 
' , '20, Of Hercuies.J This idludes to the story of Heircnles, who, 
wkeii he was a youth, uncertain in whieh way he should go, whe- 
tW'ln the paths of Tirtue, or in those^of pieasur^jkjirj|s\ 
.'s^'^n apparition of two women^ thei,one Vtr^iiO) the other Pleasure, 
.c^ch i>f which used many irgume»ts to. .gain him—- but h,e made 
choice of Virtue^ and r^^ptdsed' the <Hher ;i^i|hr;th^ s^erest. re- 
proaches. SkXEif. Memor.anddc. de OjRc# lib. i, , , 

21. Scxtus.'] Senie 4iifam6us charaetex? o£ ihc. kind ahOxXe men- 
tioned. .: >"-' . • .. 

Digitized by 


» JUTBNAtU SAZntm m 

JnfemisVarillusait? quo d^teriort^? • . / ;« -'^.m ? :V: 

ILoripedem rectus derideat, ^thiopem albus4 ■ • - 

Quk tulerit Gracchos de seditione querentes? ^ . 1 

Qiiis ccelum terris noa misceat, et mare ceela^ j3i 

Si fur displiceat Verriy aut homicida Miloni ? . ( ' V 

Clodius acx^uset moechos, Catilina Cethegum f . ^ ^ 

In tabulam Syllae si dicant discipuli tres ? .1 

Qualis erat nuper tragico poilutus adulter • ' 1 1 

Concubitu : qui tunc leges revocabat amaras .SO 

Omnibus^ atque ipsis Veneri Martique timendas: . ;, E 
Cum tot abortivis faecundam Julia vulvam 
Solveret, et patruo similes efFuuderet offas. 
Nonne igitur jure, ac merito, vitia ultima fictos 

• • i. 

22. VariUw.'] Another of the sam6 stamp. The poet here snp- 
poses one of these wretches as grayely and severely reproaching the 
pther. What! says Varillus, in answer, need I fear any t^i^gyw 
can say ? in what can you make me out to be worse, tban year* 
self? ^:. / 

23. Lei the strati^ Sfc.'] These prorerbial expression^ njean to 
expose the folly and impudence of such, who censure others fpr vk^ 
which they themselFcs practise. See Matt vii. 3"d* vHor. sati Tii. 

, lib. Uvl. 40^2. : 

Thjis sentiment is pursued and exemplified in the instances' fpllpvr* 
. Jng. ; ...... 

24. The Gracchi.'} Cains and Tiberius, tribunes, who i^abf^i 
great disturbances, on their introducing the Agrarian law^ to. divide 
the common fields equally among the people. At length tliey were 
both slain : Tiberius, as he was making a speech to the people, by 
Publius Nasica ; and Caius, by the command of the consul Op^mius. 

25 Mix heaven with earth.'] i. e. £xclaim in the loudcs^ and 
strongest terms, like him in Terence. * 

O cqelum ! O terra ! O maria Ncptuni 1 

25. Ferres.} Praetor i#Cfei!y, who was condemned and banished 
for plondering that proTjnce. 

Milo."] He killed P. Clodius, and was nnsuccessfulJy defended 


27. Ciodim.'] A great enemy to Cicero, and the chief p!x)moter 
<^ his banishment This Qodins was a most debauched and ^proiii. 
gate person. He debauched Pompeia the wife of CaesaV, and like- 
wise his o#n sister. Soon after Cicero's return, Qbdius was slain 
by Milo, and his body burnt in the Curia Hostilia. 

— ^^ — CatiUne CetMgus.'] i. e. If Cataline were to fitcCuse Cethe- 
gus. These were two famous conspirators against the state. Sea 
SALLtrsr, bell. Catilin. ^ 

29. Tke table cf Si/Ua.'] Sylta "was a noble Roman of the family 
6f the Sdpi6s. He w6t >cry cru^l, and first set up tables of pro- 
• sct$f>ti<^n, %r. on tkiwf^^ hy in^hi^h many thousand Rolhainr if^ferd ■ put 
to death in cold blood. 

Digitized by 


Says infamous VarilluSy by teW'iQlieh' (^idi'l) #onii6'Misai^^^ 
art? ?.-■•': •' "^ •; * -r r - - " ^ - . ■: :. 

Let the strait deride the ban^y^t^ged^^-^e white ^e .SdiiopiaW: 
Who could have honie'the Oi-accbi ceiaij^ainii^ labout «editieDf 
Who would not mix.heaven with earthy and the sea with heave^^ 
If a thief should cBspkase Verres^ or aa homtoide Mile I '\%S 
If Clodius should accuse adulterers, Catiline Cediegiis ? : - 
If three disc^les should s{ieak against the table of SjUa ? ' ; 
SUch was the adulterer lately polluted witli a tn^cal 
Intrigue : who then was recalling laws, bitter 30 

To sdl, and even to be dreaded by Mars and Veitos themselves^: 
When Julia her firuitftil womb from so many abortives 
Released, and poured forth lumps resembling her uncle. 
Do not therefore, justly and deservedly, the most vicious 

W. Three ij^iples.'] There were two triumyirates^ the one coii- 
slstiHg of Ca^ar, Pompey, and Crassus, the other of Augustus, An. 
tony, and Lepidus^ who followed Syila's example, and therefore aire 
called disciples, t. e. in cruelty, bloodshed, and murder. 

!^. 7%e aduHerer.l Domitian. He took away Domltia Longina 
from her husband MWm Lamia. 

29 — 90. A tragical intrigueJ] He debauched Julia, the daughter' of 
his brother Titus, though married to iSabinus. After the death of 
Titos, and of Sabinus, whom Domitian caused to be assassinated, he 
openly avowed his passion for Julia, but was the death of her, by 
gffing her medicines to make her miscarry. See below, 1. 32, 3. 

SO. Hecalling laws."] At the very time when Domitian had this 
trtigical tntngue with his niece Julia, he was reriving the severe 
laws o/ Julius Cesar against adultery, which were^ afterwards m^e 
iB<i^ttB severe by Augustus. 

30Li;.l.. BUter to all.'] Severe and rigid to the last degree. Many 
persons, of both sexes, Domitian put to death for adultery. See 
Univ. Hist. vol. xv» p.. 52. 

,31. Mars mid Venus."] They were caught together by Valcan, 

the fabled husband of Venus, by means of a net with which h^in- 

.plfNBQ^ them* Juvenal means, by this, to satirize theaeal of Do. 

roitian against adultery in others, (while he indulged, not only this, 

:^ib^^H)<^est also in his own practice,) by saying,, that it was so great, 

. :4l¥Nt he.would not only punish men, but gods also, if it came i|i- his 

; . ^%K Jbort^s.], Embryos, of which Julia was made to mis* 

. . v;- SS^r.iCfmm^.] Offas, himps of flesh, crude births, deformed, and 
t. 4o rettnnbliflg h€«:: vnde I)omitian, the incestuous father of thenu 
34. Justly and deservedly J] VVith the highest reason and jus4ce. 
, ,^^..,^^Tkev^strV^eh^§•^ Ultima vida« /. 9. ultiini vitiosi, ti^ most 
>%bandVi|i^ ^fhoaretf ith^ utmost. d^n^vic|ous,jojiJuM^ the3rmay 
,,BetQrm«4 tbeoispIv^s^viQes* . The absU^aotjs^^re put.for ^he^n* 
Crete. Met. •'.-■- :-..-. -' i, .h -- 

Digitized by 


Nofi tulit ex iliis toirvum ]««aconia quendam • .vv , ;. ^ 

Claman^m tplies, ubi nuiic lex Ji^U^r, doniMS ? . . ^ r- r'J^ 
Atque ita subrideiis : feiicia tenipora ! qiv£ te ^t, 

Mmibtts opponunt : hakeat jam tloma pudorepi ; , .,^\ ^..,%^ 
ITertius e caalo c^^idftl Cuto^ &e4 tameu imle , .. >45 

H'<ec eiiu9> Inrsuto spirant op^ibaisania colto ; ;^' . t\ * 

Qu« tibi? uc pudeitl d<^iU4i& monstrace taben^,: . (j - 
Quod si yexautur leg€V'«<*, JMra>.citari v - ?. - - • 

35. Desphe,'] Hold them in the most sovereign contempt, for 
tlieir imj)«dence in daring to reprove others for being vicious, 

" -T— The feigned ScaunJ] xEmilias Scaurak, as 4escribe(i by Sal* 
lust, bell. Jiigurth. was ia nobleman, bold, fectjions'^ greedy bf'pfijwcri 
honour, and riches, but very artful in disguising* his vifees. , Jntenil 
therefore may be supposed to call these hypocrites ftctos, as fining 
to be what they were not — Scauros, a* beiffg like iEvSciift-ft^j Ji]>i 
jpcaring outvvardly grave and severe, but artfully, likehjuij Cortccak 
jng their vices. . ' ' . / . ;^/T: 

However, I question whether the character of Scaurus be not if& 
ther to be gathered from his being found among so many truly great 
and worthy men— Sat. xi. 1. 90, 1. Pliny also represents Itim-^ 
a man summae integritatis, of the highest integrity. This Idea serjus 
. to suit best with fictos Scauros, as it leads us to consider these bjfpo- 
icrites as feigning themselves men of integrity and. goodness, aiia as 
seeming to resemble the probity and severity of/ manners for wtiich 
Scaurus was eminent, the better to conceal their viccS, and to deceive 
other people. / " 

And being reproved^ bite again, "] ^Vic\k liypocrUes are not 

only despised by the most openly vicious for their insincerity j'bai 
whenever they have the impudence to reprove yice,'erewiri the most 
abandoned, these will turn again and retaliate r wMcB is well ex- 
pressed by the word, rem ordent. ' r ' 

36. Larofiia.l Martial, cotemporary with Juvenal, descritfes 'i 
woman of this name as a rich widow. . ' '- . *^ 

Abnegxit et retinel nosmim Larooia servuQij , . . , .... 

llei^pondens, orba est, dives, anus, vitjua. ' -• '^ , 

By what Juvenal represents her to have $9»d, ia th^.foll^iring Un^ 
she seems to have had n^ small share of wit. r. i^iu. 

Did not endure, "j She could not bear him ; she lyas: pi^ of 

all patience. •.,..., ..^^, 

Sour."] Crabbed, stern in his appearance.. Or ;torvuwj ujjUf 

he here put for the adverb torve — torve clamanlem. ^^Gra2f.]lim. 
See above, 1. 3, and note. « 

From among them.'] i* c. One of these dissemblcr&r-p^§ 

out of this hypocritical herd. - ', 

37. Crying out no oftenJ] Repeating aloud his seeming indigrva. 
iioiu agamst vice, and calling down the veugt^ance of the law agaiu&t^ 
If^wducsb and elieminacy. 

Digitized by 


Despise the feigned-^blar^, iit^b^^ r^pfdvedj hitH rtgftiif ? 35 
liaioma did hot endure^ H' ic^t^h sbw one frortydmong them 
Crying out so oftett,-" Wbira?e is^rto\^ the » Julian law? dbst thoti 

"sleep?* •'-' ^>.-^*jrf.,: : r " • ^ . ., ■ , , .-_ 

And thus smiliiig : « H*ppy tirtes ! 'whidi thee 
**" Oppose to maiifners i cow Konie iiiay- tftbe ^ame: ' ■"- 

*' A third Cato is fa)le£i iitam heaviBii:^*-^but yet whence 40 
" Do you buy^ these perfunaes whieh breathe from yoiii- rough 
** Neck ? don't he ashamed t6 declare tbeomsler ot' the «bopr 
** But if the statutes aiad lawsi are disturbed^ the Scautinian 
' * <'^. "~ ''. ^ -■•-•• • 

! ^^7,^ Wheireis the Julian taia f] Against adultery and lewdness-^ 
p^^r 30, note) vrhy Is it not executed ?-- As it then stood, it pun- 
l§ti^ aduUfery and sodoray with death. 

iy^^ f)jost thou jf24^ep PJ Art thou as regardless of these enormi- 
t}^, as3 person fast a»lecp is of what passes about hhn ? 

.Z% Aiidthus smiling.'] Laroiiia could not refrain herself at hear- 
ing this, and, \vith a siniie of the utmost contempt, ready almost at 
ikn §af0Bftmei to laugh iu his face, thus jeers him. 
:c "•^r^Ii^^pp^ timpa I H^c,"] That have raised up such a jeforraer as 
t^ to oppose the e?il manners of the age ! 
, .^9^^^JyQW Home mr^ take Ahum e.^ Now, to be sure, Rome will 
il^ish, and. take shaiiie to herself, for what is practised within her 
waBs> since such a reprOTer appears. Irony. 

40. A third Cato.] Cato Censorius, as he was called, from bis 
great gravity. and strictness in his censorship ; and Cato Uticensis, 
«o called from his killing himself at XJtica, a city of Africa, were 
men highly esteemed as eminent moralists ; to these, says Laronia, 
(continuing her ironical Jbanter,) heaven has added a third Cato, by 
if^nding us so jsevcrc and respectable a moralist as thou art. 
. 41. perfumes.^ 0pobalsama-r-9?n>? fiaXa-xfAH — i. e. Succus balsa- 
mi. This was some kind of perfumery, which the effeminate among 
the Romans made use of, and of which, it seems, this same rough- 
looking reprover smelt very strongly. 

41 — 2. Your rough neck.] Hairy, and bearing the appearance of a 
most philosophic neglect of your person. 

42. Don't be ashamed^ ^c] Don't blush to tell us where the . 
perfuraei^ htes, of whom yon bought these fine swect-smelhng oint. 

Here her raillery is very keen, and tends to shew what this pre- 
tended reformer really was, notwithstanding his appearance of 
sanctity. She may be said — to have smelt him oiit. 

4^^Siaiu{^ and lavas are disturbed.] From that state of sleep in 
which you seem to represent them, and from which you wish to 
awaken thei)^. The Roman jurisprudence seems to have been founded 
on a threefold basis, on which the general law, hy which the go*. 
yemmentVas carried en, was cstablisIicd-^thaHs to say— ^Consulta 
patrum, or decrees of the senate — Loges, which seen* to ansiver to 
our statute-laws — and jura, tliose rules of cotnmoa justice, which 

Digitized by 



Ante omnes debet Scantinia ; respice primum 

Et scrutare viros :} faciunt hi plura ; sed illos f 45 

[Defendit numerusijiinctaBque umbone phalanges. 
fMagna inter molles copcordia|: |non erit ullum 

Exemplum in nostra tam detestabile sexu :( 

Taedia non lambit Cluviam, nee Flora CatuUam : 

Hippo subit juvenes, et morbo pallet utroque. 50 

f Nunquid nos agimus causas ? civilia jura 

Novimus ? aut ullo strepitu fora vestra movemus ? 

Luctantur paucae, comedunt coliphia paucae : | 

Vos lanani trahitis, calathisque peracta refertis 

Veilera : Vos tenui praegnantem stamine fusum 54 

Peuelope melius, levius torquetis Arachne, 

Horrida quale facit residehs in codice pellex. 

were derived from the two former, but particularly fiwn the latter 
of the two, or, perhaps, from immemorial usage and custom, like 
the common law of England. Hor. lib. i. epist. xvi. 1. 41,. gentians 
these three particulars : 

I Vif bonus est quis ? g 

Qui consulta patrum, qui leges, juraque servat.| 

See an account of the Roman laws at large^ in Kennetf s Roman 
Antiq. part ii. book iii. chap. xxi. and seq. - 

43. The ScarUinian.'] So called from Scantlnlus Ariclnus, by 
whom it was first introduced to punish sodomy. Others think that 
this law was so called from C. Scantlnlus, who attempted this crime 
on the son of Marcellus, and was punished accordingly. 

45. Examine the men.'] Search digilently scrutinize into their 


■ " ' These do more things.'] They far outdo the other sex ; they 
do more things worthy of severe reprehension. 

46. Number defends.] This tends to shew how common that dc 
testable vice was. (Comp. Rom. j. 27.) Such numbers were guilty 
of it, that it was looked upon rather as fashionable than criminal ; 
they seemed to set the law at defiance, as not daring to attack so 
iarge a body. 

Battalions joined, Sfc] A metaphor taken from the Roman 

manner of engaging. A phalanx properly signified a disposition for 
an attack on the enemy by the foot, with every man's shield or 
buckler so close to another's, as to join them together and make a 
sort of impenetrable wall or rampart. This is said to have been 
first invented by the Macedonians ; phalanx is therefore to be c<m« 
sidered as a Macedonian word. 

47. There is great concord, Sfc] They are very fond of each 
other, and strongly connected and united, so that, attacking t>nc, 
would be Tike attacking all. 

49. Ttedia — Flora, Sfc] Famous Roman courtezans in Juvenal's 
time — bad as they were, the men were Worse. 

Digitized by 


" Ought before # to her kirnedh^ Conner iitst^ a 

?^And examine the tfifeft V theae^ more things — but them 45 
** Number defends, soad battalions joined with a buckler. 
<' There is great concord among the effeminate : there yfSl Mt 

" be any 
*^ Example so detestable in our sex ; 
"**- Traedia caresses not Cluvia, nor Flora CatuUa : 
*^ Hippo assails youths, and in his turn is assailed. 50 

** Do we plead causes ? the civil laws [" courts? 

*' Do we know ? or with any noise do we make a stir in your 
*' A few wrestle, a few eat wrestlers diet : 
^^ You card woqI, tmd carry back in fiill baskets your finished 
'* Fleeces ; you the spindle, big with slender thread, 55 

** Better than Penelope do twist, and finer than Acachne^ 
" As does a dirty harlot sitting on a log. 

-'\'5i. "Def wepiead^ 4rc.] Do we women usurp the proTince of the 
'txxiaT do W take uponiis those functions. .which belong to them ? 
^- 4B. A few Tcrestie,'] A few women tiiere are, who are of such a 
masculine turn of mind, as to wrestle in public. See sat. i. S2^ 3^ 
and notes ; and Sat. yi. 245-«^57, and notes. 

— Wrestler^ s dief] Prepare themselres for wrestling as the 
/r?5^®?*^9 by feeding on the coliphium — a x«^a »^4a, membra ro- 
busta — a kind of dry diet which wrestlers used, to make tlieni 
..strong aodfirm-fieshed. See Ainsw. 

^^'54^ You card wooL] You, effeminate wretches, for«ake manly 
exerqises, and addict yourselres to employments which are peculiar 
to women. 
.;..., « 'v jfa baskets.^ The calathi were little osier or wicker baskets^ 
in which the women put their work when they had finished it, in or« 
d^ to,^;arry it back to their employers. 

5(6. Penelope.'l Wife of JJlysses, who during her husband's ab- 

r^^^ waa importuned by many noble suitors^ whose addresses she 

..jii^^cd. with .inviolable constancy: but, fearing they might take her 

'hy.}fQTcey,fike amused them, by desiring them to wait, till she had 

^.^i^ed a web which she was then about : and to make the time as long 

as possible, she undid during the night what she had done in the day. 

r^rn'TT"^^^*^*'*^] -^ Lydian damsel, yery skilful in spinning and 

n^W^xlvg* She is fabled to have contended with Minenra, and, 

.^b^^g; outdone, she hanged herself, and was by that goddess chaqged 

. 11^41 «pider» Or. Met. lib. ti. fab. i. 

&y mentioning these instances, Laronia ironically commends the 
gseat proficiency of the men in carding and spinning: both these 
operations seem to be distinctly marked hj the poet. 
. 57. id dirfy harlot,^ Pellex properly denotes the mistress of a 
married ipau^ This^ and the GredL v»xx<»u$, seem derbed from 
Heb. w^ti pilgesh, which we render — concubine. 

Codex-- from caudex — ^literally signifies a stump or stock of a tree 
—of a large piece of whiph a tog was cvl\ out, and made an instrtt«> 

Digitized by 


4t Jt^^VSlTALlS fi^tlR^ Ur.^k 

Notum estcursoio tabttii^'fm^evefritiHislar • ' 
Liberto ; dederit tivus cur multa piiellae : H. 

Dives erity magno quse domst tenia iecto. ^* 

Tu nube, atque tace : donaut arcana cylindroa. 1 

De nobis post liaec tristis seiitentia iertur : 
Dat veuiam corviS) vexat cen.sura colinnbas. 
Fugeruut trepidi vera ac msnifesta caiientem i i 

Stoicidas; quid eniih falsi Laronia? tSed quid ^l 

Non facient alii, cum tu muitii^i^ sumas, 
Cretice, et lianc vestem populo niirante pemres 

ment of punishment for female slaves, who were chained to it on 
any misbehaviour towards their mistresses, but especially where there 
was jealousy jn the case ; atld there they were to sit and work^llt 
spimiing or the like. : >». : .. . * 

58. liu'ter.'] Some infamous character, here introduced by;Xaf »r u 
nia in order to illustrate her argument. 

"^■^ Filled his zcilLJi Tabula signifies any plate or thin taftateHal 
oa which they wrote— hence deeds, wills, and other writtexi. insira* 
Aicnts, were called tabulae. So public edicts. See before,' I. 28^ 

b^-^9. With only his freedman,'] Left him his sole heir. 

5(9. fVhy alive ^ S^c,'}^ Why in his Ufe^time he was so very gemsr*. 
ous, and made such numbers of. presents to his wife, here calietl 
puellac, as being a very young girl when he married her : but f 
should rather think, that the arch Laronia has a more severe glean- 
ing in her use of the term puellae, by which she would intimate,; thai •. 
his young wife, having been totally neglected by him^ remained atill 
— puella, a maiden ; Ulster having no desire towards any thing, bat 
wha;t was unnatural with his favourite freedman. ' 

It is evident that the poet uses puella in this sense, sat* ix* I. 74'r 
See note on sat. ix. 1. 70. 

60. She mU be richy Sfc."] By reqeiring (as Hister's wife did)" 
]arg£ sums for hush-money. 

> Who sleeps thirds Sfc»~\ By this she would insinuatey that 
Hister caused. his freedman, whom he afterwards made his heir, to* 
. lia in the bed with him and his wife, and gave his wife large presents 
of money, jewels, &c. not to betray his abominable practices. 

6 1^ Do thou marry, ^ This apostrophe may be supposed to be ^9d^ 
dressed to the unmarried woman, who might be stan<Kng by, and> . 
listening to Laronia's severe reproof of the husbands of tlMtt day^ 
and contains a sarcasm of the most bitter kind. 

As if she had said : ^' You hear what you are to expect ; such of 
<^ you as wish to be rich, I advise to marry, and keep their hui^utftds^ 
<< secrets." 

Secrets bestovB gems, "] Cylindros-— these were precious stones^ 

of an oblong and round form, which the* women used to hang in 
their ears. Here they seem to signify aH^ toanner of gems. 

62. After all tkisJ] After all I have been saying of the men, I 
■can't h<^lp observing bow hardly we womea are us€4» 

Digitized by 




! " It IS kiiown'::wbjr. Hfater filled his ^31 with only , ' 

" His freedman ; why aUve he ^ve xnuch to a weiuJi : . 

'tj'She will be rich, M'ho sieeps third, in a large bed* . iSO 

I " Do thou niarryy and hush — secret^ bestow gems^ 
I *' After all this, a heavy senteoce is passed against us : 

" Censure excuses rav^is^,' and vexes doves." . . 

Her, prociaimh^ thiugs Xme and m^fest^ trembling fled 

The Stoicides — For what falsehood had Larouia [uttered] ? But 
what 63 

Will not others do, when thou assumest transparent garmenia, 

O Creticus, and (the people wond nng at this apparel) thou de- 

'82» A hetitn/ ientence^ ^c] Where wc are concerned no mercj 
is to be shewn to us; the heaviest sentence of \ihe laws is called 
dowft dpon us, and ks utmost vengeance is prascribed against us. 

63. Cenmre excuses ravens ^ SfcJ] Larouia ends her speech with a 
proverbial saying, which is much to her purpose. 

Censura here means punishment. — The men, who, like ravens 
and other birds of prey, are so mischievous, are yd excused ; but, 
alas 1 when we poor women, who are, comparatively, harmless as 
dores, vrfaea we^ through simplicity and weakness, go astray, we 
hear of nothing but punishment. 

64. '^ef, proclaimings 4'c.] We have here the effect of Laronia'j 
speech upon her guilty hearers — their consciences were alarmed, and 
away they (lew, they could not stand any longer : they know what 
»he said to be true^ and not a tittle of it could be denied : so the 
faster ihcy conid make their escape, the better : like those severe 
hypocrites we read €(f^ John viii. 7 — 9. Caho signifies, as used here, 
io report, to proclaim aloud. 

65. The SioiddesJ] Stoicidae. — This word seems to have been 
framed on the occasion, with a feminine ending^ Utie better to suit 
their characters, and to intimate the monstrous effeminacy of these 
•pFet««d«d Stoics. Th& Stoics were called Stoici, from roiaj, a porch 
iH Athens, where they used to meet and dispute. They highly cota.^ 
meadcd apathy, or freedom from all passions. 

Juvenal, having severely lashed the Stoicides, or pretended Stoics, 
now proceeds to attack, in the person of Metellus Creticus, the ef. 
feimnacy of certain magistrates, who appeared, even in the seat, of 
JHsUee, attired in a most unbecoming and indecent manner, and. such 
as bespalce them in the high road to the most horrid impurities. 

6«. Will not others do^ 4*c0 ?• ^- I^ 1* ^^ marvel that, we find 
nee trismphant ^ver people tha^ move in a ksa conspicuous sphere 
of life, when pli^Jn and apparent symptoms of it are seen in those 
vho fill the seats of : justice, and are actually exhibited by them, be- 
fore thi&i^nbHc eye, in'open ts^rt. ' 

67. O Creticus,'] Thfei. magistrate was descended from the family 
^f that Mc^jllus, who nvas called • Creticus, from his conquest of 
Crete. JuTenal, most profeattiy, addre^^^s Metellus by this surname 

Digitized by 



In Proculas, et PoUineas? est locecha FabuHa: 
Damnetur si vis, etiam Cariinia : talem 

-Kon siua^t damoata togam. Sed Julius ardet, JO 

^H^^Q : .liudu^ agas ; minus est iipsania turpis. ^ 

£n habitum, quo te leges, ac jura ferentem 
Vulneribus crudis pc^ulus modo victor, et iUud ' 

Mbntanum positis audiret vulgus ar'ktris. 

Quid non proclames^ in corpore Judicis ista 75 

^i yideas ? quaero an deceaiit multicia testem ? 
. Acer^ et indomitus, libertatisque magister,. 
Cr^tice peUuce? 1 Dedit banc coutagio labem, 
Et dabit in plures : sicut grex totu? in agris 

of his gi^tti ancedtoT^ the more to expose and shame him, for acting^ 
- 90 QQWortby his descent from so brave and noble a person. 
^ . S6* 'Transparent garments.'] Multicia, quasi multilicia, ei vamj 
4]ireads. , These were so finely and curiously wrought, that the body 
. xnjight: be seen through them. 

.' '-T— TApif .fifocfaijwe*^] Fassest sentence in the most aggravated 
«,|pinis--^perores. The end of a speech, in which the orator col. 
, lected aU his force and eloquence, was called the peroration : but 
^"the verbis usjed in a larger sense, and signifies to declaim and make 
an harangue against any person or thing. 

^ r . 59, . l^QcukB. and FollinewJ] Names of particular women, who 
./W^FQ CQudemiied, on the Julian law, for incontinence, but, so fa- 
^. n^qifs, in^thdur way, as to stand here for lewd iromen in general. 

He could condemn such in the severest manner, when before him 
^in judgpieat, while he, by his immodest dress, shewed himself to be 
jiTocse: tjian they were* 

eoTcSS'J '^*'*°"'""'^°""'*^''- 

" „ Tvfi?r*-70» Such a gownj Sfc] Bad as such women may be, and even 
convicted of incontinence, yet they would not appear ia sueh a 
dress, as is worn by you who condemn them. 

Or p^haps this alludes to the custom of obliging women con- 

.. vioted of adultery, to pull off the stola, or woman's garment, .-and 

I put on the to^, or man's garment, which stigmatized them as infa- 

. BiQUS ; but even this was not so infamous as the transparent dress of 

jthe judge. Horace calls a common prostitute — ^togata. Sat. ii. lib. u 

1. 63. 

■ Bui Julif bumsj Sfe.] He endeavours at an excuse, from the 
heat of the weather, for being thus clad. 

71. Do your busjnMSs, Sfc] As a judge. Ag^re lefem-*4lome- 
tiraes agnlfies: to execute the sentence ol the law against ^malefftc- 
tors.. See AiN8w>ri-^Ago. 

— ilfew/?iew £r kss shamefuL'] Were you to sit ion the bench 
naked, you mightibe ihonght Jinad,- bat this would not be so shame- 
ful; madness nighlvbe^WDkne cKCu^c^ , 
}, . 72. 'i»9 the haifify SfOi] This, and- the. ^r^ folloinng lines. 

Digitized by 


Against the Proet^W and fitSfittei^P Fabulk i5r'ati adiiher^ss : ^ 
Let Cai'finia too be condemned if you please : such 
A gown, condemitedV she^l not {lut on. ** But July bni^^s^— 76 
*' Vm very hot"" — do }X>ur business naked: madness is le$s 

Lo the habit! in which, thee promulgating statutes and laws. 
The people (with crude wounds just now victorious, 
And that mountain-vulgar with ploughs laid by) might hear: 
What would you not proclaim, if, on the body of a judge^ thoste 

things 75 [witness? 

You should see ? I ask, would transparent garments become a 
Sour and unsubdued, and master of liberty, 
O Creticus, you are transparent ! contagion gave this stain, 
Attd will ^ye it to more : as, in the fields, a whole herd^ 

.«ii{^ose some of the old hardy and hrare Romans^ just come from 
a victory, and covered with fresh wounds (crndis tulneribus) — trough 
tnonntaineers, who had left their ploughs, like Cincinnatus,' to fight 
against the enemies of their country, and on their arrival at Rome^ 
with the ensigns of glorious conquest, finding such an eflemmate 
character upon the bench, bearing the charge of the laws, and bring* 
ing them forth in judgment — which may be the sense of ferentem in 
this place. 

75, What would you not proclaim^ S^c.'] How would you e^- 
dlaim ! What would yon not utter, that could express your indig- 
nation and abhorrence (O ancient and venerable people) of such a. 
silken jqdge! 

76. / ask^ zoouid; Sfc."] q. d* It would be indecent for a private 
person, who onJy attends as a witness, to appear in such a dress- 
how much more for a judge, who sits in an eminent station, in a 
public character, and who is to condemn vice of all kinds. 

. 77. Sour and unsubdued^] O Creticus, who pretendest to sto- 
icism, and appearing morose, severe, and not overcome by your pas- 

■ Maf^ter of liberty, "] By this, and the preceding part of this 
line, it should appear, that this efTominate jn^e was one who pre- 
tended to stoicism, which tanght a great severity of manners, and an 
apathy both of body and mind ; likewise such a liberty of living, as 
they pleased, as to be exempt from the frailties and passions of other 
men. They taught'^-ori ^ow? o av^poi e^s»3tfo$ — that " only a wise 
^^ man wa» free. "-^Hence €ie. Quid est libertas ? potestas vivendi 
ut velis. 

7^ You are iranftparem,'] Your >ody Is 9een thvough your fine 
garments: so that withaU your stmcism, your appearance is that of 
a shameless and most unnatural libertine : a slave to the vilest pas- 
0icaU, 'though pretending to be toaster of your liberty of action^ 

■ -. ■ I Cont^on gave tits «fi2i>.]. Von owe all this to^ the co«« 
pany which you have kept ; by this y<^a have been infected. 

79^ ^dmU give it to more,'] You wiU qprrupt others b/youir 

VOL- I. ' K 

Digitized by 


fjiikiascfibie cadity eft-pori^iBe'ponfi; , . «8C> 

Uvaque ccMupectii livorcaB dneil ab» nva. ..- .^ ^. 

IFoedkm kdc altqnid qmndoiitie wmMns amictu : I 
ll^^emo i^pente fok turpissiimit.l Acicipient te : /^ 

Paulatim, qui longa domi redimicida aumunt 
Frootibus^ €t toto pofii^re monilia coHo^ 86 

Atque jponam teuerae placant abdmnioe porcine, ;% / ' 

£t laagQo cratere Deam : sec^miore simi^tio 
Exagitata procui lion intrat fcemiua liinen. ,. / 

Solis ara Dese maribus patet : ite profaiiafiy 

example, as you were corrupted by the example of those whom yoa 
bare followed. ^ 

The language here is melaphtfrical, taken from distetopered cattle^ 
which communicate infection by herding together. 

80. FaUs by the scab', flfc] Our English proverb says — '* One 
^^ scabby sheep mars the whole flock.*' 

81. A grape^ <Src.] This is also a prorerbial saying, from the 
ripening of the black grape, (as we call it,) which has a blue or livid 
hue; these do not turn to that colour ail at once and together, but 
|;rape after grape, which, the vulgar supposed, was owing to one 
grape's looking upon another, being very near in contact, and so 
Contracting the same colour. They had a proverb-^Uva uvam yi. 
dendo varia fit. 

83. Nobody was on a sudden^ ^c] None ever arrived at the 
highest pitch of wickedness at firsf setting out; the workings of 
evil afe gradual, and almost imperceptible at first; but as the insi. 
nuadons of vice deceive the conscience, they first blind and then 
barden it, until the greatest crimes are committed without remorse. 

I do not recollect where I laet with the underwritten lines ; but 
as they contaiii excdtent advice, tiiey may not be nnuseful iu this 
place : ^f 

Leolinc, be obstinately just, 
Indtilge no passion, and betray no trait; 
• Never let man be bold enough to say, 
Thse, and no farther, let my pas«on stray : 
The first crime past compels us on to more, 
And goUt proves fate, which was but choice before. 

— - They wUi receive^ S^cJ] By degrees you will go On from 6no 
step to another till you are received into the lewd and horrid society 
after mentioned. The poet is now going to expose a set of unnatu* 
ral wretches, who, in inutation of women, celebrated tha rites of 
the Bona Dea. 

84. Who ai home, SfcS] Domi— -that is, secretly, privately^ in 
some house, hired or procured for the purpose of celebrating their 
hoirid rites, in imitation of the women, who yeariy observed the 
rites of the Bona Disa, and celebrated them in the bouse of the b%h 
priest. — Plbt. in vite Cieeronis et CsBsaris. 

If we say— red&Mcnla domi l itecaliy^-^llets of the house— -w^ 
iftray imdentand it io^ metok tbcva flUati which, in imitation of the 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Falls by the scab and ineaite* Qf oise'swinte*: ^ • -'• ? • > ' . :i§6 
And a grape derives a blueness frond »>gf&pcl beh^hieii/ * ^ 
Some time youll venture soniediin^'^i^3frite;tHui<tliu di^sMrr » 7. 
Nobody was on a sudden mdst base* ^ The^ mil receive thee - ' 
By litde and little, wh0 kt home bind longr lUlets on ' ^ . 

liieir for^eads, and have placed ornam^to all over the neck, 85 
And, with the belly of a tiender »ow, ^>pease the good : 
Goddess, and with a large goblet r but, by a perverted cttsfXMn,^ 
Wcwnan, driven far away, does not enter ^e threshold : '' i 

The altar of the goddess is open to males only — " Go ye pro- 
« fene''— 

women, ihef wore around their heads on these occasions, and whith^' 
at other dmes, were hulig up about tiie feouse^ as part df the sacred 

Here is ^ first instance, in which their ornaments and habit^ 
were like those of the women. . '^ 

85. And have placed ornament 9, S^cl Mobilia — necklacesr— eon- 
sisfing of so many rows ^s to cover the whole neck ; these we»e- 
also female ornaments. Thifi is the second instance. Moniie, in its- 
largest sense, implies an ornament for any part of the body. Ai>r9W*^ 
But ils the neck is here mentioned, necklaces are most probably; 
meant ; these were made pf pearls, precious stones, gold, &c. . 

86. The good goddess."] The Bona Dea, worshipped by the wo*, 
men, was a Roman lady, the wife of one Faunus ; she was famous 
for ehastity, and, after her death, consecrated. Sacrifices were pei^.: 
formed to her only by night, and secretly ; they sacrificed to her u 
sow pig. No men were admitted. 

In imitafion of this, these wretches, spoken of by our poet,-thirt : 
they might resemble women as much as possible, instituted rites and 
sacrifiees of the same kind, and performed them in the same secret 
and clandestine manner. 

— -— The belhf, 4'c.] The sumen, or dugs and udder of a young 
sow, was esteemed a great dainty, and seems here meant by abdo- 
mine. Pliny says (xl. 84. edit. Hard.) antiqui sumen Tocabant ab. 
domen. Here It stands for the whole animal (as in sat. xiU 73.) by 

87. ^ large goblet S} Out of which they poured their libations, 
■ \ . > Bi/ a perverted custom*'] More sinistro— by a perverted, 

awkward custom, they exclude all women from their mysteries, as' 
men were excluded from those of thewomen ; by the latter of Which ' 
alone the Bona Dea was to be worshipped, and no men 'were to he 
admitt^. . . ,, ' 

... I ^^^ bopoi tt^uribus aon ajieui^^a Dea^^ , Tib. i. 6» 23. _ 

So Afltfthc proceeding of thwe nifen was*an ntter perver^en of the. . 
feiWle-iife^as dii^rent froM ^ho oHginsil 4inil re(^ ii«^itiitidD, as 
the left hand is from the right, *ftd af edntrary; r , 

«&.:€r^;^ p}-o}b«^.] i*rofan4^-J^mcJa*%1hcwo»nenj.;asif\»theJ^ 

banished -them by ^otem« t>*^^«^*"»**^'-'^***<^*^^" ''^ 

E 2 

Digitized by 


5ft JUVENALIS ^TlRiEL »iT.n. 

Clamatur : nulio gemit ^ic tibicioa cornu. gO 

Talia secretd. coluerunt Orgia taidi 

Cecropiam soliti Baptse lassare Cotytto. 

lUe supercilium madid-Ji fuligine tactum 

Obliqua producit acu^ pingitque irementes 

Attollens oculos ; vitreo bibit ille Priapo, Qd 

Reticulumque comis aunitum iugentiLus impiety 

Coerulea indutt.s srutuhtr., ?.u: galbaiia rasa ; 

Et per Juiv Rcin domini juraixie. miaistro. 

- • I 

ously parodies that passage in Virgil^ relatiye to tlie Sybil — ^n. ▼!• 
258, 9. i 

Prociil, procul, este profani, { 

Conclamat vates, totoque aluistite loco ! ! 

90. IViih no horn here^ ^c] It was usual, at the sacrifices of ! 
the Bona Dea, for some of the women to make a lamentable noise 
(well expressed here by the word gemit) with a horn. The maJe 
worshippers had no women among them for this purpose* Nullo 
tibicina cornu, for nulla tibicina cornu. Hypallage. 

91. Such orgies.'] Orgia — so called uvo m? Ofyw^, from the furious 
behaYiour of the priests of Bacchus, and others by whom they 
were celebrated — ^but the part of the orgies here alluded to, was 
that wherein all manner of lewdness, even of the most unnatural 
l^ind, was committed by priTate torch.light--*Ta&da secreta. Coloe- 
runt — they practised, celebrated, solemnized. 

92. The Bapta.'} Priests of Cotytto at Athens, called Bapt«, 
because, after the horrid impurities which they had been gnilty of, 
in honour of their goddess, ^y thought themselves entirely purified 
by dipping themselves in water. 

— ; — The Cecropmn Cotytto,"] Cotjtto was a strumpet (the god- 
dess of impudence and unchastity) worshipped by night at Atliens, 
as the Bona Dea was at Rome. The priests are said to weary her, 
because of the length of their infamous rites, and of the multiplicity 
of their acts of impurity, which were continued the whole night. 
Cecrops, the first king of Athens, built the city, and called it, ^fter 
his name, Cccropia. 

93. His ei/el>row.] It was customary for the women to paint the 
eyebrows, as well as the eyes : the first was done with a black com- 
position made of soot and water.; with this they lengthened the eye- 
brow, which was reckoned a great beauty. This was imitated by 
thosie Infamous wretches spoken of by the poet, to make them ap. 
pear more like women. , 

^ 94. fViih an oblique ne^le,] Aciis signifies also a bodkin; this 
was' wetted with the copaposition, and drawn obliquely over, or alojpig 
the eyebrow. . , . - w 

[ S rr'-^^^P^^^i^i HfLi^^ th^fn upy S^c] This was another. prafcUpe 
(rf' the women, to paint tfieir eyes,. It is now in u^e amoi^\tte 
M66rislr Wotiieik in Bafbary, arid anibng the Turkish w;o0ae.n abo^t 
Aleppo, thus described by Dr. §h^w and Dr. Russel. 

Digitized by 


sir At. JU^^J^^S^^TRES. 69 

ts cried aloud: whh no noii^ l^^re tliQ &JQ;ialQ m^ 

Such orgies, with a secret .t^rct, used ^ : . [90 

The Baptffi, accustomed to M'eai? the jC^ropi^^^^^^^ 

One, his eyebrow, touched with wet wiotj .' ^ (jtreanbling 

Lengthens with oblique needje^ and paints^ liiting^ t^em up, his 

%es ; another drjaks in a priapus ipade of j^iass, 95 

And tihs a little golden net with a vast quantity of hair, 

Having put on blue female g$u:ihents, pr smooth white vests ; 

And the servant swearing by tne Juno of his master. 

^< Their method of doing it is, by a cylindrical piece of silver, 
^' steel, or ivory, about two jnchw lOBg^ nuide very smooth, and 
^' about the size of a common prob«. 

'^ This they wet with water, in order that the powder of lead ore 

^^ may stidk to it; and applying the middle part horisontall^ to the 

*^ efe^ ^ey shttt the eyeUds upon it, and so drawing it thrpugh be« 

^^ tween them, it blacks the inside, leaving a narrow black rim all 

^* round the edge.** 

Th^ is sufficient for our present purpose,' to explain what the poet 
:ttiieaas by painting the eyes. This custom was practised by maoj 
'eastern nations among the women, and at last got among the Ro<* 
man women: in imitation of whom, these . male-prostitutes also 
tinged their eyes. 

lifting up — trembling. — ^This describes the situation of the eyes 
tinder the operation, which must occasion some pain from the great 
tenderness of the part. Or, perhaps, by trementes, Juvenal may 
mean something lascivious, as sat. vii. 1. 241. 

95. Another drinks^ S^c.'] A practice of the most impudent and 
abaodoned women is adopted by these wretches. 

96. A litHe golden netj Sfc.'\ Reticulum — ^here denotes — a coif, 
or cawl of net- work, which the womm put over their hair. This 
-too these men imitated. 

With a vast quantiiy of hair."]^ They left vast quantities of 

iW!k: and long hair upon their heads, the better to resemble women, 
and all this they stuffed under a cawl as the women did. 
. 97. Female garments.'] Scutulata — garments made of needle- 
wort, In form of shields or targets, *worn by women. 

— -^Smooth white vests,'] Galbana rasa — ^fine garments, shorn 
6t tVe pile for Ivamen's wear. Ainsworth says they were white, and 
ffe^vel'the word galbanum from Heb. fMSA white. But others say, 
that^tVe colour of these garments was bluish or greenish. 

The adjec^tive galbanus-a-um, i^nifies spruce, wanton, effeminate. 
So Mart, calls an effeminate person — homlnem galbanatum : and of 
another he says, galbanos habet mores. Mart. i. 97. 

98. ne servant szoearinf, Sfc,'] The manners of the masters 
were copied by the servants: hence, like their masters, the^ swore 
by Juno, which it was customary for women to do^ as the men bjr 
Jujuter, Hercules, &c. 

E 3 

Digitized by 



JUvlikALlS SATlRif:. ' lAT. It. 

IHe iaoRt speculum, pathici gestamen Othonis, 

Actoris Aiuunci spolium, qua sc ille vidcbat 100 

Arinatum, cum jani tolli vexilla jubcret. 

Res memoranda novis aunalibus, atque recciitl 

Historic; s^peculum civilis sanina belli. 

Nimirum summi duci.s est occidere Gal bain, 

Et curare cutera suiumi coustaiitia civis : 105 

Bedriaci in campo spolium affectare Palatf, 

Et pressum. in facicm digitis extciidcre jianem : 

Quod nee in Assvtv* pharetri»ta Semiramis orbe, 

McesUi nee Actiaia l'ev:U Cleopatra c ariua. 

M. J ioifking^glass.'] Speculum — such as the woven used. 
■ ■ — '^Tbe b^aring^ ^c] Which, or such a one as, Otho, infa- 
ttMHM for the criine which is charged on these people, used to'carrjr 
about with him, even when he went forth to war as emperor. 
' Thepott in this passagjQ, with infinite humour, parodies, in deri. 
fiion of the effeminate O^ho, and of these unnatural wretches, some 
parts of Virgil — first, wb«re that poet uses the word gestamen* 
(.which denotes wny thing carried or worn) as descriptire of the 
shield of Abas^ which he carried in battle. Mn. iii. 28e». 

' ' ' JEre cavo Clypeura, niagni gestamen Abahtiv 
* Postibus ^dversis figo, &c 

and again, secondly — in Mn. vii. 246. Virgil, speaking of the oms^ 
inents which Priam wore, when he sat in public among his subjects, 
as their prince and lawgirer, says : 

Hoc. Priami gestamen erat, &c. 
In imitation of this, Jurenal most sarcastically calls Otho's mir* 
roT' — pathici gestamen Othonis. 

: IDO. The spoil 0f Jurundan Jctor.^ AUnding to Virgil, iEn. xli, 
93, JM* where Tumus arms himself with a spear, which he had 
tftken m hattlo f rom Actor, one of the bra?e Aurunoian chiefs. 
, Juvenal seems to in^uaie, that this wretch rejoiced a& much in 
being possessed of Otho's mirror, taken from that eipperor after 
his death, (when he had killed himself^ after having been twice de- 
feated by Vitellins,) as Tumus did in harlng the spear of the heroic 

101. Command the banners^ ^c] This was a signal for battle. 
When they encamped, they fixed the banners in the ground near the 
general's tent-^whlch was called statuere signa. When battle was to 
be given, the funeral gave the word 6f command to take np the 
alaiidards or Imnners-r^this was— ^tollere signa. 

V At soch a time as Ito was the effeminate Otho^.when he war 
armed for the battle, viewing himsdf in his miixor. 

rl^i fia^giige 0/ tivii tear,} A, woi:thy matter to be recorded ia 
ikit amaaki andcUslory o£ JJiicse times, Miat among the warlike ba^ags 
of a-comBumder m chief^n a ciyil Mt4r> wherein- no less than the pps<* 


Digitized by 


Another holds a lookipg glass^ the beariuf of pathic Odto, 
llie spoil of Auruncian Actor, in which ne viewed himself 10i[> 
Armed, whea he commanded the (j^mtiers to be taken up : ' ^' 
A thing to be rebted in new anna^ and in recent 
' History, a looking-glass die baggage of civil war ! 
To kill Galba is doubtless the part of a great general, * 
And to take care of the skin, the perseverance of the higher 
I citizen. 105 

I In the field of Bedriacum to affect the spoil of the palace, 
I And to extend over the i^.ce bread squeezed with the fingera : 
I . Which neither the quivered Semiramis in the Assyrian world, 
I Nor sad Cleopatra did in her Actiacan galley. 

session of the Roman empire was at stake, there was found a mir* 
ror^ the proper implement of a Roman lady! This eivil war was 
between Othb and Vitellias, which last was set op, by the Genaaa 
soldiers, for emperor, and at last succeeded. 

104. To kill Galba^ ^c] The aimirum-— donbtlessp^^a be sure 
«— throws an irony oter this, and the following three linefr-^^-as if the 
poet said — ^To aim at empire, and to hare tiie reigning prince as« 
sassinated in the forum, in order to succeed him, was, doubtless, a 
most noble piece of generalship, worthy a great general ; and, t^; 
he sure, it was the part of a great citizen to take so much care of 
his complexion — ^it must be allowed worthy the mightiest citizen of 
Borne, to attend to this with unremitting constancy ! 

This action of Otho's, who, when he found Galba, who had pro- 
mised to adopt him as his successor, deceiving him, in favour of Piso^ 
destroyed him, makes a strong ([contrast in the character of Otho : 
in one instance, bold and enterprising^>-in anotiier, soft and ^emi« 

106. In thejkld to affect^ 4*0.] To ainr at, to aspire to, the 
peaceable and sole possession of the emperor's palace, as master of 
the empire, when engaged in the batde with Yitellius in the fieki of 
Bedriacum, (between Cremona and Verona,) was great and nohie ; 
but how sadly inconsistent with what follows! • */ 

107. To extend over iheface^ S^cJ] The Ronpan ladles, usedba sort 
of bread, or paste, wetted with asses milk. This they prc^psed and 
spread with their fingers on the face to cover it from the |dr, and 
thus preserye the complexion. See sat« vi. I. 461. This was prac« 
tlnS by the emperor Otho. 

* Otho, at last, being twice defeated by Vitellios, dreading ^ hor« , 
ror| of the civil war in which he was ei^aged, killed himself to 
prerent it, when he had sufficient force to try his fortune again. 

108. The quivered Semiramis,'] The faijaous warlike queen of 
^Ha, who after the death of her husbaad Ninus, put on man's 
4P[^re}, and did many warlike actions* .. 

fO^: Sad Qebpatra.^ The famous and unfortunate 4aeen of 
*gyp*i wlio with M» Anthony^ being defeated by Augusta^ in t^ 
sea-^ht at Actluip^ fl<l4 i9 Alexandria, aU^i fhei^ d^y^rlug to 

t4 ■ 

Digitized by 



Hie qqIHis wbi» pudor, ant revereulia mensae : i 110 

Hie turpis Cybdesy et fracta voce loqucndi 

UbertaSy et crine seiiex laiiaticuK albo 

Saerorum' antistcs, nirum ac meinorabile magiii 

Gutturis exemphiin, conducendusqiie magister. 

Quid tameh expectant, Phrygio quels tcinpus erat jam 115: 

More supervacuam ctiltris abrumpere camem ? 

Quadringeiita dedit Gracchus sestertia, dotem 

Comictoi ; sive hie recto cantaverat aere. 

Siguatae tabulie : dictum feiiciter ! ingc%i 

find aity favour from Augustus, applied two asps to her breast, 
which ^tung her to death. She died on the tomb of Anthony, who 
. had killed himself after the loss of the battle. 

109. In her Actiaean gaUey.'] Carina properly signifies the keel, 
of bottom of a ship, but, by synec. the whole ship or Temel. It 
denotes, here, the line galley, or ressel, in which Cleopatra was at 
the batde of Actium ; which was richly ornamented with gold, «nd 
had purple sails. Regina (Cleopatra) cum anrea puppe, yeloque 
purpureo, se in altum dedit. Plin. lib. xix. c. i. ad iin. 

From this it is probable that our Shakespeare took his idea of 
the Tessel in which Cleopatra, when she first met M. Anthony on 
the river Cydnns, appeared ; the description of which is embellished 
with some of the finest touches of that great poet's fancy. See Aut. 
and Cleop. act II. sc. ii. 

Ndther of these women were so ciTeminate as the emperor Otho. 

110. Here is no modesty ^ <$)'c.] Juvenal having censured the effe- 
minacy of their actions and dress, now attacks their manner of cou- 
vcrsation, at their sacrificial feasts. 

Reverence of tfie iable."] That is, of the table where they 

fifasted on their sacrifices, which, every where else, was reckoned 
sacred : here they paid no sort of regaitl to it. 

111. Of filthy CybeleJ\ Here they indulge themselves in all the fiU 
thy coBversatiou that tliey can utter ; like the priests of Cyb^lr, 
wW tised to display all manner of fiithiness and obsceui ty before 
the iniAge of their goddess, both in word and action. 

With hrthsn ooioe .] Perhaps this means a feigned, altered, 

lisping voice, to imitate the voices of women, or of the priests of 
Cybele who were all eunuchs. 

11^. An old fanatic,'] Fanaticus (from Gr. ^iyo/««i, appareo) 
denotes one that pretends to inspiration, visions, and the like. 
Siich the Galli, or priests of Cybele Were called, from their strange 
gestures and speeches, as if actuated or possessed by some spirit 
which they called divine. 

See ViRG. ^n* vi. 1, 46 — 51. a description of this fanatic inspi'. 
ration : which shews what the heathens meant, when they spake of 
their diviners being — pleni Deo — alliati numine, and the like. 
^ Paak. Heb. and £nf. liCX. 3^, No. 4. 
' Sacii a^one was the old white-headed priest here spoken of. 

Digitized by 


iAT.ij; J^VE*NAL'«^^^^*S«> pf 

no modesty iti ilieJi*^ atded«M^id¥^^rtf^fe^«"^^ \M 

Here is 

table : 
Ilefe, of filthy Cyhele> and of sfWafcfng^ "wi* brbtn^^ici^, 
The liberty ; and an old fanatic) with wfihie hair, *' ; ' 

Chief priest of sacred things^ a rare ftnd mehiomble example * '';* 
Of an ample throat, and a master to be hii^d.' 
But what do they wait for, for whom it i» now high tiiiie^' iff'thfe 

Phrygian 1:13 

Manner, to cut aw'ay with knives their superfluous flesh ? "■'\ 
Gracchus gave 400 sestertia, a dower ^ '-^^ 

To a horn-blower, or perhaps he had sounded with strait brass. 
The vvritii^ were signed : " Happily^-rsaid y. — a vast -, ■ . y. ■ 

113. Chief priest of sacred things,'] Of tfieir abominable rites 
and ceremonies, which they performed; in imitation of the women^ 
to the Bona Dca. 

114. An ampie throat.] A most capacious swallow — lie set an^ 
fotample of most uncommon gliitt'ony. ^ 

' -A master to be hired.] If any one wotfld be taught the Sil- 
ence of gluttony, and of the most beastly sensuality, let him hir^ 
such an old fellow as this for a master to instruct him. 

Ter. And. act L sc. ii. 1. 19. has a thought of this Idnd. Simo 
says to Dafus : ' 

Tiun si tnagistrum cepit ad earn rem improbvim. .^ • i. 

115. What do they wait fbr^ Sfc] As they wish to be like' the 
priests of Cybde, And are so fond of imitating them, .why db they 
^ky that operation which would bring them to a perfect resem- 

117. Gracchus,] It should seem, that by this nam^ JuyenM 
does n6t mean one particular person only, but diVers of the nobles 
of Rome, who had shamefully practised what he mentions here, and 
afterwards, 1. 143. gave a dower — dotcm dedit — as a wife briuijs a» 
dower to her husband, so did Gracchus to the horn-blo%v(¥i '' ' 

400 sestertia.] See note, sat. i. 1. lOG. about 3125/. ^" 

118. ^ hom-blmsser^ S^c] A fellow who had been either tKlsfor 
a trumpeter, in tMfe Roman army, in which the Romans only used 
wind-instruments: the two principal ones were the corttuaj or 
horns, and the tubae — ^trumpets : they both were made of bras^ : 
the horns were made crooked, like the horns of animals, which 
were used by the rude ancients in battle. The trumpets were strait, 
fifee ours, therefore JuTcnal supposing the person migirt havie been a 
trumpeter, says— ^reeto cantaverat oere. That these two Jbsttuments 
were made, of brass, and shaped as abore mentioned, appears frbm 
0<d, Met. lib. i. 1. 9». Non tuba dire<5ti^ lion «ris cornua fleii. See 
an stccount of the Roman martial musical Instruments, KEywieiT, 
Antiq. t>ftrt II. book it. c. fl. 

\\9. The writings.] Th^ marriage-writiri^. See note on 1. 5g. 
*^ HappUjf'^^said.'^ They were wished joy, the form of 

Digitized by 


5$ JUVENALIS SATIE^ «at. «* 

Coemt seidet : gremio jacuit nova ntipta mariti. IW 

O Proceres, censore opus est, an haruspice nobis f 
Scilicet honeres; majoraque monstra putares, 
Si mulier vitulum, vel ai bos ederet agmun* ? 
'Segrtienta, et longos habitus, et flammea sumit, 
Arcane qui sacra ferens nutantia loro , 125 

Sudavit clypeis ancilibus. O pater urbis ! 

which was by pronotrncing thfe word — ^* feliciter" — I wish you joy, 
as we say: this was particularly used on nuptial occasions^ a^ 
among ns. 

119 — ^20. A vast supper is sef] A sumptuous entertatnment, on 
the occasion, set upon the table. Or, ingens ccena may here be used 
mctonymicaily, to denote the guests who were invited in great num- 
bers to the marriage supper : the word sedet is supposed equivafent 
with accumbit. This last is the interpretation of J. Britannicus, arid 
C. S. Curio : but Holyday is for the first : and I rather think with 
liim, as the word sedct is Used in a like sense, where our poet 
speaks (sat. i. I. 95, -6.) of setting the dole-basket on the threshold 
of the door: 

■ ■ Nunc sportulB primo 
. . Limine parva scdet. 

So here for setting the supper on the table. 

120. I%e neto^marriedy Sfc,"] As Sporus was giren in marriage to 
Nero, so Gracchus to this trumpeter : hence Juvenal bfimourously 
calls Gracchus nova nupta, in the feminine gender. Nubere is 
applicable to the woman, and ducere to the man. 

In the husband's bosom.'] i. e. Of the trumpeter, who now 

was become husband to Gracchus. 

• 12 U Oife nobks.'] O proceres ! O yo patricians, nobles, sena- 
tors, magistrates of Rome, to whom the government and magistracy, 
as well as the welfare of the city is committed ! Many of these were 
guilty of these abominations, therefore Juvenal here sarcastically in- 
vokes them on the occasion. 

A censor.] An officer whose business it was to inspect and 

reform the manners of the people. There were two of them, who 
bad power even to degrade knights, and to e:i elude senators, when 
guilty of great misdemeanours; Formerly they maintained such a 
scFcri ty of manners, that they stood in awe of each other. 

Soothsayer.] Arnspex or haruspcx, from haruga — a sacri- 
fice (which from Heb. T\Tty to kill or slaughter) and specio — to 
view. A diviner who divined by viewing the entrails of the sacri* 
fices. A soothsayer. When any thing portentous pr prodigious 
happened, or appeared jn the entrails of the beasts, it was the oi!ic<^ 
of the haruspex to offer an expiation, to avert the supposed anger 
of the gods. - 

q. a. Do we, in the midst of all the prodigies of wickedness, 
want most a censor for correction, or an haruspcx for expiation ? 
For^ as the ne\t twp lines intimate, we ought not, in all rea^on^ to 

Digitized by 



Supper is siet : the new-married kj in the husband'^ bosom.— IQO 
O ye nobles ! have we occasion for a censor, or for a soothsayer ? 
What !- would you ckead, and think them greater prodigies. 
If a woman should produce a calf, or a cow a Iamb ? 
Collars, and long habits, and wedding ^eils he takes, 
WIio carrying sacred things nodding with a secret rein, 125 

Sweated with Mars's shields. O fattier of the city ! 

be more shocked or amazed at the most nfonstrous or nnnatnnd 
births, than at these monstrous and unnatural productions of Tice. 
. 124. Collars Ji Segmenta — collars, ouches, pearl-necklaces worn 
by woro«n. Ainsw. from seco, to cut — s^^en, a piece cut off from 
something: perhaps segmina may mean pieces oif ribbon, or the 
like, warn as colUrs, as they often are by women among us. 

-^ — Long habits,'] The stola, or matron^s gown, which reached 
down to the ieet. 

Wedding veils.'] Flameum or flammeum, from fiamma^ a 

flame, because it was of a yellowish or flame-colour. A kind of 
TcU or scarf, put orer the bride's face for modesty's sake. 

lie takes.] pracchus puts bn^ who once had been one of 

the SaliL 

125. fVho carrtfing sacred things J] This alludes to the sacred 
images carried in the processions of the Salii, which waved or nodded' 
With the motion of those who carried them, or, perhaps, so con- 
trived, as to be made to nod, as they were carried ' along, like the 
image of Venus when carried in pomp at the Circcnsian games, men* 
tioned by Ot. Amor. £leg. lib. iii. elc^. ii. 

Arniuit et notu ugna scconda dedit 

A secret rein,] A thong, or leather strap, secretly con- 

trlred, so as bj pulling it to make the image nod its head : to the no 
small comfort of the vulgar, who thought thb a propitious sign, as 
giving assent to their petitions« See the last note. • 

126. Szseated zcith Mars^s shields.] The ancilia wetc so called 
from ancisus, cut or pared round. 

In the days of Numa PompUras, the successor of Romulus, a 
round shield was said to fall from heaven : this was called ancile, 
from its round form ; and, at the same time, a voice said that — '^ the 
'^ dty would be of sJI the most powerful, while that ancile was pre- 
*' served in it." Numa, therefore, to prevent its being stolen, caused 
eleven shields to lie made so like it, as for it not to be discerned 
which was the trtie one. lie then instituted the twelve Salii, or 
priests of Mars, who were to carry these twelve shields through the 
city, with" the images and other insignia of Mars, (the supposed fa. 
ther of Romulus the founder of Rome,) and while these priests went 
in procession, they sang and danced till • they were all over in a 
sweat. Hence these priests df Mars were called Salii, a saliendo. 

The poet gives us to understand, that Gracchus had been one of 
these S^lii, but had left tliem, and had <sunk into the cfieno^nacies 
and debaucheries above mentioned. 

Digitized by 


§0 Jt/VENALIS SATIR^E. sat. ii. 

Undc Betas tantum Latib pastoribiis ? unde 

Haec tetigit, Gradive, tuos urtica nepot<?s ? 

'JVadltur ecce viro clarus gc iiere, aUjue opibwi; vii : 

Nee galeani qiiassjis, iiec lenram cuspide pulsas, 130 

y,cc qiiereiib patii 1 — Vade ei^o, et cede severi 

Jug< ribiis campi, quem negligis. Oiticium eras 

Pi imo sole mihi peragendum in valle Quirhii. 

Quae causa oiHcii ? quid quaerisf nubit amicus, 

Ncc multos adhibct. 'Liceat modo vivere ; ticnt, 13a 

126. Ofaiker of the ci{i/!'] Mars, the supposed father of Roma* 
Uis, the founder of Rome, and therefore called pater urbis. See 
lloR. lib. i. od. ii. 1. 35 — 40. 

127. Lafmn shepherds ?'] Italy was called Latiam, from lateo^ 
to lie. hid : Saturn being said to have hidden himself there, when he 
jMcd from his son Jupiter. See Viug. JRn. Tiii. 319 — 23. Romu, 
lus' was sa]>))oscd to have been a shepherd, as well as the first and 
most ancient ancestors of the Romans; hence Juvenal calls them 
Latii pastores. So sat. viii. 1. 274, 5, . 

•Majorum prhnus quibquis i'uit ille tuorum, 
Aut pustor iuit, &:c. 

Whence could such monstrous, such abominable wickedness^ be dC'm 
rived to a people, who once were simple shepherds ! 

128. Thi'sf nettle.'] Urtica — a nettle literally, but, by Met. the 
stinging or tickling of lewdness. So we call being angry, being nel^^ 
tied ; and it stands with us to denote an excitation of the. passions. 

-: — *Gradivus.'] A name of Mars, from Gr. kpaJ*iw, to braa« 
dish a spear. Some derive it from gradior, because he was supposed 
to go or march in battle. Homer has botji these ideas — . 

See ViRo.^flin. iii. 34. Gradivnmqne patrem, kc, ' 

129. fy ^it)€».] Traditur — is delivered up in marriage, as a thin^ 
purchased is delivered to the buyer, so man to man, on payment of 
dowry, as for a wife. 

130. .You neither shake^ ^'c*] ^^ token of anger and resentment 
of such abomination. ' .' ^ 

131. Nor complain^ ijc.] To Jupiter, the father of all the gods^ 
or perhaps Juvenal means '* your father," as supposing -with llc- 
siod that Mars was the soa of Jupiter and Jano. So Homer, H. e. 
though some, as Ovid, make him the son of Juno without a fatller. 
Ov. Fast. V. 229, kc. 

Go (herefore.'] Since you are so *incoftcwned at these 

things, as to shew no signs of displeasure at them, you may as welf 
depart from us entirely. 

Departr] Cede for discede, the simple fos the composite^ 

So ViRG. Mn. vi* 460. Invitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi. 

132. The hursh fielcL'X The Campus Martius, a large field 
near Rome, between the city:.and the Tiber, where all tnanner of 
robust and martial exiercises were performed, over which Mars was 

Digitized by LjOOQIC , 


Whence so great widkednesa to Latum shepherds f «vhence 
Hath this nettle, O Gradivus, touched your descendents ? 
Behold a man, illustrious hy family, and rich, is given to a man.; 
You neither shake your helmet, uor with your spear smite the 

earth, 130 

Nor complain to the father ! — Go therefore, and depart from 

the acres 
Of the harsh field, which you neglect, — A bu$*ness^ to-morrow 
Barly, is to be dispatched by me in the vale of Quirinus. 
What is the cause of the bus ness i why do you ask f a friend 

marries: [done, 135 

Nor does he admit many* Only let us live, these things will be 

supposed to preside. By the poet's using the epithet harsh, or se» 
vere, he may be supposed to alhide to the harsh and severe conflicts 
there exhibited ; or to Mars hhiiselfj to whoni this is given hy Mar« 
tial^ ep, XXX. 1. 10. . ' , . . 

Cum seven fugit oppidam Martls. 

13^. Which 9fou neglect.'] By not viudicating its honourj and not 
punishing 'those, who have exchanged the manly exercises of the 
Campus Martias for the most abandoned eiTeminacy. 

A bus'nessy to^morrozp,'] In order to expose the more, and 

satirize the more severely, these malc-marriages, the poet here intro* 
duces a conversation between two persons on the ^ubj^ct. 

The word ofBcium is peculiarly rdative to marriage, nuptiale or 
naptiarum being understood. Suet, in Claud, c. 26. Cujus oiBcium 
nnptiaram, et ipse cum Agrippina celebrarit. So PfTiioN. Coqi- 
surrexi ad oiRcinm nuptiale. 

Such is the meaning of oificinm in this place, as relative to what 
follows. He was to attend the ceremony at sun-rise, at the temple 
of Romulus, which was a place where marriage-contracts were often 

1 34. A friend murries.'] The word nubo (as has been observed) 
properly belonging to the woman, as duco to the man. Nubit here 
is used to mark out the abominable transaction. 

1 35. Nor does he admit many.'] He does not invite many people . 
to tlie ceremony, wishing to keep it rather private. He had not, 
perhaps, shaken off all fear of the Scantinian law.-^See before, 
L 43, note. 

Onl}f let us livcy Sfc.] These seem to be Juvenal's words. 

Only let us have patience, and if we live a little longer, we shall not 
onlj see such things done, but done openly ; and not only this, but 
we shall see the parties concerned wish to have thein recorded in the 
public registers. 

•Tuvenalsaw the increase. of all this mischief, and mi^t from this 
Teutnre. to fqretell what actually came to pass : for Salvian^ who 
wrote:, in the fifth* century, speaking of this dedecoris scelerisque 
Cpnsoirtlmn^ u he cMls it, sa^'s^ ihat " it spr^all over the City, and 

Digitized by 


eft JUVENaLIS SATlRi!!fi Ur.ti. 

Fient ista palam, citpient et in acta referri. 

Interea tonnentum ingens nubentibus haeret, 

Quod nequeuiit parere, et partu retinere maritos. 

Sed melius, quod nil auimis in corpora juris 

Natura indulget; steriles moriuntur, et illis 140 

Tiirgida non prodest condit^ pyxide I^yde, 

Nee prodest agili pal mas pragbere Luperco. 

Vicit et hoc nioostrmn tuniraii fuscina Gracchi, 

Lusuavitque fi^ii mediain gladiator arenam, 

Et Capi^oh»iis ^eiiero.sior, et Marccllis, 145 

Jit Crttiiiis, Paulique minoribus, et Fabiis, et 

Oiiuiibi:-: ad pc.lii-in spectandbus : bis licet ipsum 

*^ though the act itself was not common to«ll, yet the approbation 
*^ of it was." 

137, Mean while^ Sfc."] The poetTiiere, with much humour, scoffs 
at these unnatural wretches in very ludicrous terms. 

138. Retain their husbands,'] Barrenness was frequently a cause 
of* divorce. 

141. Turgid LydeJ\ Some woman of that name, perhaps called 
tttVgida from her corpulency, or from her preparing and selling me- . 
dicines to cure barrenness, and to occasion fertility and promote 
conception. Couditus literally signifies seasoned— -mixed, made 
savoury, and the like — ^here it implies, that she sold some conserve^ 
or the like, which was mixed, seasoned, or, as we may say, medi- 
cated with various drugs, and put into boxes for sale. 

142. The nimble iMpercusJ] The Lupercalia were feasts sacred 
to Pan, that he might preserve their flocks from wolves, (a lupis,) 
hence the priests were called Luperci. The Lupercalia appears to 
have been a feast of purification, being solemnized on the dies ne- 
fasti, or non-court.days of February, which derives its name from 
februo, to purify ; and the very day of the celebration was called 
Februaca. The ceremony was very singular and strange. 

In the first place, a sacrifice was killed of goats and a dog ; then 
two children, noblemenjs sons, being brought thither, some of the 
Luperci stained their foreheads with the bloody knife, while others 
wiped it off with locks of wool dipped in milk. This done, ihey 
ran about the streets all naked but the middle, and, having cut the 
goat.skins into thongs, they lashed all they met. The women, so 
far from avoiding their strokes, held out the palms of their hands, to 
receive them, fancying them to be great helpers of conception. See 
Kenn«tt, Antiq. b. ii. part ii. c. % Shakespeare alludes to this — 
Jul. Caes. act I. sc. ii. former part, 

143. The fork.'] Fuseina — a sort of three-pronged fork or tri- 
dent, used by a particular kind of fencer or gladiator, wHo w^s 
armed with* this, and with a net — hence called RetiariiTS. . His ad- 
versary was called Mirmillp (from Cr. /*vf/tAoe, formica — ^Sec Ainsw,') 
and was armed with a sliield, scythe, and head-irie^e, with the IBgiirc 
of a fish on the crest. The Uetiarius tried to throw his net over tbfe 

Digitized by 



Done openly^ and will desire to be reported m the public n> 

Mean while a great torment sticks to thot^e (thas) manying. 
That they can't bring forth, and retain by birth (of children) 

their husbands. . 
But it is better, that, to their minds, no authority over their bodies 
Doth nature indulge ; barren they die : and to them 140 

Turgid Lyde, with her medicated box, is of no u»e, 
Nor does it avail to give their palms to the nimble Lupercua^ 
Yet the fork of the coated Gracchus outdid this prodigy, 
When, as a gladiator, h§ traversed in iight the middiis of the 

sta^e, [145 

More nobly bom than the 'Manlii, the Capitolini, and Marcelli, 
And the Catuli, and the posterity of Paulus ; than the Fabii, and 
Than all the spectators at the podium j tho*, to these, liim 

Mirmillo's head, and sb entangle him, laying, when he cast the net — 
Piscem peto, non te peto. 'The Mirmillo is sometimes called thre 
fecutor or pursuer, because if the Retiarius missed him, by throwing 
Ms net too far, or too short, he instantly took to his heels, running 
about the arena for his life, that he might gather up his net for a 
second cast; the Mirmillo, in the mean time^ as swiftly pursuing 
him, to prerent him of his design. This seems to be meant, 1. 144. 
LostraTitque fuga, &c. which intonates the flight of the Retiarius 
from the Mirmillo. 

Coated^ Sfc."] Tunicatus, i. e. dressed in the tunica^ or habit 

of the Retiarii, which was a sort of coat without sleeves, in which 
they foughpt 

This same Gracchnfi meanly laid aside his own dress, took upon ^■ 
him the garb and weapons of a common gladiator, and exhibited in 
the pabMc amphitheatre. Snch feats were encouraged by Domiitiani 
to the great scandal of the Roman nobility. 

Mediam arenam— ^may here signify the middle of the atfiphithea^ . 
tre, tthieh was strewed with sand; on' which part the gladiators 
fought : this made arena be often used to signify the amphitheatre 
!•♦ 145.' Capitoliniy SfcJ] Noble families, who were an ornament to 

the Roman name. 

I 147!. He po^um,'] Uoh^ Gr. from 5r«? — a foot. That part of 

I the theatre ne^ the orchestra,, where the nobles sat — ^it projected in 

! form something like the i^ape of a foot. See Ainsw. 

r — '—^Ifib^y to these^ ^c] Though to those who hare been men- 

l tioiied before,, you should add the praetor, at whose expense these 

gaoies were exhibited. — The prxtors often exhibited games at. their 

own expense. But the poet may here be understood to glance 

at fte emperor Domitian^ who was a great encourager of these 

strange proceedings of the young nobility. See note on 1.143. He 

thatVset foTth^ at his own charge, thfe^ sight of swprd-players, and 

Digitized by 



Admoveas, cujus tunc munere retia misit. 

Esse alicjiios manes, et subterranea regna, 
Et contutn, €t Stygio ranas in gnrgite nigras, 150 

Alque una transire vadnni tot millia cyinb^, 
Nee pueri credunt, nisi qui nondum aere lavantur. 
Sed tu vera.putai Curiiis quid seiitit, et ainbo 
Sdpiadae ? qurd Fabricius, manesque Camilli ? 
Quid Crcmene legio, et Cannis consunipta juventus, l6o 

Tot belloruin aniime f quoties hinc talis ad iilos 

other like games unto the people, was called mitneraiiai^--Hence 
Jurenal says — cujus tunc munere, &c. . 

148. Threw the net,'] Entered the lists in the character of a Re. 
tlarius : aud thus a man of the noblest family . in Rome debased 
himself, and his family, by becoming a pnze^fighter in the public 

1 19. That there are antf ghosts,'] The poet now proceeds to trace 
all the foregoing abominatious to fh^r source, namdy, the disbelief 
and contempt of religion, those essential parts of it, p^pticulaxly, 
M hich relate to a future state of rewards and punishments. 

By manes, here, we may understand, the ghosts or spirit of per. 
sons departed out of this life, which exist after their departure from 
the body, and are capable of happiness and misery. See Virg. JEsi, 
fi. 735 — 14. 

Subterranean realms.] Infernal regions, which were sup. 

posed to be under the earth. 

150. J boat pok.] Contus signifies a long pole or staff, shod with 
iron at the bottom, to push on small vessels in the water. JuTcnal 
here alludes to Charon, the ferry -man of heD, of whom Virgil saj^s, 
Mn. yu 1. 302. 

Ipse ratem conto subigit 

— — Frogs J] The poets fe^ned that there were-frop in the river 
Styx. Some give the inrention to Aristophanes — See his comedy of 
the Frogs. 

Stygian gulpk.] The riter Styx, supposed to be the boun- 
dary of the infernal regions, over which departed souls were ferried 
in Charon's boat. See Vieg. Geor. it. 467 — 80. 

If any of the gods swure by this river falsely, he was to lose his 
divinity for an hundred years. 

152. Not even boys believe.] AH these tl^njgs are disbelieved, not 
only by- persons in a more advanced age, but even by bays. 

Unless those not a« yvt^ ^c] The quadrans, which was 

made of brass, iki value about our halfpenny, was tk^ bathing fee 
paid to the keeper of the bath by the common people. See sat. vi. 
446. and floa. lib. i. sat. iii. 1. 1J7. 

■ ^ ' Dom tu (juadrante lavatam 
' llftx ibis— — — 

liitHe children, under four years old, were either not carried to the 
bafhs, or, if they were, nothing was paid f<»r their bathing. 

Digitized by 



You should add, at whose expense he then threw the net. 

That there are many ghosts, and subterranean realms, 
And a boat*pole, and black frogs in the S^^gian golph, . 150 
And that so many thousands pass over in one boat, 
Not even boys believe, unless those not as yet washed for moniiey t 
But think thou that they are true; What diinks Curius, and both 
The Scipios? what Fabricius, and the ghost of Camillus? [155 
What the legion of Cremera, and the youth consumed at Cannae, 
So many warlike souls ? as often as from hence to them such 

The poet means, that hone btit children, atid those very young 
indeed, could be brought to believe such things: these might be 
taught them, among other old women's stories, by their nurses, a^ud 
they might believe them, till they gr^w old enough to be wiser, as 
the freethinkers would say. 

153. Bui think ihoUy ifcj\ Do thou, O man, whatever thou art^ 
give credit to these important matters, which respect a future state of 
rewards and punishments. 

CuriusJ\ Dentatus : thrice consul, and remarka}}le for his 

courage^ angular honesty, and frugality. What does he now thiok| 
who is enjoying the rewards of his virtue in elysium. 

153-^. Bo^ the SdpiosJ] Fiz. Scipio Africanus Major^ who con- 
quered Hannibal, and Scipio Africanus Minor, who rased Nuraantia 
and Cardiageb Hence Virg. ^n. vi. 842, 3. 

I Qeminos dtto fulmina belli 
ScipfaidaB, dadem Libyae.- ■'■■■■i 

"^-^^Fabridus,'} C. Luscinius the consul, who ponqoeved Pyt^r 
rhtts. , " 

CamUlus.'] A noble Roman; he, though banished, saved 

Rome from its final ruin by the Gauls. The Romans voted him an 
equestrian statQ9: In the Foram, an honour never before confenred 
on a Roman citiMi* ^ 

155. 7%e legion of CffimeraJ] Meaning the 300 Fabii, who, with 
their iriavea aild f riiaads, marched s^ralnst the Yejentes, who, afttr 
m^tkj battien, sor^ounding them by an ambuscade, killed the 300 
near Cremera, a river of Tliscany, except one, from whom came 
«ft9rwai4sliiefamou8 Fabius 'mentioned by Vina. ^n. vi. 845, 15. 

The youth consumed^ ^c] Cannae-arum. A village of 

Ap«)p9liiiHthekiti^|a:Of Naples, wher<l Hannibal defeated the Ro^. 
mans, and killed ab«ve 40,000. Among these, such a number of 
thctyioun^ttiobil^Y kj%hts, and others of rank^ that Hannibal sent 
to ^apjlhage'thrte bafiheto of rii^ in token c^ his rflctory. There 
^aa^si^ a earnagp'oC tho^RlMians, tliat H«iNiibal is said, at last,'ffc 
have stopped his soldiers, crying out-^^^'Pitroe'ierro.*' 

156. So mans narlUa #oif/s.] Si^u^in IMtle^ fighting for thair 
^countiy. VuLo. Mn. vi. 600. placet anch In elystam. 

Bj^m^i^fk^ the^ Above great mta^ Jwrenal means, that they 
W€re mua^f not ptAf of tbe belief^ i>f •'f tttaie slate, which in. 
iiaipBCfd them in th^ «cbiev«ma«t ^ gr«»t and worth/ doods^ dns* 

YO&*l« Jl 

Digitized by 


;6« JUVENAlIS SATIRiE, * i*^. tK 

Umbra venit, cunerent lustniri, si qua dareutur 

Siilphura cuin taedis, et si foret hiiiuida lauriLS. 

Illuc> heu ! inis^ri traducimur : arma quick ui ultra 

J^iltora Juvcrux proDiovimu^^ et modo caplus l60 

()i cadas, 34' miuHua contcntos nocte Britaiiuos. « , 

Sed f[uve nuiu: populi tiunt victoris iii uibe^ 

i\ii\\ faciujit illiy quQS vicimua : et taineu uiius 

Anneuius Zelates cuuctis iiarratur ephebis 

MoUior ardeiiti sese indulsisse Tribuiio. .16^ 

A spice quid faciant commercia : venerat obses. 

Hie iiuHt hoiumciB ; iiaui si mora longior urbein 

ifig their IWcs, hut, that now they experienced the certainty of it, ia 
the enjoyment of its rewards. 

156. As often as from kence, Sfc,'] When the spirit of such a 
jniscreant, as I have before described, goes from hence, leares this 
world, and arriTcs among the rcnerable shades of these great and 
▼irtuous men, they would look upon themsehes as defiled by such a 
one coming among them, they would call for lustrations, that they 
might purify themseWes from the pollution which such company 
would bring with it. 

" J 67. If there could be given.'] i. e. If they could come at mate* 
fials for purification in the place where they are. 

158. Sulphur with pines,"] Fumes of sulphur, thrown on. a 
lighted torch made of the wood of the unctuous pine-tree, were 
used among the Romans as purifying. See Ainsw. Teda, No. 3. 

Pliny. says of sulphur — ^^ Habet et in religionibus. locum ad expi- 
^^ andas suiBtu domos." Lib. xxxr. c. 15. . . 

A reel laurel.] They used also a laurel-branch dipped in 

water, and sprinkling with it things or persons which they would 

1$^» Thither^ alas! Sfc.] We wretched mortals all must die, and 
be carried into that world of spirits, where happiness or misery will 
be our doom. ' 

16Q.. Juvema.] Al. Jubema, hod. Hibernia, Ireland. It li 
.-thought- by Camden, that the Romans did not conquer Ireland ; thii 
passage of JuTenal seems to imply the contrary. The poet might 
tpeak here at large, as a stranger to these parts, but according 
to the report of the triumphing Romans, who sometimes took disco*. 
Teries for conquests, and thought those overcome, who were nei^Vi 
boars to those whom they oven^me. 

161. Orcades,] A number of small islands in the north of Scofe 
land, ^dded to iha Roman empire by the emperor Claudius. Soim 
the Orkneys. 

• — The. BritojM content^ 8^c,] At the summer solstice the nigfali 
are very short; there is scarce any in the most northern .parts <( 
Britain. . . 

. 162. The ihing$ uhkh^ 6^cJ^ The abominations which afe icoM 
jnitted in Rome, are not to be found among the conquered peo|d| 

Digitized by 



A shade arrifes, they would desire to be purified^ if there coiild 

be given 
Sulphur with pines, and if there were a wet laurel. Qrond 

Thither, alas ! we wretches are conveyed ! our arms, indeed, be* 
The shores of Juvema we have advancied, and the lartely cBp^ 
tured lOO 

Orcades, and the Britons content with very little night. 
But the things which now are done in the city of the conquer- 
ing people, 
Those whom we have conquered do not : and yet one 
Armenian, 21elates, more soft than all our striplings, is said 
To have yielded himself to a burning tribune. 165 

See what commerce may do : he had come an hostage. 
Here they become men : for if a longer stay indulges 

at least not till they learn thenfi by coming to Rome ; histances, iii^ 
deed, may be found of this, as may appear by what fallows. . 

164. &eiaies.'\ An Armenian youth, sent as an hostage from Ar* 

More soft ^ 4"^.] More eifeminate*r«TOade so, by being cori 

rupted at an earlier period of life, than was usual among the Roman 
youths. Ephebns signifies a youth or lad from about fourteen to 
seventeen. Then they put on the toga virilis, and were reckoned 
men. The word is compounded of e^-*, at, and ij^u, puberty. 

166. To have yielded himself, '\ For the horrid purpose of nnna* 
tural lust. 

A burning tribuner\ Virg. eel. ii. 1. has used the verb ardeo 

in the same horrid sense. The tribune is not named, but some think 
the emperor CaTigula to be hinted at, who, as Suetonius relates, used 
some who came as hostages, from far countries^ in this detestable 

166. See what commerce may do.'] Commercia here signifies in« 
terconrse, correspondence, converse together. Mark the effects of 
bad intercourse. The poet seems to mean what St. Paul ezpressef| 
1 Cor. XV. 33. ^^ Evil communications corrupt good manners.'' 

He had come an hostage,"] Obses — quia quasi pignus obsi* 

detur, f. e, because kept, guarded, as a pledge. An hostage was 
given as a security or pledge, for the performance of something by 
one people to another, either in war or peace, and was peculiarly 
under the protection and care of those who received* him. This 
youth had been sent to Rome from Artaxata, the capital of Anne* 
nla, a country of Asia, and was debauched by the tribune who ^ad 
the custody of him. This breach of trust aggravates the crime. 

167. Here they become men.] Here, at Rome, they soon Imo 
their simplicity and Innocence of manners, and tiiough young in 
years, are soon old in wickedness^ from the corruptions which they 
meet with. The word homo is of the common gender, and signifies 
both man and woman ; and it is not improbable, bat that Juvenal 

f 2 

Digitized by 


68 lUVENALIS SATIRj:* sat. ii. 

Indakit pueris, non nnquam deerit amator : 
Mittentur braccse, cultelli, frsena, flagelhim : 
Sic praetextatos referunt Artaxata mores. 170 

the word hotnines here, as intiinatiiig, that these youths were 
|09p to be regarded as of either sex. 

107* If q knger stay^ SfcJ] If they are permitted to %txy a longer 
time at Rome^ ^ter their release as hostages, and are at large in the 
city, they will never want occasions of temptation to the worst of 
▼ices : at every turn, they will meet with those who will spare no 
pains to corrupt them. 

169. Trowsers.'\ Braccae — a sort of trowsers or breeches, wQm 
by the Armenians, Gauls, Persians, Medes, and others. Here by 
aynec. put for the whole dress of the country from which they came. 

Knhes.'\ Cultelli— little knives — dim. from culter. This 

should seem to mean some adjunct to the Armenian dress ; not im- 
probably the small daggers, or poignards, which the Easterns wore 
tucked into tibeir girdles, or sashes, of their under vestments ; such 
sre seen in the East to this day. 

'^ — Bridles J tvAtp.] .With which they managed, and drove on 
^eir horses, in thdr warlike exercises, and in the chace. 

■ IViii be laidaside.'] The meaning of these lines is, that the 
dress of their country, and every trace of their simplicity, manliness, 
activity, and courage, will all be laid aside — ^they will adopt the dress 

Digitized by 



The city to boys, never will a lover be wantrnf^. 

Trowsers, knives, bridles^ >vhip, will be laid aside. 

Thus they carry back praetextate manners to Artaxata. 170 

and manners, the effeminacy and debanchery of the Roman nobility, 
which they will carry home with them when they return to th& 
own capital. See 1. 1 06, note. ^ 

170. Prcetextate manners.'] See sat. i. 78, note. Rome's noble 
crimes. Holyday. As we should express it — ^the fashionable vicat 
of the great. The persons who wore the phetexta, were magis. 
trates, priests, and* noblemen's children till the age of seventeen. 

Artaxata,'] The chief city of Armenia* the Greater, (situttt^ 

on the river Araxes,) built by Artaxias, whom the Armenians made 
th^ king. It was taken by Pompey, who spared both the city and 
the inhabitants : but, in Nero's reign, Corbulo, the commander in 
chief of the Roman forces in the East, having forced Tiridates, king 
of Armenia, to yield up Artaxata, levdled it with the ground. Sec 
Ant. Univ. Hist. vol. ix. 4S4. 

This city is called Artazata-omm, plur. or Artaxata-ae, smg. See 


It is probable that the poet mentions Artaxata, on account of the 
fact which is recorded, 1. 164, 5; but he may be understood, by 
this instance, to mean, that every country and people would become 
corrupt, as they had 1^ or more to do with Rome, 



I* 5 

Digitized by CiOOglC 



Jwoemd introduces Umhritms^ an old friend of hi 9^ taking his depar^ 

ture from Rome^ and going to settle in a country retirement ai 

• Cunue. He accompanies Umhritius out of town; and^ before 

they take leave of each other ^ Utnbritius tells his friend Juvenal 

V^UAMVIS digressu veteris confusus amici, 

X^udo tamen vacuis quod sedem figere Cuinifr 

Destinet, atque unum civem donare Sibyl Ifp. 

Janiia Baiar^m est, et gratum littufi ainoeni 

Secessiis. Ego vej Prochytam praepono Suburrae. j 

Nam quid tam miserutn^ tarn solum vidimus^ ut non 

Deter ius credas horrere incendia, lapsus 

Tectorum assidiibs, ac mllle pericula suBvas 

Line % Cumce.^ An ancient city of Campania near tlie sea. 
Some think it had its name from xv/bco&Ta, wares : the waves, in roagh 
weather, dashing against the walls of it. Others think it was so 
called from its being built by the Cumsi of Asia. Puir. iii. 4. 
JuTenal calls it empty in comparison with the populousness of 
Rome : it was now, probably, much decayed, and but thinly inha* 
bited : on this account it might be looked upon as a place of leisure, 
quiet, and retirement ; all which may be understood by the word 

3. The Sib^L'] Quasi a-m /9&Xt}, Dei consilium. Ainsw. The 
Sibyls were women, supposed ^to be inspired with a spirit of prophe-- 
cy. Authors are not agreed as to the number of them ; but the 
most famous was the Cumaean, so called from baring her residence 
at Cumae. Umbritius was now going to bestow, donare, one citizen 
on this abode of the Sibyl, by taking up his residence there. Se« 
ViRG. ^n. ri. 1. 10. et seq. 

4. The gate of BaieB,'] Passengers from Rome to Baiae were to 
pass through Comae ; they went in on one side, and came out on 
the other, as through a gate. 

Baiee,'] A delightful city of Campania^ of which Hor. lib. u 

epist i. 1. 83. 

NuUns ID nrbe sinus Bails prducet Binsnis. 
Here were fine warm springs and baths, both pleasant and healtb- 
ful : on which account it was much resorted to by the nobility and 

Digitized by 




ike reasons which had induced him to retire from Rome : each of 
which in replete with the keeneyi satire on its vicious inhabit ants, — • 
Thus the Poet carries on his design of inveighing against the vicei 
t and disorders johich reigned in that citify 

1 HO' troubled at the departure of an old frieud, 
I yet approve that to fix his abode at empty Cuinae 
He purposes, and to give one citizen to the Sibyl. 
it is the gate of Baiae^ and a graieful shore of pleasant 
Retirement. I prefer even Prochyta to Suburra : . 5 

For what so wretched, so solitary do we see, that you 
Would not think it M'orse to dread fires, the coutiuual 
Falling of houses^ and a thousand perils of tiie fell 

gentry of kome, many of whom had Tillas iihere for tbdir tummer 
residence, it forms part of the bay of Naples. 

4. A graieful shore."] Gratam — grateful, here^ must be und^r. 
stood in the sense of agreeable, pleasant. The whole shore, from 
Camac to Baiae, was ddKghtfuIly pleasant, and calculated for the 
most agreeable retirement. See the latter part of the last note. 

5. Proch^taJ] A small rugged island in the Tyrrhenian sea, de* 
lert and barren. 

^Suburra,'] A street in Rome, much frequented, but chiefly 

by the Tufgar, and by women of ill fame. Hence Mart. tI. 60. 

Fanrae non nimmmhone poeII«, 
Quales in iue<lm Mtkat Suburv^. 

6. For what so wretched^ ^c] Solitary and miserable as any 
place may be, y^i it is better to be there than at Rome, where you 
hare so many dangers and Inconveniences to apprehend. 

7. Fires. ^ lIouse-burning»*-to which populous cities, from many 
tarions causes, are continually liable. 

8. Falling of houses, '\ Owing to the little care taken of old and 
niinous buildings. Propertius speaks of the tvfo foregoing dan. 
gcrs. , 

Prsterea domibiiv fiaxvmam, domibusque ruinam. ^ 

8 — 9, The fcU dty.] That habitation of daily cruelty and mis. 


Digitized by 



Urbisy et Augusto recitant^ mense poetas ? 

Sed dum tota domus rhed^ componitur un^ K) 

Substitit ad veteres arcus, madidamque Capeqam t 

Hie, ubi noctumae Numa consdtuebat amicsBy 

Nunc sacri foutis neinus,*et delubra locantur 

Judaeis : quorum copbinus, foeuumque supellex. 

'9. Jnd poets recftingf'] Juvenal rery bumouronsly istrciduoes 
ihis cireumstance among the calamities and inconvenieiuges of Hfing 
at Rome, that even in the month of August, the ho&t season of 
the year, whea most people. had retired into the country, so that 
one might hope to enjoy some little quiet^ even then yon were to- be 
ieazed to death, by the constant din of the scribbling poets reciting 
their wretched compositions, and forcing yon to hear them. Comp« 
sat. i. 1* 1 — 14. wh^re our poet expresses his peculiar aversion to 

10. His whole house^ S(cJ] While all his household fqmitnra and 
goods were packing up together in one waggon, (as rheda may kera 
signify). Umbritius was moving ail his bag and baggage, (as wt 
say,) and, by its taking up no more room, it should seem to bave 
l>een very moderate in quantity. 

11. Jie stood still.'] He may be supposed to have walked on out 
of the city, attended by his friend Juvenal, expecting the vehicle 
with the goods to overtake him, when loaded: be now stood still 
to wait for its coming up ; and in this situation he was, wben he' 
began to tell his friend his various rea^ona for leaving Rome, which 
are just so many strokes of the keenest satire upon the vices and 
follies of its inhabitants. 

At the old arches.'] The ancient triumphal arcbes of Romn^ 

Ins, and of the Horatii, which were in tl^at part. Or perhaps tto 
old arches of the aqueducts might here b^ i^ant. 

Wet Capena.] One of the gates ^of Rome, which ^ to* 

wards Capua: it' was sometimes called. Triumphalis, became thbser 
who rode in triumph passed through it«^it was also ealled Fonttna* 
lis, from the great number of springs that were near it, which occa* 
sioned fouilduig the aqueducts, by which the water was carried bj 

Eipes into the city : hence Jnveoal calk it madidam Capenam. 
[^re is the spdt where Numa used to meet the goddess i^eria^ 
1% Num($.] PompUius — ^successor to Romulus. 

Nocturnal mistress.] The more strongly to reoMiQunwd bis 

laws, and the batter to instil into the Romans a reverenee for<rriW 
gioo, he persuaded them, that, every night, he conversed with a god* 
dess, or nymph, called ^geria, from, whose mouth he received hia 
wholaform of government, both civil and rebgious ; that their pkiee 
of meeting was in a grove without, the |^ Capena, dedicated to 
the rouses, wherein was a temple -consecrated to them and to the 
goddess i£geria, whose fountain waters the grovi>^for she* is fabled* 
to have wept herself into a fountain, for the death ^of Numa., This 
f6unt;uu9 grove, and temple, were let out to the Jews, at a yearly 
rent^ for habitation ^ th^y havixig b^n. driven out of the city l^r 

Digitized by 


jinrENAL'S gATiiils. ^ 

City, aad poets recitiiig in the mmiA ef AtigMf ? * r 

But while his whole home is put together in- one vdiide/ -^ 
He stood still at die old arches, and wet Capena; ::* 

Here, where Numa appointed bis nocfnmal mistresSi '- "^ 
Now the grove of the sacred fountain/and the shiines are hired 
To the Jews : of whom a basket and hay are the housdiold stirf^ 

Domitian, and compelled to lodge in these places, heretofore sabred 
to the moscs. Delubra is a general term for plaees of worship. S^ 
Ainsw. By the phrase nocturoas amicae constituebat, Jnineitd 
speaks as if he were describing an intrigne, where a ipan meets h& 
mistress by appointment at a particular place : from this we can be 
at no loss to judge of our poef s rery sUght opioion of the reafifjr 
of the transaction. 

14. A boiket and ha^^ ^c] These were all the furniture wMdh 
these poor creatures Jiad — ^the sum total of their goods and chattels.* 

TMb line has been looked upon as Very d^tult to expound. 
Some eommeatators lia?e left h without any attempt to explain It; 
Others have luther added to, than diminished from, whaterer its dff^ 
ficttlty may be. They tell Us, that these were the marks, not of 
ttefr poverty, but, by an ancient custom, of their servitude in 
Mgfpty where, in baskets, tiey carried hay, straw, and suth things, 
for the making of brick, and in such Kke labours. See Exod. v. 7—^ 
18. This comment, with the reasons given to support ^, we caii 
only say, is very far fetched, and is not warranted by any account 
WB have of die#€iwisfa eustoms. 

. Oliiers say, thirt the hay Was to feed their cattle— But how couTd 
these poor Jews be able to purchase, or to maintain, cattle, whcr 
were forced to beg in order tp maintain themselves ? Others— ^hat 
tiie hay was for their be<i on which they lay — but neither ii this 
likely; for the poet, sat.%« 541. describes a mendicant Jewess, as 
UftMg into the city, and leaving her basket and hay behind her ; 
%hieb implies, that the basket and hay were usually carried about 
with Hiem when th^ went a begging elsewhere. Now it is not to 
be janpposed that they should carry about so large a quantity of 
hBy|:w mtyfied them to He upon when at home in the grove. 

'Mw^»eUsLf that the basket and hay are mentioned together hcre^ 
and iff the other place of sat. vi. from whence I infer, that they hao^ 
little wicker baskets in which thoy put the m'oney, provisions, oc 
oiMelrfsanll'aims which they received of the passers by, and, in or. 
de^to stow them the better, and to prevent their dropping throtigh 
thfiRi^terstiees of the wicker, put wisps of hay, or dried grass, in the 
inddb of the baskets. These Jew beggars were as well known hy 
hasifiets with hay in them, as our beggars are by their wallets, or 
OMr»npkliers by tbeir knapsacks* Hence the Jewess, sat. vi. left 
her«basketraiid hay behind her when she camel into the city, for fear 
they riionld betray her, and subject her to punishment for infringing 
the emperor's ordei* against the Jews cOmtng into the city. Her 
maaiier of ^begging too, by a whisper in ilie ear, seems to confirm 
this s?pposilion» The Latin copfainos is the same as Gr. xo^yo^ — - 

Digitized by 



Omnis entm populo mefrciedem pendere jiusa est 15 

Arbor, et ejectis mendicat sylva Camcenui. 

In vallem ^geriae de^endimiiH, et speluiicas 

Dissimiles veris : quarto praestantius esset 

Numen aquft, viridi si margiiie clauderet undas 

Herba, nee ingenuuni violarent mat mora tophuui ? 20 

Hie tunc Umbritius : quando artibus, inqiiit, houestis 

!NuUas in uHbe locus, nulla eniolunieuta laborum, 

1^ hodie minor est, here quam fuit, atque eadem eras 

Deteret exiguis a!i<|uid ; proponimus illuc 

Ire, tatigatas ubi Daedal u.s exuit alas: 25 

Dum nova caiiitiea, duni prima, et recta senectus, 

which is used sereral times in the New Testament to denote a provi- 
lion.basket, made use of among the Jews. See Matt, xi?* ^O. 
Matt. xvi. 9, 10. Mark vi. 43. Mark Tiii. 19, Sa Luke ix. 17. 
Joh. Ti. 13. 

1 5. Topa^ a rent,"] The groTe being let out to the Jews, etery tree, 
as it were, might be said to bring in a rent to the people at Roin& 
The poet seems to mention this, as a proof of the public afarice^ 
created by the public extraTagance, which led them to hire out tbes^ 
sacred places, for what they could get^ by letting th^n to the poor 
Jews, who could only pay for them oat of what they got by^ beg« 

16. The woodbegs^ 8^c.'] i, e. The Jews, who were, now theipi* 
habitants of the wood, (meton.) were all beggars ; nothing else waa 
to be seen in th.ose once sacred abodes of the muses, who were now 

17. We dexcend^ <^c.] Umbritius and Jurenal aauntej^ oti^ till 
they came to that part of the grore which was called the Tale of 
^geria, so called, probably, from the fountain, into which she was 
changed, running there* 

17-^18. And into caves unlike the true*'] These cares, in their 
priniitiTe state, were as nature formed them, but had been profaned 
with artificial ornaments, which had destroyed their natire beauty 
and simplicity. 

18. How much better.'] How much more suitably situated. 

19. The deity of the water,] Kach fountain was supposed to 
haTc a nymph, or naiad, belonging to it, who presided o?«r it as the 
goddess of the water— iEgeria may be supposed to be here meant. , 

If, with a green margin^ S^c] If, instead of omaoK'nting 

the banks with artificial borders made of marble, they had been left 
in their natural state, simple and unadorned by human art, having 
no other margin but the natire turf, and. the rude stone (tophum) 
which was the genuine produce of the soil. These were once conse- 
crated in honour of the fountain-nymph, but bad now been Tiolated 
and destroyed, in order to make way for artifici;ii ornaraents of 
marble, which Roman luxury and extraragance had put in their 

♦ i 

Digitized by 



For every tree is coromuided to pay a rant to At people : • 15 

And tbe ^ood begs, the muses beii^ ejected. 

We descend into the vale of iEgeria, and into caves 

Unlike the true : how qiuch better might have been 

The deity of tbe water, if, with a green margin, the grass iacloscfd 

The waters, nor had marbles violated the natural ste«e L.) .90 , - 

Here then Umbritius : — Skice for honest arts, says he, -^Tp^ ^/Uaj ^X 

lliere is no place in the city, no emoluments of labour, ' j 

One*s substance is to-day less than it was yesterday, and the same, 

Will diminish something from the little : we propose diither 
To go, where Dsedalus put oiF his weary wings, 25 

While greyness is new, while old age is fi'ebh and upright, 

21. Here then Umbritius.'] Juvenal and his friend Umbritius^ 
being arrived at this spot, at the profanation of which they were both 
equally; scandalized, Umbrititis Iherie began to inveigh against the 
dity v^ Rome, from which he was ffow about to depart, and spake 

'Honest arts,'] Liberal arts and sciences, such as poetry, and 

other literary pursuks, which are hononrabie. Comp. sat. vii. !•<— 6, 
Honestis artibus, in contradistinction to the dishonest and shamefut 
methods of employment, which received countenance and encou* 
ragement from the great and opulent. Umbritius was himself • 
foeti See tbts^at. 1. 321, % 

%,% No emoluments of labour.] Nothing to be gotten by all th« 
pains of honest industry. 

28. One^s ^substance^ S^c] Instead of increasing what I have, I 
fiad it daily decrease ; as I can get nothing to replace what I spend, 
by all the pains I can take. 

Andfhe same^ to^morrowi, Sfc] This same poor pittance of 

mine, will to-morrow be wearing away something from the little ttiat 
IS left of it to-day : and so I must find myself growing poorer from 
day to day. Deteret is a metaphorical expression, taken from the 
action of the file, which gradually wears away and diminishes the 
bodies to which it is applieid. So the necessary expenses of Umbri- 
tius and his family were wearing away his substance, in that expen- 
sive place, which he determines to leave, for a more private and 
vlieaper part of the country. 

• 24»' We propose,] $, e. 1 and my family propose— or proponimus 
forpropono. - Synec. 

25—0. Thither to go,] t. e. To Cumse, where Dsedalus alighted 
after his flight from Crete. 

' 26. Greyness is ncTo.] While grey hairs, newly appearing, warti 
me that old age is. coming upon me. 

- Fresh and upright,] While old age in its first stage appears, 

and i am not yet sq far advanced as to be bent double, but am able 
to hold myself upright. The ancients supposed old age first to 
commence, about the 46th year. Cic. de Senectute. fhlicsophew 

Digitized by 



Sum superest Lachest quod torqueat, et pediBus me 

Porto mcis, nullo ctextram subeante bacillo^ 

Cedamus patrift : vivant Arturius isticy 

Et Catulus : maneant qui nigra in Candida vertunt/ . . 30 

Queis facile est eedem conducere, flumina, portus, 

Siccandam eluvietn, poi*{aiidum ad busta cadaver, 

£t praebere caput dominCi venale sub basti.* 

(says Holyday) djTidc man's life according to its several stages. — 
First: iofantia to three or fonr years of age. — Secondly : ptieritia, 
thence to ten. From ten to eighteen,, piibertas. Thence to twenty, 
five, adolescentia. Then juventus, from twenty-five to thirty-five or 
forty. Thence to fifty, aetas virilis. Tben came sefiectus prima et 
recta till sixty-five; and then ultima et decrepita till death. 

27. JVhiie there remains to Lackesis, Sfc.'] One of the three 
destinies ; she was supposed to spin the thread of human life. 

The Pares, or poetical fates or destinies, were Clotho, Lachesis^ 
and Atropos. The first held the distafi'<^-tfae second drew out^ and 
ipun the thread,, which the la$t cut off when finished. 

— — Jiid on mtf feet^ S^cJ] While I qan stand on my- own ^gs^ 
and walk wit}u>ut jbe help of a staff. 

29. het us leavey Sfc.'] Let me, and all that bdongs to me^ take 
an everlastiqg farewell of that detested city, which, though my naif 
tive place, I am heartily tired of, as none but knaves are fit to live 
there. ^ 

29 — 30. Jrturius and Catulus.'] Two knaves, who, from very 
low life, had raised themselves to large and afiiuent circumstances. 
Umbritius sei»ns to introduce them as examples, to prove fliat such 
people found more encouragement in Rome, than the professors of 
the liberal arts could hope for. See before^ I. 21^ note 2. 

30. Let those stay^ S^c] He means those, who by craft and sub« 
tlety could utterly invert and change the appearances of things, 
making virtue appear as vice, and vice as virtue-^falsehood as truthi 
and truth as falsehood. — Such were Arturius and Cataiius* 

31. To hire a building,'] The word aedem, here being joined with 
other things of public concern, such as rivers, ports, ^c« seems to 
imply their hiring sopae public iKiiildings, of which they made ma» 
ney ; and it should seem, frpm these lines, that the seveial branchep 
of the public revenue and expenditure, were farmed out to certain 
contractors, who were answerable to the aidiles, and to the other 
magistrates, for the due execution of their contracts. Juvenal here 
seems to point at the temples, theatres, and other public buildings^ 
which' were thus farmed out to these people, who, from the wealth 
which they had acquired, and of course from their responubility^ 
could easily procure such contracts, by which they made an immense 
and exorbitant profit. iEdis-is~-r-signifies any kind of edifice^ 
AiK^w. Omne aedeficium aedis dicitur. 

', Jiivers.] Fisheries perhaps, by hiring which, they monopo^ 

Digitized by 



While there remnaiB'tio LacheM what she miy spm, and loa wuf 

Myself I carry, no staff sustaining my Im^f 
Let us leave our native soil : let Arturius live there. 
And Catulus : l^t those stay who turn black into white. SO 

To. whom it is easy to hiyre a building, rivers, ports,' 
A sewer to be dried, a corpse to be carried to the pile. 
And to, expose a venal bead under the mistress-spear. 

hzed them, so as to distress others, and enrich themselTes— or the 
carriage of goods upon the rivers, for which a toll was paid— or, by 
flamina, may here be meant, the beds of the rivers, hired out to be 
cleaned and cleared at tiie public expense. 

31. Ports.'] Where goods were exported and imported; these 
they rented, and thus became farmers of the public revenue, to the 
great grievance of those who were to pay the duties, and to the 
great emc^ument of themselves, who were sure to make the most of 
their bargain. 

32. A sewer to be drted."] Eluvies signifies a sink or common, 
sewer ; which is usual in great cities, to carry off the water and filth 
that would otherwise incommode the houses and streets. From 
eluo, to wash out, wash away. 

These contractors undertook the opening and clearing these from 
fte stoppages to which they were liable, and by which, if not 
cleansed, the city would have been in many parts overflowed. There 
was nothing so mean and filthy, that these two men would not 
luive undertaken for the sake of gain. Here we. find them scaven- 

— - — A corpse^ Sfc."] Busta were places where dead bodies were 
burned' — also graves and sepulchres. Ainsw. Bustum from astum. 
Sometimes these people hired dr farmed funerals, contracting for the 
expense at such a price. In this too they found their account 

33. And to expose^ Sfc.'] These fellows sometimes were mangones, 
sellers of slaves, which they purchased^ and then sold by auction. 
See Peils. vi. 76, 7. 

Ihe mistress^spear.'] Domioa hasta. It is difficult to render 

these two substantives literally into English, unless we join them, as 
wc frequently do some of our own— 4is in Buwter-k^, queen-bee^ 

We read of the hasta decenirindis which was fixed before th« 
courts of JQstloe. So of the hasta centninviralis, siso fixed there. 
A speair was also fixed in the forum wheie there was an auction^ tfnd 
was a s^ of it : all^ings sold there were placed near it, and were 
«aid to be HMr-'Hmder tlui spear. Hence (by meton.) hasta la 
naed, by Gioero and others, to signify an auction, or public sale of 
gdo^ The word domina seems to imply, the, power of disposal of 
the property ii» persons and diings sold there, the possession attd do* 
fliinion over which were settled b^r ^|s mode of sale, in the several 

Digitized by 



QttoAdam hi coniickies^et munieipalis arenas 

Perpetui comites, notseque per ojppida buccae, 35 

Muuera nunc edunt^ et verso poUice Vttlgi 

Quemlibet oceidunt populariter : inde reverie! 

Conducuut faricas : et cur uon omnia? cum sint 

Quales ex humiii magna ad iastigia rerum 

Extollit^ 4)iiotie8 voluit Fortuna jocari. 40 

Quid Roniae faciam ? mentiri nescio : librum. 

Si malus est, nequeo laudare, et poscere : motus 

iUti^orum ignoro : funus promittere patris ■ . 

parcYiasers. So that the spear, or auction, might properly be called 
domina, as ruling the disposal uf persons and things* 

34. These, in time past, horn-blowers, ~\ Such was formerly the* 
occupation of these people ; they had travelled about the country, 
from town to town, with little paltry shows of gladiators, fencers,, 
wrestlers, stage-players, and the like, sounding horns to call the 
people together — ^like our trumpeters to a puppet-show* 

Municipal theatre.^ Municipium signifies a city or town. 

corporate, which had the privileges and freedom of Rome, and at 
the same time governed by laws of its own, like our corporations. 
Munieipalis denotes any thing belonging to such a town. Most of 
these had arenae, or theatres, where strolling companies of gladiators, 
&c. (like bur strolling players,) used to exhibit. They were at- 
tended by horn-blowers and trumpeters, who sounded during the 

- 35. Cheeks known, (^c] Blowers on the horn, or trumpet, were 
sometimes called buccinatores, from the great distension of the cheeks 
In tlie action of blowing. This, by constant use, left a swollen ap- 
pearance on the cheeks, for which these fellows were well known in 
all the country towns. Perhaps biicfcae is here put for buccins, 
the horns, trumpets,^ and such wind instruments as these Tellowl 
strolled with about the country. See Ainsw. Bucca, No. 3. 

36. Now set forth public shores,"] Muhera, so called because given 
to the people at the expense of him who set them forth. These fel- 
lows, who had themselves been in the mean condition abore de- 
scribed, now are so magnificent, as to treat the people with public 
•hows of gladiators at the Roman theatre. 

The people^ s thumb, Sfc.'] This alludes to a barbarous usage 

at fights of gladiators, where, if the people thought he' that was 
overcome bchared like a coward, without courage or art, they mad^ 
a sign for the vanquisher to put him to death, by clenching the hand, 
and holding or turning the thumb upward. If the thumb were 
turned downward, it was a signal to spare his life. * 
• 37. lyhom thcif will, ^c] These fellows, by treating the people 
with shows, had grown so popular, and had such influence among 
the vulgar, that it was entirely in their power to direct the specta- 
tor!, M to the signal for life or death, so that they eidier killed or 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



These, in time past, bimirbloweffs, and oik a lou^pal tbeatre 
Perpetual attendants, and cheeks known through the towjos, S^ 
Now set forth public diows^ andylhei fieoples thumb beix^ 

Kill whom they will, asthe people please : tlwoce returned s' 
They hire jakes :. and why not all thiiigsf since they are . 
Such, as, from low estate, to great heights: of circuwstancQS \ 
Fortune raises up, as often as she has a mind to joke. : 40 

What can I do at Rome ? .1 know not to lie : a book 
If bad I cannot praise, and ask for : the motions 
Of the stars I am ignorant of: the funeral of a father to promise 

laved, by directing the pleasure of the people. See Ainsw. Popn. 
lariter, No. ^. 

37. J%enee returned, S^eJ] Their adrancement to wealth did not 
alter their mean pursuits ; after returning from^ the splendour of* the 
theatre, diey contract for emptying bog-hon^^ of their soil and 
filth. Such were called at Rome^-foricarif and latrinarii-^with 
us—* nightmen. 

38. fVhy not all things f'] 

Why hire they not the town, not every thing. 

Since such m they have fortune in a string? . Drtdebt. 

39. Such, as, from low estate^'] The poet here reckons the advanca* 
ment of siich low people to the height of opulence, as the sport of 
fortune, as one of those frolics which she exercises out of mere ca. 
price- and wantonness, without any regard to desert. See Uoa. lib. i. 
ode xxxiy. 1. 14*^16. and lib. iii. ode xxix. 1. 49 — 52. 

40. Fortune.'] Had a temple and was worshipped as a goddess. 
The higher she raised up such wretches, the more conspicuously con. 
temptiole she might be said to make them, and seem^ to joke, or 
dirert herself, at their expense. See sat. x. 366. 

41. I know not to lie,'] Dissemble, cant, flatter, say what I do not 
mean, seem to approve what I dislike, and praise what in my judg. 
tuent I condemn. What then should I do at Rome, where this is 
one of the only means of adyancement ? 

42. Ask for,] It was a common practice of low flatterers, to 
commend the writings of rich authors, however bad, in order to in- 
gratiate themselyes with them, and be inyited to their houses : thej 
also asked, as the greatest favour, for the loan or gift of a copy, 
which highly flattered the composers. This may be meant by pos« 
cere, in this place. See Hor. Art. Poet. 1. 419 — 37. Martial has 
.an epigram on this subject. £pigr. zlyiii. lib. yi. 

Qubd tav grande tro^v; clamat tibi torba togat% ^ 

Non tv, Pompom, ciena diserta tua est. 

PompoDiov, thy wit is ext^DM by the rabble* . 

'TIS not thee they conunend««Bbut the cheer at thy table. 

. 4%«-3. Mqtionsfff the itars, Sfc] I have no pretensions to skill 
in astrology. 

43. The funeral of u foiher^ S^c] He hereby hints at tbe profli* 

Digitized by 


. Nm ir<do, nee piisium : rananik viscera oitt^ • 

btpfxi : fenre «d miptam 4}Utt mittit adaller, 4i^- 

Qu» maiidst^ o6tint #i : me nemo miuistro 

Pur erit; atque ideo nidli comes exeo, tanquam 

Maocusy el eitincitt corpuif non utile dextr^. ' 

Quia nu&e diligiUir, nisi cMScius^ et cui fenrans 

fstuat oGCidtis ammus, semperque tacendis i ^ 

KS tibtie 4diere puta^ nil couteret cmquam, 

Participem qui te secreti fecit hoaesti. . 

Carus erit Verri, qui Verrcm tempore, quo vult, 

Accusare potest. Tanti tibi non sit opaci 

gacy and want of natural afTection in the young men who wbhedi 
the death of their fathers, and even consulted astrologers about the. 
titne when it might happen ; which said pretended diTiners coaened.. 
' the youths out of their money, by pretending to find out the Cer« 
tainty of such erents by the motions or situations of the planets* 
This, says Umbritius, I neither can, nor will do. 

44. The entrails of toads.'\ Rana is a general word for aJl kinds 
of frogs and toads. 

The language here is metaphorical, and alludes to augurs mspect« 
ing ^e entrails of the beasts slain in sacrifice, on the riew of whiohy 
they drew their good or ill omens. 

Out of the bowels of toads, poisons^ charms, and spells^ were 
supposed to be extracted. Comp. sat. i. 70. sat tL 658. Umbri- 
tius seems to say — ^< I never foretold the death of fathers, or of 
<< other rich relations ; nor searched for poison, that my predictions 
^^ might be made good by the secret administration of it" Comp. 
sat. vi. 563 — 7. 

45. To carry to a married womanJ] I ncTcr was pimp, or go» 
between, in carrying on adulterous intrigues, by secretly conreying 
loTe-letters, presents, or any of those matters which gallants 'g^Te in 
charge to their confidents. I leare thi^ io others. 

46. / assisting J ^c,"] No rillainy will ever be committed by my 
advice or assistance. 

47. Igoforthj Sfc."] For these reasons I depart from Rome^ quhe 
alone, for I know none to whom I can attach myself as a eompa* 
nion, so uniTeraally corrupt are the people. 

48. Maimed.'] Like a maimed limb, which can be of no service 
in any employment: just as unfit am I for any employment which is 
now going forward in Rome. 

•— — - A usekBS tedtfy SfcJl As the body, when the right-hand, or 
any otber limb that once belcmged to it, is lost aad gone, it ao 
longer able to maintain itself by laborious employmoEit, so I, faaring 
no mclination or talents, to undergo the divdgeiy of vice of an^ 
]kiiid, can never tiirive at Rome. 

Scale copiet maA — extincta dextra^^^M. akt. the jnghtwlnBd be- 
ing lost. The seoae amounts te the same. 

49. Cnk$M cofi^OiMif .] Who bow baa aiif im^mt^ atteaifioai or 

Digitized by 


lAt^nu ixprknAVi ijatKtfk 

I neither will, ncMr c»i : tbe miMak ^ tomb I ae^r [mb^s^ 45 
Have inspeeted : to cKrry a manied woman what «i adtdtmr 
What he commits to charge, kt olhera know : nolKidjr^ I atwt*« 

ing> , [** 

Shall be a thief; and dierefore I go forth a coupatlkitt t9 mmt. 
Maimed, and the uselaas body of an extinct Fight*hand« 
Who now is loved, unleas conseiotis, and whoae fehrent 
Mind boils with things hidden, and ever to remain in sileUoti l Ml. 
He thinks he owes you nothing, nothing will he bestow, 
Who hath made you partaker of an honest secret. 
He will be dear to Verres, who Verres, at any timt he will^ 
Can accuse. Of so much value to you let not of shady 

tegAti shewn hiin, but he who b consdoti*, prity to, aequainted 
with, the wicked secrets of others ? 

45:^50. Fertent mind boils, SfcJ] Is in a ferment, agitated bet^reen 
tellhig and Concealing what has been <iommitted to its confidence* 
The words f^rteds aud aestuat are, in this view, metaphorical, and 
taken from the raging and boiling of the sea, when agitated by a 
stormy wind- Fervet vertigine pbnttts. Ov. Met. xi. 549. So^ 
ftstuare semper fretutn. Curt. it. 9. AinsW. iEsbio, No. 4. 

Hence aestuans signifies— -boiling with any passion, when applied 
to the mind. Aiilmo aestnante reditnm ad vada retnlit* Catoll. See 
AiNsw. See Is. hii. 20. 

Or we may give the Words another turn, as descriptive of th^ 
torment and uneasiness of mind which these men must feel, ia hav« 
iag become acquainted with the most flagitious erimes in others, by 
assisting them, or partaking with them in the commission of them^ 
and which, for thdr own sakcs, they dare not reveal, as wdl as from 
tfie fear of those by whom they are intrusted. 

Who now ir lov'd but he who lores the tinesn 

Conscious of close intrigtieft, and dipped in crimes t 

Lab'ring with secrets which his besom bum* 

Yet never most to public Ught return. ^ Dihri>«*. 

M. Be ihitiks he tmes ^ou nothing^ i^c.'] Nobody will think 
Unsdtf bilged to yon for concealing honest and fair transactions^ 
or think it incumbent on hiin to buy your silenoe by conferriag fa« 
teofs on Ton. ^ * 

bX FtffT**;] See sat. ii. 26, note. Juvenal mentions him hcra 
aian eiample of what he has been saying. Most probairiy, under 
the fii^ff i ft of V^res, the poet means some cfaairacters then living, who 
iiadn niQfili of thos^ who had them w the^ power \ij being ac. 
quaiatied with their secret villainies, and Irho, at anf time, covld 
haie^milBd them by a. discovery « .- 

64—5. S'Aodtt TagmA A river of Spain, which discharges itself 
Inta^M oeean near JUil^ in PortugaU It was andently s»d t» 
hav« geMen sa«da> It was oOled opaoas, dark^ obiwae, or shady, 
fiM.tha.tiyd(ah|d»«e tMitriW on ite banks« 

.VOL.1. ^ 

Digitized/by LjOOQIC 


Ooiiiis arena Ti^, quodqtie in mare vohritur aiinim> 55 

Ut somno careas, ponendaque praeinia sumas 
TriiBtis, et a magno semper timearis amico. 

Quse nunc divitibus gens acceptissima nostris, 
Et qoos 'praecipue fugiam, properabo fiiteri ; 
Nee pudor obstabit. Non possum ferre, Quirites, 60 

Graecam urbem : ^uanivis quota portio faecis Achaese ? 
Jampndem Syrus m Tiberim defluxit Orontes, 

« .£stus serencM aureo firanges Tago 

Obscnrus umbris arborum. Mart. lib. i. epigr. 50. 

Or opacas maj denote a dusky turbid appearance in the water. 

56. Thai you should want sleep^ ^c] O thou, whoe'er tltbu art, 
that may be solicited to such criminal secrecy by the rich and great, 
reflect on the misery of such flagitious confidence, and prefer the 
repose of a quiet and easy conscience, to all the golden sands of 
Tagos, to all the treasures which it can roll into the sea ! These 
would make you bui ill amends for sleepless nights, when kept 
awake by guilt and fear. 

Accept rewards to be rejected.'] t. e. Which ought to be re- 

jected-7-by way of hush-money, which, so far, poor wretch, 'from 
making jou happj, will fill you with shame and sorrow, and which, 
therefore, are to be looked upon as abominable, and to be utterly 
refused, and laid aside. Ponenda, lit. — to be laid down — ^but here it 
has the sense ef — abominanda — respuenda — rejicienda^-abneganda. 
See Hob. lib. iii. od. ii. 1. 19. 

^7. Feared^ 3fcS\ The great man who professes himself your 
friend, and who has heaped his farours upon you in order to bribe 
you Ui silence, will be perpetually betraying a dread of you, lest 
you should discover him. The consequence df which, you may 
haye reason to apprehend, may be his ridding himself of hjs fears by 
ridding the world of you, lest you should prove Hke oithers— -magni 
delator amici. See sat. i. 33. But whether the great man bethiys this 
fear or not, you may be certain he will be constantly possessed with 
it; and a much greater proof of this you cannot have, than the 
ptdns he takes to buy your silence. When he grows weary of this 
method, you know what you may expect. Al^ ! can all the ii^- 
iures of the whole earth make it worth your while to be in such a 
situation! Comp. 1. 113. 

58. WhcU nation^ SfcJ] XTmbritius proceeds in his reasons for re* 
tiring from Rome. Having complained of the sad state (tf the 
times, insomuch that no honest man could thrive there, he now at* 
tacks the^introduction of Grecians and other foreigners, the fond* 
ness of the rich and great towards them, and the sordid arts by 
which they raised themselves. * 

60. Nor shall sht^me hinder. ] In short, Pll speak mjr mitid wsth« . 
out reserve, my modesty shall not stand in my t^ay. 

O Romans.'] Quirites— this anciently was a name for ^e 

Sabines, from the city Cures, or from qiiiris, a sort of speiir nsad 
by them : but after their union with the Romans this appellaatioa 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Tagus the whole sand be, and the gold which is rolled inioihe 
sea, ^ 55 

That you should want sleep, and should accept rewards to be 
rejected, , 

; , Sorrowful, and he alwuys feared by a great fnend* 
. What nation is now most acceptable to our rich men, 
And whom I would particularly avoid, I will hasten to cotifess ; 
I Ndr shall shanie hinder. O Romans, I cannot bear 69 

I A Grecian city t tho' what is the portion of Achaean dregs ? 

Some while since Syrian Orontes has 6ow'd into the Tiber, 

^^ Vised tor ike Rdioail people m general. The name Qoirinus 

I , was first given to Romulas. See sat. ii. 133. 

. , J^obably the poet used the word Quirites here^ as reminding them 
of thar aucient simplicity of manners and dress, by way of contrast 
to their present corruption and effeminacy in both ; owing^ yery 
much, to their fondness of the Grreeks and other foreigners, for 
some time past introduced among them. 

■61. A Grecian city.'] Meaning Rome-^now so .transformed from- 
wh^t it once was, by the rage which the great people had for the 
language, manners, dress, &c. of those Greeks whom the^vinvited and 
entertained, that, as the inferior people are fond of imitating theii" 
Superiors, it was not unlikely that the transformation might becomd^ 
general throughout the whole city : no longer Roman, but Grecian*^ 
Umbritius could not bear tiie thought. 
-^ — Tho' what is the portion^ SfC."] Though, by the way, if we 

I consider the multitudes of other foreigners, with which the city now 

' abotmds, what, as to numbers, is the portion of Greeks ? they are 

comparatively few. See sat. xiii. 157. Hsec quota pars scel^um^ 
kc* What part is this (ii e. how small a part or portion) of the 

I ^ crimes, Ike. 

I * Achcean dregsJ] Adhaea, of Achaia, signifies the whole coun- 

try of Greece, anciently called Danae, whence the Greeks are called. 

I D^nai. AiNSw. Dregs — m'etaph. taken from the foul, turbid, fil- 

thy pediment whidi wine deposits at the bottom of the cask. A fit 

I embl e m o f these > a1u Gfeules , as though they were the filth and re« 

i fuse of all Greece. 

Sometimes the word Achaea, or Achaia, is to be understood in a more 

, (^nfined sense, and denotes only some of that part of Greece called 

Feloponnesus,(pr Pelops' island, now the More^ anciently divided, 

. ,^into .^ixadia, and ^gbaia, of which C orint h was the capital : the 

inhabitants of this city were proverbially lewd and wicked — %oqn\iu(^ 

. ^w was a usual phrase to express doing acts of effeminacy, Icwduess,^ 

and debauchery — what then must the dregs of Corinth, and its en*. 

virons have been } See 1 Cor. yu 9 — 11, former part. 

62. Syrim Orontes.'] Orontes was the greatest river of Syria, a 
large country of Asia. Umbritius had said (at 1. 61.) that the por-^ 
tion of Grecians was small in copiparison ; he now proceed* to ex- 
plain himself, by mentioning the inundation of Syrians, and other 


Digitized by 


M JUTSKALIS SAtlR^ , &ir. nt. 

Xt Iklguam, et mores, «t cum tibicin^ chordas 

Obliquas, necnon gentilia tympana secum 

Vexit, 61 td Circum jussas prostare puella«» OS 

lie, quibiis grata est picta lupa Barbara mitri. 

Rusticus ille tuus siunit trechedipna, Quirme^ 
Et ceromatico fert niceteria collo. 

Ariati^ strangers, who had for 5ome time been flocking to Eonetf 
these were in such tiumbers from Syria^ and they had so introduced 
their eastern manners, music, &c. that one would fancy one's self 
OB the banks of the Orontcs, instead of the Tiber. The rif er Oron- 
tes is here put for the people who inhabited the tract of country 
tlfttMigh Which it ran. Metou. So the Tiber for the city of Roi&e^ 
which stood on its banks. 

• '«i. Has Jhw^d.'] Metaph. This well expresses the idea of Hke . 
liui&berff, as well as the mischiefs they brought with them, whlcb 
i*^cre now overwhelming the dty of Rome, and utterly destroying 
tto morals of the people. 

63. With the piper.'] Tibicen signifies a player on a flute^ 4Mr 
j^ipe. A minstrel. They brought eastern musicians, as well aa tm* 
id^l instruments. The flute was an instrument whose soft 60«nil 
tended to mollify and enervate the mind. 

6$ — 4. Harps oblique.'] Chordas, literally strings : here it slgni^ 
ies ^the instruments, which, being in a crooked form, the »triag9 
mn^ of course be obliquely placed. 

64i National timbrels.] Tabours, or little drumsy in form of m 
ko6p^, iHlh parchment distended over it, and bits of ^brass &xed to it 
to liiake a jingling noise ; which the eastern people made use of, m^ 
i^iffy flk9 to thin day, at their feasts and dandng^, and whi^ they 
beat with the fingers. 

4 €4^^5. With itself hath brot^hi.] As a river, when it breaks 
its boundjs, carries along with it something from all the diflferent 
9o\\h through which it passes, and rolls along what It may meet with 
tHi ita way ; so the torrent of AsiaticsT has brought with it, from Sy*^ 
ria to Rome, the language, morals, dress, music, and all the enervat« 
ing and efieminate vices of the several eastern proTinces from 
whence it came. 

65. jind girls bidden to expose^ 6fc.] Prosto, in this connexion, 
Ite applied to harlots, means to be common, and ready to be hired 
of all comers for money. For this purpose, the owners of these 
Asiatic female slaves ordered them to attend at the Circus, wfaera 
they m^t pick up gaUants, and so made a gain of their prostitu^ 
tion. Or perhaps they bad stews In the cells and vaults whidi 
were under the great Cireas, where they exerdsed dieir lewdness. 
See Holyday on the place, note f. 

The word jussas may, perhaps, apply to these protdtntes, aa ex« 
^essive of tibeir situation, as being at every body's comniand. 
Thua Ov. Mb. i. eleg. 10. 

Stat meretrix ceito cuivis mercabilis ere, 
' EtmiserasjusM) eoTpore quserit opek 

Digitized by 



And its language, and manaers, luid; with the piper; harps 
Oblique, also its national timbrels, with itself 
Hath brought, and girls bidd^ to expose themselves for hiring 
at the Circus. — w 

Go ye, who like a Barbarian strumpet with a painted mitre. 

That rustic of thine, O Quirinus, assumes a Grecian dressii . 
And carries Gredan ornaments on his perfumed neck. 

65. Circfif,'] There were sereral circi in Rome, which were places 
set apart for the celebration of seTersl games: thejr were gen^ 
rally oblong, or almost in the shape of a bow, haviug a wall quite 
round, with rang^ of seats for the couTenience of spectat^^ia. The 
Circus maximus, which is probably meant here, was an inSimeQSe 
buiMing; it was first built by Tarquinius Priscus, but beautiified 
and adorned by succeeding princes, and enlarged to such a. prodi^ 
gious extent, as to be able to contain, in their proper seats^ twohaiu - 
dred and sixty tUbasand spectators. See Ke\m£tt, Ant. part Ih 
booki. c. 4. t 

§60 Go ye^ 4^c.] Umbritius may be supposed to hare uttered this 
witii no small indignation. 

Strumpet J] Lupa literally signifies a «he*wolf — ^but ani^ 

pellation ^Ay bestowed on common whores or bawds, whose pn»« - 

fes8jk>n led tiiem to support themseltes by preying at large on aU - 

they could get intd their clutches. Hence a brothel was called lu# 

paaar. The.Romans called all foreigners barbarians. (^ve^^ o/^^jt. i(X. t t L^ 

»■ A patnted mitre.'] A sort of turban, worn by the Syriam 
women as a part of their head-dress, ornamented with patnted linen* 

67. O Quirinus.'] Q Romulus, thqu gre^t founder of this now \ 
degenerate city ! See note on 1. 60. 

-^ That rustic of thine.] In the days of Romulus, and under 

his government^ the Romans were an hardy race of shepherds and ^ 
fauslNandmen. See sat. ii. 1. 74, and 127. Sat. Tiii« ]. 974, d. rough 
in thdr dress^ and simple in their manners, Bm^ alas I how 
changed ! 

» • ' , ' A Gheciffn dress.] Trechedipna-^from Tpf;c«, to run, and 
iuv^f, a sri^per. A kind of garment in which they ran to. other , 
people's suppers. Ainsw. It was certainly of Greek extraction,, 
and though the form and materials «of it are not described, yet we 
must pappose it of the soft, effeminate, or gawdy kind, very unlik^ 
fte gtfrb and dress .of the ancient rustics of Romulus, and to speak 
a sad change in the mauners of the people. Dryden readers the 
passage thusr 

- • O Romulus, and father Mars, look down • "i ' 

Your herdsman primitive, your homely clown, 5* 
Im. torn' a h beau in a ioos€ tawdry gown. ) 

68. Ghedan ornaments.] Niceteria — rewards for Tictories, as 
rings, collars of gold, &c. Prizes. From Gr. y»x»j, yictory. 

On his perfumed neck.] Ceromatico collo. The ceroma 

(Gr. xvipuiAXy from xt}^o(, cera) wa3 an oil tempered with wax^ wherein 
wrestlers aaointed themselres. 

a 3 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

80 JUVENALIS SATIRiE. bat.!!!. 

Hif altft Sicyone/ast hk Amydooe relict^, 
Hie Andro^ ille Samo^ hie Trallibus, aut Alabandis, 70 

EsquiliaSy dictumque petuot a vimine eoUem ; 
Viscei^a niagnarum domuuDiy dominique futuri. 

Ingenium velox^ audacia i>erditar, sermo 
Fromptus/et Isaeo torreptior ; ede quid ilium 
Esse putes ? queinvis hominem secum attuiit ad nos : 7.St 

Grammaticus, Rhetor, Geometres, Pictor, Aliptes, 
Augur, Schoenohiates, Medicus, Magus : omuia npvit. 
•Graeculus esuiiens in coeluin, jusseris, ifoit. 

But' what proofs of effeininaGy) or deprayation, doth the poet set 
forth in these instances ? 

Using wrestlers* oil, and wearing on the neck collars of gold, a:M 
other insignia of Tictory, if to be understood literally, seems %iit IR.'^? 
-to agree with the poet's design, to charge the Romans with a loss of 
all fonoer harclinehs and manliness :^ therefore we are to understand 
this line in an ironical sense, meaning, that, instead of wearing coU 
lars of gold as tokens of victory, aifd rewards of courage and acti* 
vity, their niceteria were tritikets and gewgaws, worn merely as or- 
naments, suitable to the efieminacry and luxury into which, after the 
example of the Grecians, Syrians, &c. they were sunk. By the cet. 
TOma he must als^o be understood to mean, that, instead of wi^stl^^ 
oil, which was a mere compound of oil and wax, their ceroka wat 
some curious perfumed unguent with which they anointed their f)er«> 
sons, their hair particularly, merely out of luxury. See sat ||« 
40-rT2, ThpsMr. Dryden: 

His once unkemM and'horrid locks behold 
Stilling, sweet pil, his neck enchainM with gold : 
Aping the foreigners in every dress, 
. . . ^ Wiilch, bouffht at greater cost, becomes him less. 

**•'*/'. 09. High StC^on.'] A,r\ klan^^ jJa^V j^gAaa &fta>j jgJiPrft ihp grouucj 

was yiery high. The Mgestn was a part of the Mediterranean sea^ 

near Greece, dividing Europe from Asia. . It is now ealled the Air. 

chipelago, and by the Turks, the White sea. 

-. -^w^rfon.] A city of Macedonia. \ ' 

ff/*» I * 70, Andros.'] An islan^^nd town o^, Phrygia ^leXi^^r} situai^ 

in the iXigean sea. 

— — Samos.^ An island in the Ionian .sea^wesi~of. the bay of 

Corinth^ now under the republiji.QL.¥enicejt^npw Cephalonie. 
' . .. ' Tralles^'] A city of Lesser Asia between Caria and Lydja^ 
— i — jilabandaJ] A city of Caria in the Lesser Asia. ' ' 

71. EsqutluB.'] The mons esquiliuus, one of the seven hills in 

Rome; so called from esculus^-^ beech-tree, of which many grew 

i^pon it. See Ainsw. 

The hill name^^ ^c] The cojlis vimiualis, another of th^ 

seven hills on which Rome was built ; so called from a wood or 

grove of ^osiers which grew upon it. There was an altar there t<^ 

Jupiter^ under the title of Jupiter Tiuiinalis. 


Digitized by 


One leaving high Sicyoo, but anotfa^/ Amydon,' 
He from Andros^ anodier front Saiiu»y aiiotlier fimai TVaUea^ or* 
Alabanda^ 70 

Seek the EsquiliaB^ aad the hill named from an osier; 
TPhe bowel^dd fiiture lords, of great families. 

A quick wit, desperate impudence, speech 
Ready, and more rapid than Isaeus^ Say-^what do you 
.'Think him to be? He has brought us with himself what mail 
. you please : 75 

Grammarian, Rhetorician, Geometrician, Piunter, Aoointery 
Augur, Rope-daneer, Physician, Wizard : he knows all things. 
A hungry Ureek will go into heaven, if you command. 

' neietwoparls oi Rome may stand (by synec.) for Rome it- 
nMz or.peiliaps these were parts of it where these foreigners chiefly 

7S* The b4nMsj Sfe.'] Insinuating themselves, by their art and 
' sabtletyy into the intimacy of great and noble families, so as to be- 
come tibesr confidents uid favourites, their vitals as it werci, insomuch 
that^ in time, they govern the whole : and, in some instances, be. 
come their h^rs, uid thus lords over. the family possessions. See 
sat il* 58, notes. The wheedling and flattering of rich people, in order 
to become tiieir heirs, are often mentioned in Juvenal — such people 
weie called captotpres. 

73. A quiek ^J] Ingenimn velox^-^Ingenium is a word of many 
meaoings ; perhaps, here, joined with velox, it might be rendered, a 
ready invention. 

Desperate impudence.'] That nothing can abash or dismay. 

; 73^-^. Speech readtf,'] Having words at wilL 

74. IfOusJ] A famous Athenian orator, preceptor of Demosthe- 
nes. Torr^itior, more copious, flowing with more precipitation and 
lalness, more like a torrent. 

jSay, Sfc,"] Now by the way, my friend, tell me what yon. 

imagine such a man to b^^I mean of what calling or profession, or 
what do you think him qualified for ? 

75.' fVhai man, Sfc.] Well, I'll not puzzle you wi^ guessing, 
bot at once inform yon, that, in his own single person, he has 
brought with him every character that you can imagine : in short, he 
19 a jack of all trades. As the French say — C'estnn valet h tout 
£lire. Or, as is said of the Jesuits — Jesnitus est omnis homo* 

76. Anotnier,"] Aliptes, (from 6r. aX»^w, to anoint,) he that 
aaoiiited the wrestlers, and took care of them. Ainsw. 

77. He know9 all thingi.'] Not only what I have mentioned, but 
ID versatile is his genius, th&t nothing can come amiss to him. There 
is nothing that he does not pretend to the knowledge of. 

78. A hungry Greek.] The diminutive Graeculus is sarcastical. 
q, dL Let my little Grecian be pinched with hunger, he would under, 
take any thing you bade him, however impossible or improbable- 
like another Daedalus, he would even attempt to fly into the air. 


Digrtized by LjOOQ IC 

Ad flumnmin noii Maarus crat, mec Sormatm, nee ThtWf - 
•QuatumpsUp^niitty^MduiaedMtui Atfa^ -10 

•Hmum ego non ft]q;iuii conchylia i tine prior ille 
Signabit f f^tufque toro mdiore recumbet, 
Advectiis Romania qao pmiui et coctooa) i«nto i 
IJsque adeo nihil est, i|piod aosUra inihntia caslun^ 
Hausit Avevtei,^ bacci nntrite Sabini ? v to 

Quid !-r^iiod adidandi gens prudendfudma laudat 
germonem indocti, faciem deformis ainici, 
£t looguni invalidi coUiim cervicibus squat - 

HercttliSy Anlaeum procul a tellure teneutis— r . 1 

,Miratur vocem aogutttanii qu& deterius n^c 90 

79. bijbte, ffc.'] Ad sammum-^^rupoii the irhde, be it obcet^ed, 
4liat the Ore^ of old were a dexteroes people at coDtrfmace-; far 
the attempt at flying was schemed by jtedalos, a native of AliMa, 
^'Ho nan of any^ other e9Uiitf y has the honour of libe mventioii*' '• 
i 81« TTtaspfwdiddreM.^ Conoh^liar-r^heU.l&sh^the liquor therenf 
^ade purpk, or scarlet colour : called also murex. — Coiiohyiiuin, 
1^ meton. mgm&m the colour itself; also garments dyed tfacceiHtb, 
which were ?ery expeiisi?e, and worn by the nah^ity^ and ^^^ 
fveat people* 

Shall not I fly, fugiaiD, aroid the very sight of such gar meo is, 
when worn by suc^ fellows as these, who are only able to w«ar 
4beiu by the weajth Wbi<?h they b«^ve gott^ hj their craft an4 inl^ 

81i^2. Sign before me.] Set his name before mine, m a witness 
to any deed, &c* which we may be called upon to sign. 

63. Supported by a better couchj Ijrc.] The Romans ^y on 
couches ut iheir convivial eotertainments^theee couches were orniL, 
nmted more or less, some finer and handsomer than others, wbich 
were occupied according to the quality of the guests. ' The-eaiddk 
couch was esteemed the most honourable place, and so in order ImAi 
thence* Must this yagabond Greek take piaoe of me at table,-ffayB 
Umbritins, as if he were above me in pohit of quality «kI lasaaa ^ 
quence ? As we should say-r-^iall he sit above flEie at table ? Hon. 
hb. ii. sat fiii. }. dp«-r^ describee an arrangwnent of 4ie ipompmijr 
at table* Vi 

83* Brwght to Rome.'] AdveotttSH4mporlBd irota i^ foniga 
country, by the same wind, and in the same ship, widi prwieiQJHid 
Ik^ figs, from Syria.^ These were ealied coctona, or eottaa% as 
supposed, from Heb. mi littk. Mart. lib. xiii. 2& parva oottaotai 

Syria peeutiares habet arboras, in ficorum ganeve. Caricas, et 
miaores ^s generis^ quse cootana vo(»nt. ¥um. lib. xiii. c. 5. ^ 

Juvep&l means to set forth the low ovigin of these people; that 
Aey, at first, were brought ont of Syria to Rone, as deiders inemall 
and contamptiUe aNkfei^ Or be may n^an, that as slaves Aey 
jnade a Mt of the cargo, in «w of these ^tttetfnding vessels^ fee 

Digitized by 



lafine^hflr iHWMot a Moor^ nor SanBatt«By,iior Thncian^ '. 
Who assumed wii^s, bat bom in the mkbt of Adictts* ft) 

ShaU I not avoid the splendid dress of these? before me^skfttt^he 
Sign f and supported by a better couch shall he lie at table. 
Brought to Rome bj the same wind as plumbs and figs i 
Is it even nothing that our infancy the air 
Of Aventinus dreW, nourished by die Sabine berry ? 85 

What ! — because a nation, most expert in flattery, praises 
The speech of an unlearned, the face of a deformed friend, 
And equals the long neck of the feeble, to the neck ol 
Hercules, holding Anteeus far from the earth«^~ 
Admires a squeaking voice : not worse than which, go 

B$^ ' jtventinusj S^c,'] One of the seven hills of Rome; so called 
tfom ATeas, a river of the Sabines. Aivsw. Umbritius here, with 
» fMitriotic indignation at the preference given to foreigners, ask»*^ 
What^! is there no privilege in having drawn our first breath in 
Rome ? no pre-eminence in being born a citizen of the first dty in ' 
the worid, the conqueror and mistress of all those coantries from 
whence these people came ? Shall such fellows as these not only vie 
W3:th Roman cttiaens, bat be preferred before thera ? 

Sabine berr^J] A part of Italy on the banks of the Tiber^ 

4MMe heloDging. to the Sabines, was famous for olives, here called 
rbaeca Sabioa. But we are to understand all the nutritive fruits and 
produce of the country in general. Pro specie genus. Syn. In 
contradistinction to the pruaa et coctona, 1. 83. 

86. fVhat!^ As if he had said— What ! is all the favour and pre- 
ferenee which these Greeks meet with, owing to their talent for fiat. 
toy? 'ape they to be esteemed more than the citizens of Roma^ 
because they are a nation of base sycophants? 

87. Ths tpeeAj Sfc."] Or discoune, talk, conversation, of seme 
ignoiant, stupid, rich patron, whose favour is basely courted by tibe 
saott' barefaced adulation. 

• n ^..^^ JWg ^ a deformedf ^c] Persuading him that he is hand^ 
^fme ; or that his very deformities are beauties. 

BB» lie lomg nedcf SfcJ] Compares the long crancneck of some 
jMiny wretoh, to the brawny neck ftud shouhlers (ceryicibus) of 

-. 'e»j HoUhtg^ 4re.] This relates to the story of Antaeus^ « giaUt of 
fffodigieHis strength, who, when knocks down by Hercules, re- 
covfisd himself by lyin^ on his mother earth ; Hercules therefore . 
hdd Urn np in his led hand, between earth and heavm, and^ with his 
fighl band, dash«d his brains out 

90. Admires a sqttemking voice*'] A squeaking,, hoarse, croakiag 
kind of nttoanoe, as if squeezed in its passage by the narrowness of 
4iio throat^^orthis he aj^lands with admiration. 

. .t...^ ^^ S0erfe, ifcS] He assimilates the voice so commendedy to 
4he hiMrsh iscreamii^ -tound of a cock when he crows ; ok rather to 
the noise which he makes when he sdoce the hen, on apptoaching to 

Digitized by 


go JUVBNALIS «ATIR«* sat, wu 

Ille sonaty quo ra^detur galltna maiilo ! 

Hxc eadem licet et nobis laudare : sed iUis 

Creditur. An meHor eHm Thaida siistinet^ aut cum 

Uxorem comoedus agit, vel Dorida nullo 

Cuham palliolo ? mulier nempe ipKa videtur, 95 

Non persona loqui i vacua et plana omnia dicas 

Infra ventriculum^ et teniu distantia rim&^ 

Nee tameu Antipchus, nee erit mirabilis illic 

Aut Strat<>c1es, aut cum raoUi Demetrius Htemo : 

Natio comoeda est: rides P mtijore cachinno ICO 

Concutifur : flet> si lachrymas bonspexit amici, 

Nee dolet : igniculum brumse si tempore poscas, 

Accipit endromidem : si dixeris^ aestuo, sudat. 

i . 

tread her^ when he nips her comb in his beak^ and holds her dowa 
.under him. This must be alluded to by the mordetur galliaa^ &c. 
ClaTerlns, paraph, in Jut. it. reads the passage : 

■■ ■ ■ qxik detenus nee 
lUa sonat» qaum mordetur gallina marito. ' 

■ . worse than which neither 

Doth that sound, when a hen is bitten by her husbaad, 

•Meaning — ^that Toice which was so extolled with admlratfon bjthe 
flatterer, was as bad as the screaming which a hen makes when tr6il- 
den bj the cock, who seizes and bites her comb with his beak, wMeh 
must be Tery painful, and occasion the noise which she- makes. 
HowcTer this reading may be rather more agreeable to the fact, yet 
•there does not seem to be sufficient authority to adopt it. 

92. fVe may praise a/«o.] To be sure we Romans may Hatter, 
but without success ; we shall not be beltCTed : the Greeks nte'i^ 
only peoj^le in such credit as to haTc all they say pas» for tirnth. 

9^3. Whether is he better when he plays^ ^c] Sustinet>^-«sustains 
the part of a Thais, or courtezan, or the more decent character erf a 
matron, or a naked sea nymph : there is no saying whidi a Grecian 
actor excels most in — he speaks so like a woman, that you'd swear 
the Tery womau seems to speak, and not the actor. Persona signi- 
fies a false face, a mask, a Tizor, in which the Grecian and Roihan 
actors played their parts, and so by raeton. became to signify an 

This passage shews, that women's parts were represented by men i 
forwhich these Greeks had no occasion for any alteration of TOioe; 
they differed from women in nothing but their sex. 

94. Dorisy ^c] A sea nymph represented in some play. 9*^ 
AiNsw. Doris. Palliolum was a little upper garment: the* sea 
iiyrophs were usually represented naked, nullo palliolo, without :the 
least coTering oTcr their bodies. Palliolum, dim. of palHunr» 

98. Yet neither pill AntiochusJ] This person, and the othefB 
•mentioned in the next line, were ail Grecian comedianSf; perhaps 
Jlsmus, from the ^itbet molti, may be understood tahave bipen pe- 
culiarly ad^p^ perfonBance of fsmale characters. 

Digitized by 


He utters^ who^ being husbaiid^ thehen is MiteR { 
Tbese same things we msiy ptBise also : but to diem 
* Credit is given. Whether is 'he bettor when he plays Thais; or 

when ... 

The comedian acts a wife, or Doris with no 
Cloak dressed ? tnlly a woman herself seems to speak^ 95 

i Jf ot the actor ; you would declare 
It was a real wom^ in all respects. 
Yet neither will Antiochus, nor admirable there will 
Either Stratocles, or Demetrius, with soft Haemus, be : 
The nation is imitatilre. Do you laugh f with'gieaterjbugh* 
•. ter ' 100 

Is he shaken : he weeps, if he has seen the tears of a friend, 
'Not that he grieves : if in winter-time you ask for a little tire, 
lierimts on a great coat: if you should say — '* I am hot*' — ^he 


' All these, however we may admire them at Rome, would not J)c" 
at all extraordinary in the country which they came from — ^iHic- — 
for all the Grecians are born actors ; there is therefore nothing neW| 
or wonderful, there, in representing assumed characters, however 
w^IJl,; it is the very characteristic of the whole nation to be person- 
ation and imitatire. See Atnsw. Comoedus-a-um. 
I * 100* Do you laugh .^] The poet here illustrates what he had said, 
i by instances of Grecian adulation of the most serrile and meanest 
f kind. 

If cme of their patrons happens to laugh, or even to smile, for so 
rid^ also Signifies, the parasite sets up a loud horse.laugh, and 
I laughs aloud, or, as the word concutitur implies, laughs ready to split 
Us aideS} as we say. 

^ V}1.^ He weeps^ ^c] If he finds his* friend in tears, he can hu. 
SMinr ^tds too ; and can squeeze out a lamentable appearance of 
swrow, bat without a single grain of it. 

. IQ^, ff in winter-time ffou askj Sfcl If the weather be cold 
; enougk. for the patron to order a little fire, the versatile Greek in. 
I st^tly improves on the matter, and puts on a great thick gown — 
I endromidem — a sort of thick rug, used by wrestlers, and other 
gj09Aasiast8, to cover them after their exercise, lest they should cool 

103. / am hot J Sfc,"] If the patron complains of heat — ^the other 
vopirs th^t he is ^l over in a sweat. 

.Shakespeare has touched this sort of character something in the 
HHy of Juvenal— Hamlet, act V. sc. ii. — where he introduces th# 
short but well-drawn character of Osrick, whom he represents as a 
(fWplete temporizer with the huuiours of his superiors. 

Hfif, JTour bonnet to his right use — His for the head.^ 

Osii. I thank your lordship^ *tis tery hot, 

Pam. Noy beiieve me, 'tis very cotdr—the wind is nariherfy. 

Digitized by 


n JUVENAL IS tAtTRM. «at. im 

... - - ^ 

Non sumus ergo pares : meBor qui semper, et omni ./ 

Noete dieque potest aliemtm sumcre vultuin|' 

A i«ciejactare manus, laudare paratus, 

Si bene ructavit, si rectum minxit aknicus, 

Si truUa inverse crepitum dedit aurea fiindo. 

Praeterea sanctam nihil est, et ab inguine tutiun : 

Non matrona laris, non filia virgo, neque ip$e . U 

Sponsus laevis adhuc, non filius ante pudicus. 

Out. £ is tnd^erent cold, my lerd^ indeed. 

Ham. But yet ^ methinksy it is very sultry ^ and hot ^ for m^ com- 

OsR. Exceedingly^ my lordy it is very sultry^ as it vere, leaaiH 
tell how* 

But Terence has a full length picture of one of these Grecian pa- 
rasites, which he copied from Menander. See Te&. £un. the part 
of Gnatho throughout : than which nothing can be more exqui- 
sitely drawn, or more highly finished. 

This, bj the way, justifies Juvenal in tracing the original of suqli 
characters from Greece. Menander lived about 350 years . before 
Christ. Terence died about 159 years before Christ. 

104. We are not therefore equals,'] We Romans are no match fof 
them — they far exceed any thing we can attempt in the way of flat-, 

—' — Better is he^ Sfc,'] He who can watch the countenance of \ 
another perpetually, and, night and day, as it were^ practise an imi- 
tation of it, so as to coincide, on all occasions, with the particular 
look, humour, and disposition of 'others, is better calculated for the 
office of a sycophant, than we can pretend to be. 

106. Cast from thefacey Sfc.'J This was some action of compli- 
mentary address, made use of by flatterers. He who did this, first 
brought the hand to his mouth, kissed his hand, then stretched it 
out towards the person whom he meant to salute, and thus was un- 
derstood to throw, or reach forth, the kiss which he had giv^a t# 
his hand. 

To this purpose Salmasins explains the phrase — a facie jactare 

This exacdy coincides with what we call kissing the hand to onf^ . d 
This we see done frequently, where persons see one another at a ^ 
distance in crowded public places, or are passing each other iq Cf^r. mj 
ri^es, and the like, where they cannot get near enough to speak 
together; and this is looked upon as a token of friendly conrtesjr^ : i 
and civility. The action is performed much in the manner ahfxff .^^\ 
described, and is common among us. ;_^. - -i 

It is so usual to look on this as a token of civility, that it is one ^ji 

of the first things whkh children, especially of the higher sort, are 

tanght7H»ometimes it is done with one hand, sometimes with both. t\ i 

Accordhig to this interpretation^ we may suppose, that these &tt- 

"Digitized by 

Gpogle JUlSBNiX'S SATIftS9; Q$ 

We are not therefore eqtid;! : better m he^ Yfho atways^ laid »U 

Night and day, can assume another's eottntenanee^ 105 

Cast from the face the hands, ready to af^plaud. 

If his friend hath belched well, or rightly made water ; 

If the golden cup hath given ^ cracky from tbe inverted bottom* 

Moreover, nothing is sacred or safe from their lust ; 

Not the matron of an household^ not a virgin daughter, oot 1 10 

The wooer himself, as yet smootb> iiot the son b^ore ^astet* 

terers were very lavish of this kind of salutation, towards those 
whose favour they courted. 

Brklguig'the band to the mouth and kissing it, as a token of re« 
spect, is^ Tery ancient ; we read of it in Job xxxi. S69 ^7. as an ac« 
tion of %veti religious worship, which the idolaters paid to the host 
of heaven. 

107. Hath belohed zoett.'] By these ridiculous instances, the pOet 
means to shew that their adulation was of the most servile and ab- 
ject kind. 

108. If the golden citp^ t^c] TruUa signifies a vessel, or cup, to 
drink with ; they* were made of various materials, but tiie rich had 
them of gold* 

When the great man had exhausted the liquor, so that the cup 
was turned bottom upwards before he took it from his mouth, and 
then smacked his lips so loud as to make a kind 6f echo from th* 
bottom of die cup, (an action frequent among jovial companions,) 
this too was a subject of praise and commendation. This passage 
refers to the Grecian custom of applauding those who drank a large 
vessel at a draught. 

Perhaps such parasites looked on such actions as are above men. 
doned, pissing before them, as marks of ccmfidence and intimacjr^ 
according to that of Martial, lib. X. 

Nil aGud video quo te credamus amicum, 
Quam qctod me coram pedere, Crispe, soles. 

A sense like ^at of these lines of Martial is given to Juvenal's ere- 
pitnm dfedit bj some commentators; but as dedit has the aurea 
trolla for its nomins^ve case, the sense above given seems to be 
nearest the truth. 

Such servile flatterers as these have been the growth of M dimes, 
||he profcee of all countries. See Hoa. Art. Poet 1. 4S8—- S3. 

109. Moreover^ Sfc.'] In this and the two following Mnes, Um* 
bridus iarvdgbs against their monstrous and misehievotts lust. 

111. As yei smooth J\ Sleek, smooth-faced, noty^ living hair 
«n his liace.«-^Spon8us here means a young wooer who is supposed 
to be |Kl^ng his addresses to a daughter of the faaulj, in ofder to 
marrj her; even he can't be safe from the atttnpts of these vile 

Bif^ cAsMeO I. #. Before some filUij Grsrian mm iut» 


Digitized by 


94 JtJVEWALIS SAlEIjRiaS/ i^at^iii- 

Honiiil si nihil est, fwimii resupinat amiei : Ooaa^ . 

Scire volunt secreta domfts, atque inrte timeri. 

£t quoniam coepit Gfaecoram mentioi teansi 

Gymnasia, atque audi facinus majoris alMjOse^ l}5 

Sto'tcus occidit Baream, delator amicum, , ' 

Discipulumque senex, rip& nntritus in ill^y 

Ad quam Gorgonei delapsa est penna caballi^ . . : 

NoQ est Romano cuiquara iocus bic, ubi r^nat . 

Protogenes aliquis^ vel Diphilus, aut Erimanthus, 120 

112. He turns the house^ d^d.'] Aula signifies a forecourt, or an 
hall, belonging to a house : here it is put (by synec«) for the 
house itself : by catacbresis for the family in the house* 

Resapino is a word rather of an obscene ii^aport, ^nd here used 
metaphorically, for prying into the secrets of the family. , See 
AiNsw. Resupino. 

Holyday obserr^^ that the scholiast reads aTiam.y (i^ot aulam,)- a» 
if these fellows, sooner than fail, would attack the grandpdother if 
there were nobody e^e. (3tit thiugh this reading gi Yes a ^ense 
much to our poet's purpose, yet as £l^^ not w^]raKtM^by CQpy, as 
aulam is, the latter must i^ preferred^NAml^ ni^re meaiis— of hi&: 
patron, who has admitted hiin into his family. \ 

113. And thence be feareiL] Lest they should reveal ^nd publish 
the secrets which they become possessed of. See. before, 1. d(>— 7. 

Famaby, in his note on this place, mentions an Italian proverb, 

which is much to the purpose. 

Servo (Taltrui sifa^ chi dice il mo secreta a chi no ^l:Sa, 

^' He makes himself the servant of another, who tells his secret to 

<^ one that knows it not^" 

114. And because mention, t^c.] q, d. And, by the way, as 1 
have begun to mention the Greeks. 

Pass over J Sfc,"] Transi — imp. of transeo, to pass over ot 

through — also to omit — or say nothing of — to pass a thing by, 
or over. 

Each of these senses is espoused by diiferent commentators^ 
Those who are for the former sense, make the passage mean thus : 
^^ Talking of Greeks, let us pass through tbdr schools^ so as to see 
*^ and observe what is going forward there." 

The others make the sense to be : '^ Omit saying any thing of 
'^ the schools ; bad as they may be, they are not worth mentioning^ 
<> in comiparison of certain other worse things." « _ 

I rather think with the former, whose interin-etation seams best 
to suit with the-"-et audi — ^in the next sentence, q* d* ".A3 we are 
'^ talking of the Grecians, I would desire you to pass .fm>m the 
" common herd, go to the schools, take a view of their pbU^ophers, 
'^ and hear what one of their chids was guilty o|^!' > . . ... 

115. Hie Gymnasia here signifies those places of ezer^ 
eise, or schools, where the philosophersm^ for disputatfoii^ aiid for 
the instruction of their disciples. See Ainsw* Gymnasivn* 

Digitized by Google \ 

lAt**ni, JtJ^HNAli'S SATIRES. 95 

If there be npne q{' these, to tirnis the house of his fiieiid up- 
side down : ^ 
They will know the secrets of th& family^ and thence be feared. 
And because mention of Gneeks has begun, pass over 
The schools, and hear a deed of the greater abolla. ^!h^*^'i^ 115 
A Stoic killed Bareas, an informer his friend. 
And an old man his disciple, nourished on that bank, 
At which a feather oi the Gorgonean horse dropped down. 
- No place is here for any Roman, where reigns 
Some Protogenes, or Diphilus, or Erimanthus, 120 

tl5. A deed.'] Facinus, in a bad sense, means a foul act, a ril. 
lainous deed, a scandalous action. 

— -f-Greater abolla,'] Abolla was a sort of cloak, worn by sol- 
"dier$, and also by philosophers. The abolla of the soldiers was less 
than the other, and called minor abolla — that of the philosopher, 
^Sihg larger, was called major abolla. 

tmrenal also uses the word abolla (sat. iv. 76,) for a senator's 
' Here, by meton. it denotes the philosopher himself. 

116. Stoic] One of the straitest sects^ of philosophers among the 
Greeks. See Ainsw. Stoici-orum. 

• ^^— — Kitted^ Sfc:] By accusing him of some crime for which he 
was put to death. This was a pratice much encouraged by the em« 
p^rors Nero and Domittan, and. by which many made their fortunes. 
See note on sat. i« 32, 3. 

Bareas.] The fact is thus related by Tacitus, Ann. ri. " P. 

*^ Egnatius (the Stoic aboTe mentioned) circumyented by false tes- 
^^ tiniony Bareas Soranus, his friend and disciple, under Nero." 

1 17. His disciple.] To whom he owed protection. 

Nourished on that bank, Sfc] By this periphrasis we are to 

understand, £hat this Stoic was. originally bred at Tarsus, in Cilicia, 
a prorince of ancient Greece, which was built by Perseus, on the 
banks of the river Cydnus, on the spot where his horse Pegasus 

'* dropped a feather out of his wing. He called the city Ta^o-o;, which 
sSgiiifies a wing, from this erent. 

lis. Gorgonean.] The winged horse P<^asus was so called, be- 
cause he was supposed to hate sprung from the blood of the gorgon 
MediiSi, after Perseus had cut her head off. 

' tl9. For any Roman.] We Romans are so undermined and sup-. 

. planted by the arts of these Greek sycophants, that we hare no 

^" ^aflfce left us of succeeding with great men. 

" ' lio. Seme Protogenes.] The name of a famous and cruel perse« 

' 'cM>r of the people under Caligula. See Aut. Univ. Hist. toL xit* 

J,^^^J)^philus.] A filthy favourite and minion of Domitiaa. 

►y* * „ -^Erimanthus.] From ef*j, strife, and fMmn, a prophet — i. ^ a 

' '^Mret^lar of Btfife. Tha naiae denotes some notorious ii^ofttier. 

The sense, of this passage se^as to be: ^^ There is now no rpoa 

Digitized by 


•« JUVENALIS SATIRiE. ««. in- 

Qoi gentis vitio nunquam partitur amicum ; 

Solus habet. Nam cum facilem stillavit iu aureni 

Exiguum de naturae, patriaeque veneno, 

Limine summoveor : perierunt tempora longi 

Servitii : nusquam minor est jactura clientis. 125 

Quod porro officium, (ne nobis blandiar,) aut quod 

Pauperis hie meritum, si curet nocte togatus 

.Currere, cum Prastor lictorem impeliat, et ire 

Praecipitem jubeat, dudum vigilantibus orbis, 

^' for us Romans to hope for favour and preferment, where nothing 
" but Greeks are in power and favour, and these such wretches as 
^ are the willing and obsequious instruments of cruelty, lust^ and 
** persecution." 

1^1. Vice of his nation."] (See before, 1. 86.) That mean and 
wicked art of engrossing all favour to themselves. 

Never shares a friend,] With any body else. 

122. He alone hath himJ] £ngages and keeps him wholly to him-* 

He has dropped^ Sfc.] Stillavit — ^hath insinuated by gentle, 

and almost imperceptible degrees. 

Into his easy ear,] t. e. Into the ear of the great man, who 

easily listens to all he says. 

123. The poison of his nature,] Born, as it were, with the mail* 
dous propensity of advancing themselves by injuring others. 

And of his country^ Greece — ^the very characteristic of 

which is this sort of selfishness. 

124. lam removed^ S^c] No longer admitted within my patron's 
or friend's doors. 

125. Past and gone.] Perierunt — ^!it.-^have perished. My long 
and faithful services are all thrown away, forgotten^ perished out of 
remembrance, and are as if they had never been. 

No where, S^c] There is no part of the world, where an 

old client and friend is more readily cast off, and more easily dls^ 
missed, than they are at Rome : or where this is done irith less ce- 
remony, or felt with less regret. 

Look round the world, what country will appear. 

Where friends ore left with greater ea«e than here ? Datdek. 

The word jactura signifies any loss or damage, but its proper 
meaning is, loss by shipwreck, casting goods overboard in a storm. 
The old friends and clients of great men, at Rome^ were just as xesL^ 
dily and effectually parted with. 

126. What is the ojffice.] Of&cium^-4rasiness — employment — 

That I may not flatter, 4*c«] 9* ^* Not to speak too highly 

in our own commendatioa, or as oter-rating ourselves and our ier« 

126, T. What the merit, 8fc.] What does the poor client delierve fa* 
file asfi<!foous and punctual •xeratloii of hk officfe towards hts patvoa. 

Digitized by 


Who, frdih the vice of bii nationi never shares a friend ; 
He done hath jbim ; for, wh^oi he has dropp*d into his easy ear.! 
A little of the poison of his nature, and of hiii country, 
I am removed from the threshold : — times of long service 
Ar^ past and gone — no where is the loss of a client less* 1^5 
Moreover, what is the ofEce, (that I may not flatter ourselves,) 

or ivhat 
The merit of a poor nlan here, if a di^nt takes cate by night 
To run, when the Praetor drives on the lictor, and to go 
Precipitate commands him, (the childless long since awake,) 

f 27. ijr « cHeni,'] So* togatas si^ifies here, tt was usual foi^ 
great men, on these occasions, to have a number of their dependents 
and clients to attend them : those who went before, wefe called an- 
teambulones^— those who followed, clientes togati, from the toga^ oi^ 
gown, worn by the common people. 

Takes care,^ Makes it his constaiit husinesti . 

157^^—8. Btf night to runJ\ To post away after his patron before 
day-break, to the early levees of the ridh. 

These early salutations or visits were commonly made with H 
View to g^t something from those to whom they Were piud ; such as 
persons of great fortune who had no children, rich vriddws who 
were childless, and the like. He who attended earliest, was reckoned 
to shew the greatest respect^ aiid supposed himself to stand fairest in 
the good graces^ and, perhaps, as a legatee in the wills of such per* 
isons as he tinted and tompliinelited. 

The word currere implies the haste whiiih they made to gei first* 

128. TAe Prwtor drives on^ Sfc.'] The Praetor was the chief ina^ 
gistrate of the city. He was preceded by officers called lictors, of 
which there were twelve, who <!arried the insignia of the Praetor's 
office — T^. an ax tied up in a bundle of rods, as emblems of th^ 
punishment of greater crimes by the former, and of smaller drimes hf 
the latter. The lictors were so called from the ax and rods bound 
or tied (ligati) tc^ether. So lector, from lego^ to read. 

' So corrupt were the Romans, that not only the nobles, and othei^ 
great m^, but even their chief magistrates, attended with their state 
officers, went on these mercenary and scandalous errands, and even 
hastened on the lictors (who, on other occasions, nuirched slowly 
and solemnly before them) for fear of being too late. 

128 — 9* To go predpitate.'l Headlong, as it were, to get on as 
fast as they cotild. 

1^. Tke iMdksSy ^-c] Orbus signifies a child that has lost its 
parents, parents that are bereaved of their children, women who have 
lost Hidr husbands without issue, &c.-^this last (as appears from 
the next line) seems to be the sense of it here. 

' These ladies were very fond of being addressed and complimented 
at their levees, by tiie flattering visitoi^ who attended there, and were 
ready very soon In the morning, even up before day-light, for their 
leceptmn. The Vtmim drives on his attendants as fast ai he can, ^ 

VOli. !• B 

Digitized by 


«8 \ JUV£NALIS SATIRJE. sat. iii. 

Ne prior Albinsba, aut Modiam collega salutet? 130 

Divitis hic servi 6llaudit latus ingenuorum 

Filius ; alter eium quantum in legione Tribuni 

Accipiunt, donat Calvinse, vel Catienae^ 

Ut semel atque iterum super illam-'palpitet): at tu /' 

Cum tibi vestiti fecies scorti placet, haeres, 135 

£t dubitag alt4 Chionem deducere selli. 

lest he should not be there first^ or should disoblige the ladies by 
making them wait 

The childlets matroni are long since awake. 

And for affronts the tardy visits take. Dbtdek. 

130, Lest first his cotteagueJ] Another reason for the Praetor's 
being in such a hurry, was to prerent his colleague in office from 
being there before him. 

It is to be obserred, that, though at first there was but one Praetor, 
called Praetor Urbanus, yet, as many foreigners and strangers settled 
at Rome^ another Pnetor was appointed to judge causes between 
them, and called Praetor Peregrinus. 

JuTenal gives us to understand, that, on such occasions, both were- 
equally mean and mercenary. 

Alhina or Modia.\ Two rich and childless old widows, to 

whom these profligate fellows paid their court, in hopes of inheriting 
their wealth. 

This passage, from 1. 1S6 to 130, inclusiTe,.rehite8 to what Umbri* 
tius had just said about the Tery easy manner in which the great 
men at Rome got rid of their poor clients, notwithstanding their 
long and faithful services : q. d. ^' I don't mean to boast, or to rate 
<^ our serrices too high ; but yet, as in the instance here giren, and 
<^ in many others which might be mentioned, when what we do, and 
^' what we deserre, are compared together, and both with the un. 
^^ grateful' return we meet with, in being tamed off to make room 
^' for the Grecian parasites, surely this will be allowed me as another 
« good reason for my departure from /Rome." 

131. Here J] At Rome. 

The son of a rich slave^ SfcJ] A person of mean and senrile 

extraction, whose father, originally a slave, got his freedom, and by 
some means or other acquired great wealth. 

The sons of such were called libertini. 

Closes the sideJ] Walks close to his side in a familiar man- 

ner : perhaps, as we say, arm in arm, thus making himself his equal 
and intimate. 

131 — ^2. The free-bom,'] Of good extracdon— a gentleman of 
liberal birth, of a good family — such were called ingenui. 

The poet seems alike to blame the insolence of these upstarts, 
who aimed at a freedom and intimacy with their betters; and the 
meanness of young men of family, who stooped to intimacies with 
such low people. 

Digitized by 



Lest first his colleague should salute Albina or Modia ? ISO 
Here, the son of a rich slave closes the side of the ' 
Free-bom : but another, as much as in a legion Tribunes 
Rfeteive, presents to Calvina, or Catiena^ 

That once and again he may enjoy her : but thou, [135 

When the f&ce of a well-dressed harlot pleases thee, hesitatest. 
And doubtest to lead forth Ghione from her high chair. 

132. Another,'] Of these low-bora people, itiheritiiig riches froni 
his father. 

Trtbunesi'] He means the Tribuui Militum, of which therd 

Vere six to each legion^ which eonsisted of tea regiments or cohorts. 
Bee sat. i. 1. 58, n. 

133. Presenitsto Calvind, or Catiena,'] He scruples not to gire as 
much as the pay of a tribune amounts to, to purchase the faTourS 
of these wdmen — ^whb probably, were courteKads of ilotdrious cha.^ 
tacters, but held their price rery high; 

134. Bui thou."] q, d. Biit thou, my friend Jurenai, and such 
prudent and frugal people as thou art, if thou art taken with the 
pretty face of some harlot, whose price is high, thou dost hesitate 
tipOn it, aiid hast doubts upon thy mind cionceraiDgf the expediency 
of latishing away large siims for such a purpose. 

135. WeU'dressed.'] Vestitus means, riot only apparelled^ — ^but 
decked and ornamented. Ainsw. Some are for understanding res. 
iiti, here, as synonymous with togati, to express a low strumpet, 
(see sat. ii. 1. 70, and note,) but I &id no authority for such a mean- 
ing of the word irestitus. 

136. Chione.] Some stately courtesan of Rome, often spdken of 
by Martial. See lib. i. epigr. 35, 6, et al. So called from 6r. x'^^^> 

Her high chair.'] Sella signifies a sedan ch^r, borne aloft on 

men's shoulders : which, from the epithet alta, I take to be meant, 
in this place-^. d. While these upstart fellows care not what sums' 
they throw aifSLy lipon their whores, aiid refrain from no expense, 
that they may carry their point, their betters are more prudent, and 
grudge to lavish away sd much expense upon their Vices, though the 
finest, best-dressed, and most sumptuously attended woman in Rome 
were the object in question. 

To lead forth,] t)educere — ^to hand her out of her sedan, 

and to attend her into her house. 

Many other senses are given of this passage, as may be seen in 
Holyday, and in other commentators ; but the above seems, to me, 
best to apply to the poet's 'satire on the inSolerit extravagance of 
these low-born upstarts, by putting it in opposition to the more de* 
cent prudence and frugality of their betters; 

Dryden writes as foUoiVs : 

But you, poor sinnJer, tho* you love the vice. 
And like the whore, demur upon the price : 
And, frighted with the wicked sum, forbear 
To lend su haiidi and help her from the chair. 

Digitized by 


100 JUVENALIS SATIRiE. sat. nu 

Da testem Romae tarn sanctum^ quam fuit hospes 
Numinis Idaei : procedat vel Numa, vel qiti 
Servavit trepidam flagranti ex aede Minervam : 
Protinus-ad censum ; de moribus ultima fiet 140 

Quaestio : quot pascit servos i quot possidet agri 
Jugera ? quam multft, magn^que paropside coenat ? 
Quantum quisque sua nummorum servat in arca, 
Tantum habet £T fidei. Jures licet et Samothracum; 
Et nostrorum aras, contemnere fulmina pauper 145 

Creditur^ atque Deos, Dk ignoscentibus ipsis. 
Quid, quod materiam praebet causasque jocorum 
Omnibus hie idem, si foeda et scissa lacerna. 
Si toga sordidula est, et ruptst calceus alter 

As to translating (as some hare done) T^titi hy the word-r^ 
sdasked, it is totally incongruous with the rest of the sentence ; for 
how can a face, with a mask on, be supposed to please, as it must 
be concealed from view F^^Besides, it is not saidjestita facies, but 
facies yestiti scorti. 

Howeter, it ^eems not very probable, that the poet only means to 
say, that the man hesitated, and doubted about coming up to the 
price of Chione, because he was so poor that he had it not to gire 
her, as some would insinuate ; for a man can hardly* hesitate, of; 
doubt, whether he shall do a thing that it is out of his power 
to do. 

137. Produce a w^iness,'^^ Umbritius here proceeds to fresh, mat- 
ter of eomplalnt against the corruption of the times, insomuch that 
the truth of a man's testimony was estimated, not according to the 
goodness of his character, but according to the measure of his pro- 

137 — 8. Tke host of the Idean deity. '\ Scipio Nasica, adjudged 
by the senate to be one of the best of men. He receiyed into his 
house an image of the goddess Cybele, where he kept it until a tem- 
ple was built for it. She had various names from the various places 
where she was worshipped, as Phrygia, Idada, &c. Ida was a high 
hill in Phrygia, near Troy, sacred to Cybele. See Virg. Mn, x. 

138. Numa.'] See before, notes on L. 12. He was a virtuous and 
religious prince. 

139. Preserved trembling Minerva,'] Lucius Metellus, the high 
priest, preserved the palladium, or sacred image of Minerva, out of 
the temple of Vesta, where it stood trembling, as it were, for its 
safety when that temple was on fire. Metellus lost his eyes by thr 

140. Immediately as to incomey Sfc,"] q, d. Though a man had 
all their sanctity, yet would he not gain credit to his testimony on 
the score of his integrity, but in proportion to the largeness of his 
income; this is the first and immediate object of inquiry. As to 
his moral character, that is the last thing they ask after. 

Digitized by 



Produce a witness at Rome, as just as yirna the host 
Of the Idean deity : let even Numa come forth, or he who 
Preserved trembUng Minerva from the burning temple : 
Immediately as to income, concerning morals will be the last 140 
Inquiry : how many servants he maintains i how many acres 6f 

He possesses ? in how many and great a dish he sups f 


So MUCH CREDIT TOO HE HAS. Tlio' you should swcar by 
the altars, both [thunder 145 

Of the Samothracian, and of our gods, a poor man to contemn 
Is believed, and the gods, the gods themselves forgiving him. 
What, because this same affords matter and causes of Jests 
To all, if his garment be dirty and rent, 
If his gown be soiled^ and one of his shoes with torn 

142. In how matty^ Sfc,'] What sort of a table he keeps. See 
AiKsw. — Paropsis. 

144. Swear by the altars,'] Jurare aras-Hsignifies to lay the hands 
on the altar, and to swear by the gods. See Hor. Epist. lib. ii. epist. i. 
1. 16. AiNsw. Juro. Or rather, as app^rs from Hor. to swear 
ia or by the name of the god to whom the altar was dedicated. 

145. Samothradan.'\ Samothrace was an island near Leomos, 
not far from Thrace, very famous for religious rites. From hence, 
Dardanus, the founder of Troy, brought into Fhrygia the worship 
of the Dii MAJOREs; such as Jupiter, Minerva, Mercury, &c. 
From Phrygia, iBneas brought them into Italy. 

Our gods."] Our tutelar deities — Mars and Romulus. See 

sat ii. 1. 126 — 128. q. dL Were yon to swear ever so solemnly. 

— : — A poor many 4r<^*l ^ credit is given, not in proportion to a 
man's morals, but as he is rich or poor ; the former will always gain 
credit, while the latter will be set down as not having the fear, either 
of the gods, or of thdr vengeance, and therefore doesn't scruple to 
perjure himself. 

146. The gods themselves^ Sfc.'] Not punishing his perjury, but 
eicusing him, on account of ike temptations which he is under from 
his poverty and want. 

147. frhat.] Quid is here elliptical, and the sense must b^ sup* 
plied.^ — q. d» What shall we say more ? because It is to be const, 
dered, that, besides the discrediting such a poor man as to his test!, 
meny, all the symptoms of his poverty are constant subjects of jests 
and raillery. See Ain8w« Quid, No. 2. 

jUis sameJ] Hie idem-?r-this same poor fellow. 

148. His garment."] I^acern^fl— here, perhaps, means what we call 
a surtout, a sort of cloak for the k^^ping off the weather. See 
AiNsw. Lacerna. 

149. Govon.'} Togar— lh« ordinary dr^ for the poorer soirt. See 


Digitized by 



Pelle patet : vel si consuto Vulnere crassum 15Q 

Atque recens linum ostendit non una ciqatiix ? 

Nil habbt infelix paupertas durius in sb, 

QuAM QUOD RiDicuLos HOMINES FAciT. Exeat, inquit^ 

Si pudor est, et de piilvmo surgat equestri, 

Cujus res legi non sufficit, et sedeant hie }55^ 

Lenomim piieri, quocuuque ip fomice nati, 

Hie plaudat nitidi praBConis filius inter 

Pinnirapi cultos juvenes, juvenesque lanistae : 

Sic libitum vano, qui nos distinxit, Othoni. 

Quis gener hie placuit censu minor, atque puellse 160 • 

149. Soiled."] Sordidula, dim. of sordidus — ^and signifies some- 
ivhat dirty or nas tj. 

With torn leather^ Sfc."] One shoe gapes open with a rent 

in the, upper leather. 

150 — 1. The poet's language is here metaphorical — ^he humour- 
busly, by vulnere, the wound, means the rupture of the shoe ; by 
cicatrix, (which is, literally, a scar, or seam in the flesh,) the awk- 
ward seam on the patch of the cobbled shoe, which .exhibited to 
Tiew the coarse thread in the n^w-made stitches. 

153. Sai/s he,"] u e. Says the person who has the care of placing 
the people in the theatre. 

Let him go out, c^fc] Let the man who has not a knight's 

revenue go out of' the knight's place or seat. 

It is to be observed that, formerly, all persons placed themselves, 
as they came, in the theatre, promiscuously : now, in contempt of 
the poor, that licence was taken away. Lucius tloscius Otho, a 
tribune of the people, instituted a law, that there should be four- 
teen rows of seats^ covered with cushions, on which the knights 
were to be seated. If a poor man got into one of these, or any 
other, who had not 400 sestertia a year income, which made h 
knight's estate, he was turned out with the utmost contempt. 

155. Is not sufficient for the /azio.] u e. Who has not 400 sester* 
tia a year, according to Othp's law. 

156. "Die sons cf pimps j SfcJ] The lowest, the most base-bom 
fellows, who happen to be rich enough to answer the conditions of 
Otho's law, are to be seated in the knights' seats ; and persons of 
the best family are turned out, to get a seat where they can, if they 
happen to be poor. See Hor. epod. iv. 1. 15, 16. 

157. Crier/] A low office among the Romans, as among us, who 
proclaimed the edicts of magistrates, public sales of goods, &c. 
The poet says: — ^nitidi praeconis, intimating that the criers got a gocMi 
deal of money, lived well, were fat and sleek in their appearance^ 
and aifected great spruceness in their dress. 

Appiaud,] Take the lead in applauding theatrical exhibit 

tipns. — Applause ivas expressed, as among us, by clapping of hands. 

158. Of a sword-play erJ] Pbnirapi — denotes that sort of gla- 
diator, called also Retiarius, who, with a uH which he had in his 

Digitized by 



Leather be open : or if not one patch only shews the coarse 
And recent thread in the stitched-up rupture ? [150i 

Unhappy poverty has nothing harder in itself 
Than that it makes men ridiculous. Let him go 

out^ says he. 
If he has any shame, and let him rise from the e()ue8trian cushion. 
Whose estate is not sufficient for the law^ and let there sit 

here 155 

The sons of pimps, in whatever brothel bom. 
Here let the son of a spruce crier applaud, among 
The smart youths of a sword-player, and the you^s of a fencer: 
Thus it pleased vain Otho, who distinguished us. [equal 160 
What son-in-law, here, inferior in estate, hath pleased, and un« 

hand, was to surprise his adversary, and catch hold on the crest oi 
his helmet, which was adorned with peacock's plumes : from pimuiy 
a plume or feather, and rapio, to snatch. See sat ii. 1. 143, note, 
where we shall find the figure of a fish on the helmet ; and as pinna 
also means the fin of a fish, perhaps this kind of gladiator was called 
Pinnirapus, from his endeavouring to catch this in his net. 

158. Tie youihsJ] The sons — ^now grown young men— -juvenes. 
Such people as these were entitled to seats in the fourteen rows of 
the equestrian order, on account of their estates: while sons of 
nobles, and gentlemen of rank, were turned out because their in«» 
come did not come up to what was required, by Otho's law, to con- 
stitute a knight's estate. 

jifencer,'\ Lanlsta signifies a fencing-master, one that taught 

boys to fence. 

159. Thus it pleased vain Otho.'] q, d. No sound or good reason 
. could be given for this ; it was the mere whim of a vain man, who 

established this distinction, from his own caprice and fancy, and to 
gratify his own pride and vanity. 

However, Otho's law not only distinguished the knights from the 
plebeians, but the knights of birth from those who were advanced to 
that dignity by their fortunes or serrice ; giving to the former the 
first rows on the equestrian benches. Therefore Hor. epod. iv, 
where he tneats in the severest manner Menas, the freedman of Cn. 
Fompdns, who had been advanced to a knight's estate, mentions it 
as one instanee of his insolence and pride, that he sat himself in one 
of the first rows after he became possessed of a knight's estate. 

Sedilibusque magnus in primis eques, 

Othone poptempto, sedet. See Fbakcis, notes in loc. 

160. What 8on-in4aw.'] Umbritius still proceeds in shewing the 
miseries of being poor, and instances the disadvantages which men 
of small fortunes He under with respect to marriage. 

Inferior in estate S\ Census signifies a man's estate, wealthy 

or yearly revenue. Also a tribute, tax, or subsidy, to be paid aCi* 
^cording to men's estates. 

According to the first meaning of censu8«-«censu minor may sig« 

If 4 

Digitized by 


104 JUVENALIS SATIRiE, bat.uu 

^ Sarcinulis impar ? quis pauper scribitur haeres ? 
Quando in consilio est ^dilibus ? agmine facto . 
Debuerant olim tenues migr^se Quirites. 


Res angusta domi ; sed Romae durior illis l6S 

Conatus : magno hospitium miserabile, magno 
\ Servorum ventres, et frygi coenula magao. 
Fictilibus coenare pudet, quod turpe negav^t 

nifj, that a roan's liaTing but a small fortune, unequal to that of 
the girl to whom he proposes himself in marriage, would occasioit 
bis being rejected, as by no means pleasing or acceptable to her fa- 
ther for a 

According to the second interpretation oi' the WQrd census, censu 
minor may imply the man's property to be too small and inconsi-^ 
derable for entry in the public register as an object of taxation. 
The copulative atque seems to favour the first interpretation, as it 
unites tiie two sentences-^as if Umbritius had said— Another in^ 
stance, to shew how poverty renders men contemptible at {lonie, is, 
that nobody will marry his daughter to one whose fortune does not 
equal hers ; which proves that, in this, as in all things else, money 
is the grand and primary consideratioi^. 

Themi^tocles, the Athenian general, was of another mind, when he 
said — " I had rather have a man for my daughter without money, 
f ^ than money without a man." 

161. Written down Aeir.^l Who ever remembered a popr maQ 
in his will, so as to make him nis heir ? 

162. ^diles.'] Magistrates in Rome, whose office it was ia^ 
oversee the repairs of the public buildings and temples-— :also the 

. streets and conduits — to look to weights and measures— to regulate 
the price of com and victuals— also to provide for splemn f uneralsi 
and plays. 

This officer was sometimes a senator, who was called Curulis, a 
Sell! curuli, a chair of state made of ivory, carved, and placed in 
curru, in a chariot, in which the head pfficers of Rome were wont 
%o be carried into council. 

But there were meaner officers called iEldiles, with a simitar ju« 
risdiction in the country towns, to inspect and correct abuses in 
weights and measures, and the like. See sat. x. 101, 2. 

When, says Umbritius, is a poor man ever consulted by one qf 
the magistrates ? his advice is looked upon as not worth having— • 
much less can he ever hope to be a magistrs^te himself, however de- 
serving Qr fit for it. 

in a formed bodyJ] Agmine facto-^f. e, cpllected together 

in one body, as we say. So Virg. (jreorg. iv. 167. of the bees flying 
out in a swarm against the drones. And again, ^n. i. 86. of tha 
winds rushing forth together Uom the cave of iEolus. 

163. Long ago. 3 Alluding to the sedition and the defection of 
the plebeians, called here tenues Quirites — ^when oppressed by the 

Digitized by 



To the bags of a girl ? what poor man written down heir ? 
When is he in counsel with JEdiles. f In a formed body, 
The miean Jlomans ought long ago to have migrated. [row 
They do nqt easily emerge^to whose virtues nar- 
FoRTUNE is A hindrance; but at Rome more hard to 
them is ld5 

^lie endeavour : a ihiserable lodging at a great price, at a great 

The bellies of servants, and a little frugal supper at a great price. 
{t sjiameth to sup in eartlien ware ; which he denied to be dis- 

nobles and senators, thej gathered together, left Rome, and retired 
to the Moas Sacer, an hill near the city consecrated to Jupiter, 
and talked of going to settle elsewhere ; but the famous apologue 
of Menenius Agrippa, of the belly and the members, prevailed on 
them to return. This happened about 5Q0 years before Juvenal 
was born. See Ant. Un. Hist. vol. xi. 383 — 403. 

163. Ought long ago to have migrated.'} To have persisted in 
their intention of leaving Rome, and of going to some other part^ 
where they could have maintained their independency. See b^ore^ 
}, 60. Quirites. 

)64. EasUy emerge,'] 9ut of obscurity and contempt 

Whose virtues y (Sfc] 'Ihe exercise of whose faculties and 

good qualities is cramped and hindered by the narrowness of their 
circumstances: and, indeed, poverty will always prevent respect, 
and -be an obstacle to n^erit, however great it may be. S« HoR. 
9at. y. lib. ii. 1. 8. 

'^ Atqui 

£t geniu et virtus, nisi cum re, Tilior alg& est. 

But high descent and meritorious deeds, 

fjnblest with wealth, are viler than sea->weeds.' Prancis. 

166. The endeavour.'] But to them — ^illis-^to those who have 
small incomes, the endeavouring to emerge from contempt, is more 
difficult at Rome than in any other place ; because their litde is, as 
it were, made less^ by the excessive dearness of even common neces- 
sariefri^a shabby Icidging, for instance; maintenance of slaves, 
whose food is but coarse \ a small meal for one's self, however fru« 
gal — all these 2|re at an exorbitant price. 

168. // shatnethy S^c] Luxnry and expense are now got to such 
^n hdght, that a man would he ashamed to have earthen ware at his 

Which he denied, SfcJ] The poet is here supposed to allude 

to Curius Dentatus, who conquered the Samnites and the Marsi, 
and reduced the Sabellaqs (descendents of the Sabines) into obedi- 
ence to the Romans. When the Samnite ambassadors came to him 
to treat about a league with the Romans, they found him among the 
Maid, sitting on a wooden seat near the fire, dressing his own din« 
9er^ which consisted of a few roots, in an earthen vessel, and offered 

Digitized by 


1X36 JUVENALIS SATIRE. sat. nr* 

Translatus subito ad M arsos, mensamque Sabellam, 
Contentusque iilic Veneto, duroque cucuHo. 170 

<Pars magna Italian est, si verum admittimus, in qu& 
Nemo togam sumit, nisi mortuus. Ipsa diei um 
Festoium herboso coUtur si quanda tlieatro 
Majestas, tandemque redit ad pulpita notum 
Kxodium, cum personam pallentis hiatum 175 

III gremio matris formidat rusticus infans : 
JBquales habitus illic, similemque videbis 
Orchestram, et populuni : clari velamen honoris, 

him large sums of money — but he dismissed them, saying, ^^ I had 
** rather command the rich, than be rich myself; tell your country- 
*^ men, that they will find it as hard to corrupt as to conquer me." 

Curius Dentatus was at that time consul with P. Corn. Rufinus, 
and was a man of j^reat probity, and who, without any ranity or 
ostentation, lired In that yoluntary poTerty, and unaffected con* 
tempt of riches, which the philosophers of those times were wont to 
recommend. He might, therefore, well be thought to deny, that 
the use of earthen ware was disgraceful, any more than of the 
homely and coarse clothing of those people, which hp was content 
to wear. See Ant. Univ. Hist. vol. xii. p. 139. 

But, among commentators, there are those, who, instead of nega- 
yit, are for reading negabit — not confining the sentiment to any par- 
ticular person, but as to be understood in a general sense, as t|ius-r« 
However it may be reckoned disgraceful, at Rome, to use earthen 
-ware at table, yet he wiio should suddenly be conveyed from thence 
to the Marsi, and behold their plain and frugal manner of living, as 
well as that of their neighbours the Sabellans, will deny that there is 
any shame or disgrace iu • the use of earthen ware at meals^ or of 
wearing garments of coarse materials. 

This is giving a good sense to the passage — but as Juvenal is so 
frequent in illustrating his meaning, from the examples of great and 
good men who lived in past times, and as negavit is the reading 
of the copies, I should rather think that the first interpretation is 
what the poet meant. 

169. Translated mddenlj/.'] On being chosen consul, he was Im- 
mediately ordered into Samnium, where he and his colleague acted 
separately, each at the head of a consular army/ The Marsi lay 
between the Sabelli and the Samnites 

170. A Venetian and coarse hood,'] Venetus-a-um, of Venice — 
dyed in a Venice-blue, as the garments worn by common soldiers 
and sailors were. Ainsw. This colour is said to be first used 1)y 
the Venetian fishermen. 

The cucullus was a cowl, or hood, made of very harsh and coarse 
clpth, which was to pull over the head, in order to keep off the rain* 

172. Unless dead,'} It was a custom among the Romans to put a 
gown on the corpse when they carried it forlJi to burial. In many 
parts 4}f Italy, where they lived in rustic simplicity, they went 

Digitized by 


•«• in. JUVENAL'S SATIRES^ 107 

Who was translated suddenly to the Marsi^ and to the Sabellan 

And there was content with a Venetian and coarse hood. 170 
There is a great part of Italy, if we admit the ti*uth, in which 
Nobody takes the gown, unless dead. The solemnity itself of 
Festal days^ if at any time it is celebrated in a grassy 
^Pieatre, and at length a known farce returns* to the stage^ 
When the gaping of the pale-looking mask 175 

The rustic infant in its mother's bosom dreads : 
Habits are equal there, and there alike you will see 
The orchestra and people : the clothing of bright honour, • 

drc»ssed in the tunica, of jacket, never wearing the toga, the ordinary 
^abit of the men at Rome, all their life time. Umbritius means to 
proTe what he had before asserted, (I. 165— -7.) that one might live 
;n other places at much less expense than at Rome. Here he is in. 
stanciog in the article of dress. 

172. The solemnittf^ ^*c.] The diqs festi — ^were holidays, or fes- 
^als, observed on some joyful occasions ; when people dressed in 
their best apparel, and assembled at plays and shows. 

17d— 4. A grassy theatre.'] He here gives an idea of the ancient 
simplicity which wais still observed in many parts of Italy, where, 
on these occasions, they were not at the expense of theatres built 
with wood or stone, but with turves dug frpm the soil, and heaped 
one upon another, by way of seats for the spectators. See Viaa. 
iEn. V. ^S6—90. 

174. A known farce,] Exodium (from Gr. sjo^b?, exitus) was a 
farce, or interlude, at the end of a tragedy, exhibited to make the 
people laugh. Notum exodium signifies some well known, favQurite 
piece of this sort, which had been .often represented. 

— — Stage,] So pulpitum signifies, f . e. that part of the theatre 
vwhere the actors recited their parts. 

175. Tlie gaping of the pale-looking mask,] Persona — a false face, 
vizard, or mask, which the a.ctors wore over the face ; — they wer« 
painted over with a pale flesh-colour, and the mouth was very wide 
open, that the performer might speak through it the more easily. 
Their appearance must have been very hideous, and may well be 
supposed to affright little children. A figure with one of these masks 
on may be seen in Holyday, p. 55. col. 2. Also in the copper* 
plate, facing the title of the ingenious Mr. Colman^s translation of 
Terence. See also Juv. edit. C^aubon, p. 73. 

177. Habits are equal there.] All dress alike there ; no finical 
distinctions of dress are to be foun4 among such simple people. 

178. TAe orchestra^ i^c] Among the Greeks this was in the 
middle of the theatre, where the Chorus danced. But, among the 
Romans, it was the space between the stage and the common seats^ 
where the nobles and senators sat. 

No distinction of this sort was made, at those rustic theatres, be^ 
^een the gentry and the common people. 

178- The filothing of bright honour.] The chief magistrates of 

Digitized by 


108 JUVENALIS SATIR^E. sat. m. 

SufBciunt tunicae suininis TEdilibus albse^ 

Hie ultra vires habiti^s nitor : hie aliquid plus 1 80 

Quam satis est ; interdum alien^ sumitur arcd. 

Commune id vitium est : hie viviilius ambitiosi 

Paupertate omnes : quid te moror f Omnia Romae 

Cum pretio. Quid das, ut Cossum aliquando salutes ? 

Ut te respieiat xjlauso W iento labello ? 185 

IHe metit barbam^ erinMn hie deponit aiiiati : 

Plena domus libis ven^Ubus : aceipe^ et illud 

these country places did not wear, as at Rome, fine robes decked 
with purple; but weto content to appear in tunics, er jackets, 
- white and plain, even when they gate or presided at these assem- 
blies* See AiNsw. Tunica, No 1, letter 6, under which this pas» 
sage is quoted. 

179. JEdiles.'] See before, 1. 162, and note. 

ISO. Here^ SfcJ] Here at Rome people dress beyond what thej 
can alford. 

180 — 1. Something more than enough,^ More than is sufficient 
for the purpose of any man's station, be it what it may-«-4n short, 
people seem to aim at nothing but useless gawdy show. 

181. Sometimes it is taken, This superfluity in dress is 
sometimes at other people's expense: either these fine people bor- 
TOW money to pay for their extravagant dress, which they nerer re* 
pay ; or they* never pay for them at aU-^-which, by the way, is a 
vice very common among such people. 

182 — 3. Amhitiow poverty.'] Our poverty, though very great, 
is not lowly and humble, content with husbanding, and being frugal 
of the little we have, and with appearing what we really ar^-«but it 
makes us ambitious of appearing what we are not, of living like men 
of fortune, and thus disguising our real situation from the world. 
This is at the root of that dishonesty before mentioned, so common 
now-a-days, of borrowing money, or contracting debts, which we 
never mean to pay. See 1. 181. 

183. Why do -I detain you ?] Quid te moror ? So HoR. sat L 
iib. i. 1. 14, 15. 

— Nc te morer audi 
Quo rem deducam— — 

This is a sort of phrase like our—" In short—- not to keep you too 

184. fVith a price.'] Every thing is dear at Rome ; nothing is to 
be had without paying for it — viz. extravagantly. See 1. 166, 7. . 

— — What give you, 6^'c.] What does it cost you to bribe the 
servants of Cossns, that you may ^et admittance ? Cossus was som« 
wealthy person, much courted for his riches. Here it seems to mean 
any such great and opulent person. 

185. Veiento.] Some other proud nobleman, hard of access, who, 
though suitors were sometimes with difficulty admitted to him, sel«» 
dom condescended to speak to them. — ^Hence ymbi^tius describes 
him-— clauso labello. Yet even to get at the favour of a look only^ 
it cost money in bribes to the servants for admittance. . 

Digitized by 


White tunicsi suffice for the chief ^Sdiles. : [180 

Here is a finery of dress beyond ability.: here is something more 
Than enough : sometimes it is taken from another's chest : 
That vice is common* Here we all live in ambitious 
Poverty : — ^why do I detain you? AH things at Rome 
Are with a price. What give you that sometimes you may sa- 
lute Cossus ? 
That Veiento may look on you with shut lip ? .185 

One shaves the beard, another deposits the hair of a favourite : 
The house is full of venal cakes : take, and that 

186. One shaves the heard.'] On the day when they first shaved 
their beard, they were reckoned no longer youths, but men. A fes- 
tiyal was observed on the occasion among the richer sort, on which 
presents were made : and the misery was, that the poor were expected 
to send some present, on pain of forfeiting the favour of the great 
man. Bat the poet has a meaning here, which may be gathered 
from the next note, and from the word amati at the end of this line. 

Another deposits the hair,'] It was usual'for great men to 

cut off the hair of their minions, deposit it in a box, and consecrate 
it to some deity. On this occasion, too, presents were made. It 
was, indeed, customary for all the Romans to poll their heads 
at the age of puberty. See sat. ii. 1. 15, and note. 

Umbritiud still is carrying on his design of lashing the vices of the 
great, and of setting forth the wretchedness of the poor«>-^. d. '' A 
^' great man can't shave his minion for the first time, or poll his 
'^ head, but presents are expected on the occasion from his poor 
^' clients, ill as they can afibrd them, and presently there's a house- 
^' ful of cakes sent in, as offerings to the favourite." 

187. Venal cakes.] These were* made of honey, meal, and oil, 
and sent, as presents or offerings, from the poorer to the richer sort 
of people, on their birth-days, (hence some read here libis gie^niall. 
bus,) and on other festal occasions. They came in such numbers as 
to be an object of profit, insomuch that tiiie new trimmed favourite 
slave, to whom they were presented, sold them for some considerable 
sum; Hence the tsxi says*— libis venalibuil. 

Take^ 4*^*] The language here is metaphorical ; cakes have 

just peen mentioned, which were leavened, or fermented, in order to 
mal^e them- light. Umbritius is supposed, from this, to use the word 
fermentum, as applicable to the ideas of anger and indignation, 
which ferment, or raise the mind into a state of fermentaiaon. 

Acdpe*-*"^^ there," sap Umbritius, ^' take this matter of htdigna- 
'^ tion, let it work within your mind as it does in mine, that the poor 
^^ clients of great men are obliged, even on the most trivial, and 
^^ most infamous occasions, to pay a tribute towards the emolument 
^^ of thdr servants, on pain and perD, if they do it not, of incur* 
^^ ring their displeasure, and being shut out of their doors." 

By cultis servis the poet means to mark those particular slaves of 
great men, whose spruce and gay apparel bespake their situation as 

Digitized by 


110 JtVENALIS SATIRE. 9ir.iu: 

Fentientiim tibi habe : pra^stare tributa clientes 
Cogimuri et cultis augere peculia servis. 

Quis timety aut timuit geiid^ Prsasneste ruinam ; 190 

Aut positis nemorosa inter juga Volsiniis, aut 
Simplicibus Gabiis, aut proni Tiburis arce .? 
Nos urbem x^olimus tenui tibicine fultam 
Magn3i parte sui : nam sic labentibus obstat 
Villicus, et veteris rimae contexit hiatum : 195 

Secures pendente jubet dorniire ruin&. 
Vivendum est illic, ubi nulla incendia, nuUi 
Nocte metus : jam poscit aquam, jam frivola transfert 
Ucalegon : tabulata tibi jam tertia fumant : 
Tu nescis ; nam si gradibus trepidatur ab imis, 200 

farourites — and, indeed, the word caltis may tery priTK^ipaJly allude 
to this last circumstance^-i-for the terb ccjo not only signifies to 
trim, deck, or adoni, but also to lore^ to favour, to be attached to.' 
See AiNsw. 

Peculia seems here to imply what we call^'-^vails. 

190. Cold PramesteJ] A town in Italy, about twenty miles from 
Rome. It stood on a hill, and the waters near it were remarkably 
cold ; from which circumstance, as well as its high situation, it was 
called gelida Praeneste. Virg. Mn. Vu, 682. 

191. VolsimumJ] A town in Tuscany, the situation of which was 
pleasant and retired. 

193. Simple GabuJ] A town of the Volscians, about ten miles 
from Rome ; it was called simple, because deceived into a surrender 
to Tarquin the proud, when he could not take it by force ; or per. 
haps from the simple and unornamentcd appearance of the houses. 

* TTie tower of prone Tibur.'] A pleasant city of Italy, si- 
tuate about sixteen miles from Rome, on the river Anio ; it stood od 
a precipice, and had the appearance of hanging over it. Arx signi^ 
fies the top, summit, peak, or ridge of any thing, as of a rock, hill^ 
&c. also a tower, or the like, built upon iU 

193. We.'] Who live at Rome. 

Supported^ ^t.] In many parts of it very ruinous, Inany of 

the houses only kept from falling, by shores or props set against 
them, to prevent their tumbling down^ 

194. The steward,'] Villicus'T— here seems to mean some officer, 
like a steward or bailiff, whose business it was to overlook these 
matters ; a sort of city surveyor, (see sat. iv. 77.) who, instead of a 
thorough repair, only propped the houses, and plastered up the 
cracks in their walls, which had been opened by their giting way*—' 
so tiiat,^ though they might to appearance be repaired and strong, yet 
they werfe still in the utmost danger of falling. Villicus may perhaps 
mean the steward, or bailiff, of the great man who .was landlord of 
these houses: it was the steward's duty to see that repairs were 
timely and properly done. 

196. He bids us to sleepy Sfc] If we express any apprehension of 

Digitized by 



Leaven have to thyself: we clienUi to pay tributes 
Are compelled) and to augment the wealth of spruce servants. 
Who fears, or bath feared the fall of a house hi cold Prae- 

neste, 190 

Or at Volsinium placed among shady hills, or at 
Simple Gabii, or at the tower of prone Tibyr f 
We inhabit a city supported by a slender prop 
Li a great part of itself; for thus the steward hinders [195 

What is falling, and has covered the gaping of an old chink: 
He bids us to sleep secure, ruin impending. 
There one should live, where there are no burnings, no fears 
In the night. — ^Already Ucalegon asks for water, already 
Bemoves his lumber : already thy third floors smoke : 
Thou know'st it not : for if they are alarmed from the lowest 

steps, 200 

danger, or appear uneasy at our situation, he bids us dismiss *onr 
fears, and tells us, that we may sleep in safety, though at the same 
time the houses are almost tumbling about our ears. 

Umbritius urges the multitude of ruinous houses, which threaten 
tiie lives of the poor inhabitants, as another reason why he thinks it. 
safest and best to retire from Rome. 

197. There one should /«re, <5rc.] As a fresh motive for the re- 
moval of Umbritius from 'Rome, he mentions the continual danger 
of fire, especially to the poor, who being obliged to lodge in the up. 
permost parts of the houses in which they are inmates, run the risk 
of being burnt in their beds — for which reason he thought it best 
to live where there was no danger of house-burning, and nightly- 
alarms arising from such a calamity. 

198. Already Ucalegon.'] He seems here to allude to Virg. ^n. ii. 
510— '12. where he is giving a description of the burning of the city 
of Troy : 

J am Deiphobi dedit ampla ruinam, 
Vulcano superante, doiuus : jam proximus ardet 

Some unhappy Ucal^on, says Umbritius, who sees the ruin of his 
neighbour's house, and his own on fire, is calling out for water, is 
removing his wretched furniture (frivoia — ^trifling, frivolous, of little 
Talue) to save it from the flames. 

190. Thy third floorsJ] Tabulatnm — from tabula, a plank, signi- 
fies any thing on which plaoks are laid — ^so the floors of a house. 

200. Thou know^t it not.] You a poor inmate, lodged up in the 
garret, are, perhaps, fast asleep, and kaow nothing of the matter : 
but 70U are not in the less danger, for if the fire begins below, it 
will certainly reach upwards to ^e top of the house. 

If they are alarmed.'] Trepidatur — simpers, (like concurri. 

Inr, Hon. sat. i. 1. 7.) if they tremble — are in an uproar— (Aims w.) 
— ^from the alarm of fire. 

From the lowest steps.] Gradus is a step or stair of a house 

Digitized by 


lift JUVENAtiS SAtlR^i U^.ttU 

Ultimus ardebity queni tegula sola tuetur 

A pluvift ; molles ubi l^dtint ova columbas. 

Lectiis erat Codro Proculi minor : urceoli sex 

Omamentum abaci ; necnon et parvulus infra 

Cantharus, et recubans sub eodem marmore Chiron ; i05 

Jamque vetus Graecos servabat cista libellos, 

£t divina Opici rodebant carmina mures. 

Nil habuit Oodrus : quis enim negat i et tamen illud . 

Perdidit infelix totum nil : ultimus autem 

^rumnsp cumulusi quod nudum, et frusta rogantem 2 id 

Nemo cibo^ nemo hospitid, tectoque juvabit. 

— ^iniis gradibus, then, must denote the bottom of the stairs, aiid sig^ 
nify what we call the ground-floor. 

201. The highest.'] Ultimus, f. e. gradus, the last stair from the 
ground, which ends at the garret, or cock-loft, (as we call it^)^— -the 
wretched abode of the poor. This will be reached by the ascending 
llames^ when the lower part of the house is consumed. 

The roof.'] Tegula, lit. signifies a tile— a tego, quod tegat 

aedes*— hence it stands for the roof of a house. 

202. Where the soft pigeons J] The plumage of dotes and pigeoni 
is remarkably soft. Perhaps molles here has the sense of gentle, 
tame ; for this sort lote to lay their eggs and breed in the roofs of 

203. Codfus had a bed,, 4*^.] Umbritius still continues to set forth 
the calamities of the poor, and shews that, under such a calamity as 
is above mentioned, they have none to relieve or pity them. 

Codrus,. some poor poet— -perhaps he that is mentioned, sat. i. 
I. 2. which see, and the note. 

The furniture of his house consisted of a Wretched bed, whic;h was 
less, or shorter, than his wife Procula, who is supposed to have been 
a very little woman. Minor signifies less in any kind, whether in 
length, breadth, or height. 

Six little pitchers.] Urceoli, (dim. of lirceus,) little water«< 

pitchers made of clay, and formed on the potter's- whed. 

- Amphora cspit 

Institui, carrente rota cur urceus exit ? Hob. ad Pis. 1. ti, Sf. 

204—5. A small jug.] Cantharus-— a sort of drinking vessel, 
with a handle to it«^Attrit& pendebat cantharus ansa.-i*-yi&G. eel. vi. 

205. A Chiron reclining^ S^c] A figure of Chiron the centaur in 
a reclining posture under the same marble, f • e. under the marble 
shib, of which the cupboard was formed, perhaps by way of sup- 
port to it. 

Some suppose Umbritius to mean by sub eodem marmore, that 
this was a shabby figure of Chiron made of the same materials with 
the cantfaani9*-^t«. of clay — ^which he jeeringly expresses by mar- 
more, for of thb images were usually made. 

206. An old chesty ^c] This is another kistiuiee of the poterty 

Digitized by 


tttt.m. SWEHAVS SATIRE! ^ ilt 

Tlie hishest will barn^ which the roof alone defends 
Fronoi me rain : where the soft pigeons lay their egp. 

Codnis had a bed less than PTocula : six little pitchers 
The ornament of his cupboard ; also, underneath, a snudl 
Jugy and a Chiron reclining under the same marble. 90$ 

And now an old chest preserved his Greek books^ 
And barbarous mice were gnawing divine verses. 
Nodiing had Codrus — ^who forsooth denies it i and yet all tliat 
Nothing unhappy he lost. But the utmost 
Addition to his affliction was, that, naked, and beggii^ scraps, 2l6 
Nobody will help him with food, nobody with entertainmenV 
and an house. 

ef CodniS'-^he had no book-case, or library, but only a few Greek 
books in an <^d worm-eaten wooden chest. 

907. Barbarous mke^ S^c."] Opictfs is a wofd taken from the 
Opid, an ancient, rude, and barharous people of Italy. Hence the 
adjective opicos signifies barbarous, rtnle, anlearned.^^The poet, 
therefore, humourously calls the mice opici, as having so little re« 
spect for learning, that they gnawed the divine poems, perhaps even 
of Homer himself, which might have been treasured up, with others, 
in the chest of poor Codrus. See opicus used in the above sense, 
sat. vi. 454. Vt>\'^ 

Some suppose opici to be applied to mice, from 6r. Wii, a e ateir n 
—blinding to the holes in which they hide diemselves. 
^308. Who forsooth denies it ?^ By this it should appear that the 
Godrus mentioned here, and in sat. i. I. d. are the same person, 
whose poverty was so great, and so well known, as to be prover* 
bial. See note, sat. i. 1. 3. 

209 — 10. The utmost addition, S^c.'] Ultimm Cumulus-^-4he uU 
most height — ^the top-^-of hb nQhappine88**'*-<» the French say-^-^Le 
eomble de son maiheur.— The French word comble evidently comes 
from Lat. Cumulus, which signifies, in this conne^n, that which is 
over and above measure — ^the heaping of any measure— when the 
aieasure is full to the brim, and then more pUt on, till it stands 
en an heap above, at last it comes to a point, and will bold no 
mere. Botsr explains comble to mean-U^e qui pent tenir par 
dessus une mesure deja pleine. We speak of accumulated affliction, 
the height of sorrow, the completion of misfortune, the finishing 
stroke, and the like, but are not possessed of any English phrase, 
which literally expresses the Latin ultimus cumulus, or the French 
eomble du maiheur. 

310. Ndked.\ Having lost the few clothes he had by the fire. 

. Scraps A Frusta— broken victuals, as we say.— In this sense 

tiie word is used, sat. xiv. 128. 

211. With entertainmeni.'] So hospitium seems to mean here, 
and is to be understood, in the sense of hospitality, friendly or cha- 
ritable reception and entertainment :— some render it lod(pog^— but 
tUs is hnpUed by Ae next word. 

VOL. I. I 

Digitized by 


114 JUVENALIS SATIRiE. sat. iii. 

Si magna Asturii cecidit ciomu3 : horrida mater, " 

Pullati procereSy differt vadimonia Praetor : 
Tun^ genximus casus iirbisi tunc odimus ignem : 
Ardet adhuc — et jam accurrit qui marmora donet^ 2 15 

Conferat impensas : hie nuda et Candida signa ; 
Hie aliquid praeclarum Euphranoris, et PoTycleti ; 
Phaecasianorum Vetera ornamenta deorum. 
Hie libros dabit^ et forulos, mediamque Minervain ; 
Hie modium argenti : meliora^ ac plura reponit 220 

Persicus orborum lautissimus, et merito jam 

211. And an house.'] Nobody would take him into thdr house^ 
that he might find a place where to laj his head, secure from the in« 
clemency of the weather. 

Having shewn the miserable estate of the poor, if burnt oQt of 
house and home, as we say, Umbritius proceeds to exhibit a strong 
eontrast, by stating the condition of a rich man under such a cala. 
mity — by this he carries on his main design of setting forth the abo« 
minable partiality for the rich, and the wicked contempt and neg- 
lectof the poor. 

212. Asturius,'] Perhaps this may mean the same person as is 
spoken of, 1. 29. by the name of Arturcns. Howeyer, this name 
may stand for any rich man, who, like Asturius, was admired and 
courted for his riches. 

Hathfcdlen,'] A prey to flames^^hath been burnt down. 

The mother is ghastly. ] Mater may here mean the city 

itself. — All Rome is in a state of disorder and lamentation, and puts 
on a ghastly appearance, as in som^ public calamity — Or, the ma- 
trons of Rome, with torn garments and dishcTelled hair, appear in 
all the horrid signs of woe. See Virg. Mn. ii. I. 489. 

2194 The nobles sadlif clothed.'] Pullati — clad in sad-coloured ap. 
pare), as if in mourning. 

— r— The Proetor^ 4*^*] The judge adjourns his court, and re- 
spites the pledges, or bonds, for the suitors' appearances to a future 

214. Then we lament^ ^c] Then we lament the accidents to 
which the city is liable — particularly the loss of so noble an edifice 
as the house of Asturius, as if the whole city was iuTolred in the 

We hate fire.] We can't bear the very jmention of fire. It 

was customary for mourners to have no fire in their houses.— ^Per« 
haps this may be meant. 

215. // buriis yet.] i. e. While the house is still on fire, before 
the flames ha?e quite consumed it. 

• And now runs one^ Sfc] Some officious flatterer of Asturius 
loses no time ta improve his own interest in the great man's favour, 
but ha9ten5 to ofler his services before the fire has done smoking, 
and to let him know, that he has jnarble of various kinds, which he 
wishes to present him with, for the rebuilding of the house* 
216. Can contribute expenses.] u e. Can contribute towards the 

Digitized by 


siV.nt. iUVENAL^S SATIRES. 115 

If the great house of Astiirius hath fallen ; the mother is ghastly. 
The nobles sadly clothed, the Praetor defers recognizances : 
Allien we lament the misfortunes of the city ; then we hate fire r 
It bums yet — and now runs one who can present marbles^ 21^ 
Can contribute expenses : another naked and white statues. 
Another something famous of Euphranor and Polycletus ; 
The ancient ornaments of Phaecasian gods. 
Iliis man will give books, and book-cases, and Minerva down 

to the waist ; 
Another a bushel of silver : better and more things doth 220 
The Persian, the most splendid of destitutes lay up, and now 


Expense of repairing the damage, by pi^es^ntlng a large qnaiitHy df 
this fine marble, which was a very expensive article. 

"216. Another, Sfc,'] Of the same stamp — as one furnishes marble 
to rebuild the outside of the house, another presents ornaments for 
the inside-^such as Grecian statues, which were usually naked, and 
made of the finest white marble. 

217. Another something famous^ iSfcJ] Some famous works of 
Euphranor and Polycletus, two eminent Grecian statuaries. 

218. Of PhcBCoHan gods."] The ancient images of the Grecian 
deities were called Phscasian, from ^a4X9t&ni, calceus albus ; because 
they were represented with white sandals :' — probably the statues 
here mentioned had been ornaments of Gl^eian temples. 

219. Minerva dozen to the waist.'] Probably this means a bust of - 
Minerva, consisttng of the head, and part of the body dowtt to 
the middle. 

••-M.paIIas to the breast* DtiYDElr. 

^ Orangius observes, that they had their imagines dui ititegrae, aut iU 
midiatae^ — of which latter sort was this image of M inerra. 

BritannidUs expounds mediam Minervam— ^" Statuam MSnerv^ in 
" medio reponendam, ad exornandam bibliothccam"— >■" A statue 
" of Minefva to be placed in the middle, by way of ornamenting his 
" library." 

220. A bushel of silver. "] A large 4uantity*-^a definite for an in- 
definite— *as we say^-^*' such a one is worth a bushel of mdney"*^^ 
So the French say-v-uu boiiseau d'ecns^ Argenti, here, may either 
mean silver to be made into plate, or silver plate already made, Or it 
may signify money. Either of these senses answers the poet's de^ 
sign, in setting forth the attention, kindness, and liberality shewn to 
tiie rich, and forms a striking contrast to the want of all these to- 
wards the poor. 

221. 7%e Persians 4rc.] Meaning Astiirius, Who either Wias a- 
Persian, and one of the foreigners who came and enriched himself at 
Rome, (see 1. 72.) or so called, on account of his resembling the 
Persians in splendor and magnificence. 

-» The most splendid o/ destitutes.] Orbus means one that is 

depHved of any thing that is dear, necessary, or useful— as chrildreu 


Digitized by 



Su^ectus, tanauam ipse suas inceuderet aedea. 

Sijpotes avelli Circensibus, optima Sorae, 
Aut Fabraterise domus, aut Prusinoue paratur, 
Quanti nunc tenebras unum conducis in annum : 225 

Hortulus hie, puteusque brevis, nee reste movendus^ 
In tenues plantaa iacili diffunditur haustu. 
Vive bidentia amans, et culti viUicus horti, 
Unde epulum poAsis centum dare Pythagoraeis. 
"Est aliquid quocunque loco, quocunque recessu, 230 

Unius sese dominum fecisse lacertae. 

Plnrimus hie aeger moritur vigilando ; (sed ilium 
Languorem peperit cibus imperfectus, et haerena 

of their paienta— ^men of their friends — or of thdr sabstaace and 
property, as AsturiuS) who had lost his house, and erery thing in 
it, by a fire. But, as the poet humourously styles him, he was the 
most splendid and^smnptuous of all sufferers, for he replaced and 
repaired h» loss, with rery considerable gain and advantage, from 
the contribution^ which were made towards the rebuilding and fnr^ 
nishing his house, with more and better (meliora etplura) materials 
for both, than those which he had lost. '■ 

The contrast to the situation of poor Codrus is finely kept up, as 
wdl as the poef s design of exposing the monstrous partially which 
was shewn to riches. , 

m — ^3. Novo deservedlif suspected.'] See Martial, epigr. 51* 

The satire upon the veuality, self-interestedness, and mercenary 
views of those who paid their court to the rich and great^ is here 
greatly hdghtened, by supposing them so notorious, as to encourage 
Astartus to set his own house on fire, on the presumption that he 
should be a gainer by th^ presents which would be made him from 
those who expected, in their turn, to be richly repaid by the enter, 
tainments he would give them during his life, and, at his d^th,'b}s 
the legacies he might leave them in his will. Such wero called cap^ 
tatores. See sat. x. 202. Hoa. lib. ii. sat. v. 1. 57. . 

As for poor Codrus, he was left to starve ; nobody could e^>ect 
any thing from him, either living or dying, so he was forsaken of al^ 
^-orborum miserrimus — whereas Asturius was, as the poet calls. 
him — orborum lautissimus. 

223. The Circenses.'] The Circensian games — so called, b^caivi^ 
exhibited in the Circus. See Kennett^ Antiq« book y. part ii. 
chap. ii. These shows were favouifite amusements, and therefore tbe^ 
Romans could hardly be prevailed on to absent themselves firouL 
them— Hence he says. Si potes avelli. 

224. SorOy Sfc'] These were pleasant towns in Campania, where^ 
says Umbritius to Juvenal, a very good house and little garden tt 
purchased (paratur) for the same price (quanti) as you now, in <he8c{ 
dear times, hire (conducis) a wretched, dark, aog.bole (ten^brj|s).at 
Rom^ for a single year. 

Digitized by 


S3LT. til. JtJVENAL'S SATIRES- 117' 

Sun>ectocl, as if he had himself set fire to his own house, 
dould you be plucked away firom the Circenses, a most ex* 
celleat house 
At Sora, or Fabrateria, or Frusino, is gotten 
At the price for which you now hire darkness for one year : 225 
Here is a little garden, and a shallow well, not to be drawn by 

a rope. 
It is poured with an easy draught on the small plants. 
Live fond of the fork, and the farmer of a cultivated garden. 
Whence you may give a feast to an hundred Pythagoreans. 
It is something in any place, in any retirement, 230 

To have made one's self master of one lizard. 
Here many a sick man dies with watching ; (but that 
Languor food hath produced, imperfect, and sticking 

326. A shaHow toeti^ 4rc.] The springs lying so high, that there 
is no occasion for a rope for letting down a bucket to fetch up tiie 
water ; the garden may be watered with the greatest ease, by merely 
dipping, and thus, fadli haostu, with an easy drawing up by the 
huid, your plants be refreshed. This was no small acquisition in 
Italy, where, in ioany parts, it seldom rains. 

2S8. Live fimd of the fork.'] t. e. Pass your time in cultivating^ 
your Utde spot of ground. — The bidens, or fork of two prongs, 
was used In husbandry-^ere, by met. it is put for husbandry itself. 

SM. Jn hundred r^h^oream.'] Pythagoras taught his disdples 
to abstam from flesh, and to live on vegetables. 

331* Of one lizard.'] The green lizvd Is* very plentifnlin Italy, 
as In all warm climatesj^ and is very fond of living in gardens, and 
aatong the leaves of trees and shrubs. 

S en virides rabum 
DimorSre hcer te ■ i Hob. lib. i. od. zjuii. L 7, 8. 

The poet means, that, wherever a man may be placed, or wherever 
retired from the rest of the world. It is no small privilege to be able 
to call one's self master, of a littie spot of ground of one's own, 
however small It may be, though It were no Ugger than to contain , 
one poor lizard. This seems a proverbial or figurative kind of ex* , 

233. With watdiingJ] With bemg kept awake. Another incon. 
vedence of living in Rome, is, the perpetual noise In the streets, 
which is occasioned by the carriages passing at aU hours, so as to ^ 
prevent one's sleeping. This, to people who are sick, is a deadly ' 

2S4^— 3. Bui that languor^ ^e.^ q. d. Though, by the way, it 
must be admitted, that the weak, languishing, and sleepless state, In 
whidi many of these are, they first bring upon themselves by their . 
own intemperance, and therefore their deaths are not wholly to be 
set down to the account of the noise by which they are kept awake, 
however this may help to finish them. 

233. Food^imperfect.'] i. e. Imperfectly digesied^-indigested*^ 

I 3 

Digitized by 



Ardenti stomacho,) nam quae meritoria iroinnum 
Admittunt ? magnis opibus dormitur in urbe. 235 

Inde caput morbi : rhiedaruni traasitus arcto 
Vicorum infl^xu, et stautis ccnvicia mandnb 
Jllripiunt somnun^ Druso^ vituiisque marinis. 
Si vocat officiuniy turb^ cedente vt^hetur 

I)ives, et ingenti curret super ora Liburno, 240 

Atque obiter leget, aut scribeti aut dormiet intus ; 
Namque facit somnum claus^ lectica fenestra. 
Ante taxnen veniet : nobis properantibus obstat 

and lying harcj at the stomach — ^haerens, adhering, as it were, to the 
coats of the stomach, so as not to pass, but to ferment, and to ocn 
^asion a burning or scalding sensatiom^This seems to be a descrip. 
tion of what we call the heart-burn, (Gr. ic»^^»aXy»a,) which arises 
from indigestion, an4 is so painful and trpHblesoiiie as to prerent 
sleep : it is attended w|th risings of sour and sharp fumes from the 
stomai^h iuto the throat, wbieh pcoa^iou a sensation almost Uke that 
of seeding water. 

234. For what hired lodging^y SfcS] The nam, here, seems to join 
this sentence to vigilando, 1. 232. I therefore ha?e ventured to put 
•the intermediate words in a parenthesis, which, as ikey are rather di« 
gressiye, makes the sepse of the passage more easily understood. 

M^fitqiiumr-t^ merendo — ^locus qui mercede locatur, signifies any 
place or house that is hired.— ^uch, in the city of Rome, were 
mostly, as we may gather from tliis passage, in the noisy part of the 
tovfu, iq apartments next to the street, so not very friendly to re- 

235. With greai weakhJ] Dormitur is here used impersonally, 
like trepidatur, 1. 200. — None, but the rich, can afford to live in 
bouses which are spacious enough to have bed-chambers remo^ from 
the noise in the streets — those who, therefore, would sleep in Rono^e, 
must be at a great expense, which none but the opulent can af- 

236. Thence the source^ S(c.'] One great causie of the majady 
complained of (morbi, i. e. vigilandi, 1. 2'?2.) n^nst be i^ttrihuted tq 
the narrowness of the streets and turnings, so that the carriages must 
not only pass v^ry near the houses., but occasion frequent stoppages ; 
the conseqMence of which is, that there are perpetual noisy disputes, 
quarrels, and abuse (couTicia) amon^ the driters. Rheda signifies 
any carriage drawn by ^prses, &c. 

237. Of the standing tean^j] Mandra signifies, literally, a hovd 
for cattle, but, by meton. a company or team' of horses, oxen, 
mules, or any beasts of burdeurrrthese are here supposed standing, 
f till, and not able to go on, by res^oi^ of meeting others in a nar- 
row pass; hence the bickerings, scoldinget, and abusive language 
which the drivers bestow on each other for ^topping the way. 

238. Drums,"] Some person remarkable fqif drowsiness. 

' ' >*f — SetMoXvesJ^ These are remarkably slugglbh and drowsy^ 

Digitized by 



To the burning stomach,) for >vhat hired lodgings admit 
Sleep ?: — ^With great wealth one sleeps in the city. [narrpw 

Thence the source of the disease : the passing of carriages in the 
Turning of the streets^ and the foul language of the standing 

Take away sleep from Drusus, and from sea-calves. 
If business calls, the crowd giving way, the rich man will be 
Carried along, and will pass swiftly above their faces with a huge 

Libumian, 240 

And in the way he will read, or write, or sleep within ; 
Por a litter with the window shut causeth sleep. 
But he will come before us : us hastening the crowd before 

they will lay themselves on the shore to sleep, in which situation 
they are found, and thus easily taken. 

Stemunt se aomno diversae in littore phocs. Vxro. Geor. it. 432. 

239. ijT business coils, "] Umbritius, having shewn the advantages 
of the rich, in being able to afford themselves quiet repose notwith. 
standing the constant noises in the city, which break the rest of the 
poorer sort, now proceeds to observe the advantage with which the 
opulent can travel along the crowded streets, where the poorer sort 
are inconvenienced beyond measure. 

Si vocat officium«*if business, either public or private, calls the 
rich man forth, the crowd makes way for him as he is carried along 
In his titter. 

240. Pats swiftl^y 4*0.] Curret — lit. will run — while the common 
passengers can hardly get along for the crowds of people, the rich 
man passes on without the least impediment, bdng exalted above the . 
heada of the people, in his litter, which is elevated on the shoulders 
of tall and stQut Iiiburnian bearers. 

The word ora properly means faces or countenances — the super , 
on may denote his being carried above the faces of the crqwd^ 
which are turned upwards to look at him as he passes. 

A huge Libumian.'] The chairmen at Rome commonly 

tme from Libumia, a part of lUyria, between I^tria apd J)almatia. 
They were remarkably tall and stout, 

241. Readj or wrUcy or sleepJ] He Is carried on with sq much 
ease to himself, that he can amuse himself with reading-r-employ 
hiipself in writing— or if he has a mind to taHe ?| nap, has only to 
shut up the window of his litter, and he will be soon composed to. 
sleep* All this he may do-— obiter — in going along — En chemin 
faisant— en passant, as the French say. 

243, But he will come bejore «#.] He will lose no time by all 
this, for, however he may employ himself ip his way, he will be 
sure to arrive before us foot passengers, at the place he is going to. 

-r: — IJs hastening.'] Whatever hurry we may be in, or whatever 
hastp we wish to make, we are sure to be obstructed — the crowd 
that is before ns, in multitude and turbulence, like waves, closes ii\ 

I 4 

Digitized by 


yn J.UVENALIS SATIBJE. si^. ixi. 

Uoda prior, magno populus premit agmine lombos 

Oui sequitur : ferit hie cubito, ferit assere dura 245 

Alter'; at hie tignum capiti incutit, ille mctretam. 

Pibguia crura luto : plants mox undique ms^ni 

Galcor, et in digito clavus mihi militis hasret. 

Noone vides quanto celebretur sportula fumo f 
Centum cowivae ; sequitur sua quemque culina ; 2dO 

Corbulo vix ferret tot vasa ingentia, tot res 
Impositaa capiti, quot recto vertice portat 
Servuius infelix ; et cursu veniilat ignem. 

vpon us, as soon as the great man, whom thej made way for, is 
passed, so tiiat we can hardly get along at all. 

^d44. I7ie people who follow^ Sfc."] As the crowd which b before 
lis stops up our way, that which is behind presses upon our backs, 
so that we can hardly stir either backward or forwaid. 

245. One strikes with the elbowJ] To jostle us out of his way. , 

245^^. Another — with a large joist.'] Which he is carrying 
along, and runs it against ns. Asser signifies a pole, or piece of 
woodj also the joist of an hoQse; which, from the next word, we 
may suppose to be meant here, at least some piece of timber for 
building, which, being carried along in the crowd, must strike those 
who are not aware of it,, and who stand in the way. 

Some understand asser in this place to mean a pole of some litter 
fliat is passing along—- a chair-pole, as we should call it. 

^6. Drives a beamy Sfc] Another is carrying tignum, a beam, 
or rafter, or some other large piece of wood used in building, which, 
bdng carried on the shoulder, has the end level with the heads of 
those it meets with in its way, and must inflict a scTcre blow. 

A tub,'] Metreta^-signlfies a cask of a certain .measure, 

^hich, in being carried through the crowd, will strike and hurt those 
who don't avoid it. 

247. Thick with mudJ] Bespattered with the mire of the streets^ 
which is kicked up by such a number of people upon each other* 

347«— 8. On all sides — the naily Sfc»] I can hardly turn mysdf 
but some heavy, splay-footed fellow tramples upon my feet; and at 
last some soldier's hob-nail runs into my toe. The soldiers wore a 
sort of harness on their feet and legs, called caliga, which was stuck 
full of large nails. See sat xvL 24, 5. 

Such are the inconveniences which the common sort of people 
sneet with in walking the streets of Rome. 

' 249. Do not you see, Sfc] Umbritius proceeds to enumerate far« 
{her inconveniences and dangers, which attend passengers in the 
streets of Rome. 

Some understand fbmo, here, in a figurative sense-— 9. d. With 
how mudi bu6tle<<-<-with what crowds of people, like clouds of 
smoke, is the sportula frequ^ted ? Others think it alludes to the 
sihoke of the chafing-dishes of hot coals which were put under the 

Digitized by 



Obstniclii: Ae ]M0|dewl|o/aHDWppe89tIie loins with a large 
Goocoarse: one ftnkes with the elbow, another strikes w^ a: 
. large ^45 

Joist, but another drives a beam i^ainst one's head, another aitub. 
The legs thick with mud : presentlyi on all sidM, wi^ a great 

I'm trodden on, and the nail of a soldier sdcks in mjr toe. 
Do not you see with how much smoke the sportula is fire- 
An hundred guests : his own kitchen follows every one : 250. 
Corbulo could hardly bear so many inimense vessels, so many 

Put on his head, as, with an upright top, an unhappy little 
Slave carries ; and in running ventilates the fire. — 

victuals, to keep them warm as they were carried alonf the street : < 
this, from the number, must have been very offeasive* 

249. ne ipofUdaJ] Of this, see sat i. 95, note. Bat, from the* 
circnmstances which are spoken of in the next four lines of this 
passage, it should seem, diat the sportola mentioned here was of' 
another kind than the usual poor dole-basket. Here are an Jiub- 
dred guests invited to partake of it, and each has such a share dis* 
tiibuted to him as to be very considerable. 

* 250. HU awn kitchen follows.'] Each of the hundred sharers of 
tills sportnli^ had a slave, who, with a chafing-dish of coals on his 
head, on which the victuals were put, to keep them hot, followed - 
htt master along the street homewards i so that the whole aade a > 
long procession. 

Culina denotes a plaoe where victuals are cooked; and as the 
slaves followed their masters with vessels of fire pUeed under the • 
diishes so as to keep them warm, and, in a manner, to dress them as 
they went along, each of these might be looked upon as a moveable . 
or travelling kitchen : so that the masters might each be said to be 
followed by his own kitchen. 

251. CorMo.] A remarkable strong and valiant man in the time 
of Nero. Tacitus says of him-**<}orpore ingens erat, et supra ex* 
perientiam sapientiamque erat validus. 

252. An upright top*"] The top of the head, on which the v^essds 
of fire and provision were carried, mast be quite upright, not bend- 
ing or stooping, kst the soup, or sance^ which they . contained, 
should be spilt as iShef went along,, or vessels and all slide off. Tha 
tot vasa ingentia, and tot re»<-«hew that the sportula above men* 
ticned was of a magnificent kihd, more like the sf^endor oi a 
coena rec^a-*^ set and full suppcv, than th^ scanty dis^ution of a 

252^3. UfJuipp^ Utile ihfoe.'] Who was hardly equal to the 
burden which he was obliged to carry in so uneasy a sitaattoa, aa 
not daring to stir his head. 

353. Jh rmningventiMes^ 4rc.] He New up, or fumed, the fiaa 

Digitized by 


1» JtJVENALIS SATIRiE. i it. m. 

Scindtintur tunicar sarts : niodo longa coruscat i 

Sarraco venieiite abies, atque altera pinum ^55 

Piaustra vehunt, nutant alte, populoque minantur. 

Nam si procubuit, aui saxa Ligustica portat 

Axisx et eTersum foait super agmina monteniy '- 

Quid superest de corporibus ? quis membra^ quis ossa 

Invenit ? obtritum vulgi perit omne cadaver 260 

More animae. Domus interea secura pat^}las 

Jam lavat, et bucc^ foculum excitat^ et sonat unctis 

Strigilibusy pleno et componit Kntea gutto. 

Haec inter pueros varie properantur ; ai ille 

under the provisions, by the current of air which he excited in has-> 
tening on with his load. These processions Umbritius seems to 
reckon among other causes of the street being crowded, and made 
disagreeable and inconvenient for passengers. 

264. Botched cauts are torn.^ Some refer this to the old botched 
clothes of these poor slaves— «but I should rather imagine, that Urn-, 
britius here introduces a new circumstance, which relates to the 
poor in general, whose garments being old, and only hanging toge- 
ther by being botched and mended, are rent and torn off their 
backs, lA ge^ilig through the crowd, by the violence of the press, 
which is increased by the number of masters and servants, who are 
hurrying along with the contents of the sportula. 

A long fir-tree-'] Another inconvenience arbes from the 

passing of timber.carriage» among the people in the streets. Sesteca,^ 
epist. xl. Longo vehiculorum ordine, ptnus aut abies deferebatur 
▼icis intrementibus. 

• BrdndishesJ] Corusco signifies to brandish or shake ; also 

neut. to be shaken, to wave to and fro — which must be the case of 
a long stick of timber, of the ends especially, on a carriage. This 
may be very dangerous if approached too near. 

' 255. Tke waggon coming.'] Moving on its way— sarracum signi. 
iies a waggon, or wain, for the purpose of carrying timber. 

256. Thei/ nod on high.] These trees being placed high on th^ 
carriages, and lying out beyond them at each end, tremble aloft, and 
threaten the destruction of the people. 

257. But if the aode^ Sfc] t. e If the stone-carriage has ovcti 
turned, \!j the breaking of the axle*tree. 

Idgustian stones.] Which were hewn, in vast masses, in 

liguria, from the quarries of the Apennine mountains. 

258. The overturned mountain.'] Hyperbole, denoting the im- 
mensity of the block of stone. 

U^n the crowd.] Agmen denotes a troop or company ; 

also a number of people walking together, as in a crowded street. 

259. What remains^ S^c] If such an immense mass should, m 
its fall, light upon any of the people, it must grind them to atoms : 
no trace of a human body, its limbs, or bones could be found. 

2bU In the manner of the soi^.] i. e. The partides which com* 

Digitized by 


siT.iii.. JUVENAL'S SATIRES. 1519 

Botched coats are torn. — Now a loi^ fir-tree bnaidishes, 

The waggon coming, and a pine other 25S 

Carts carry, they nod on high, and threaten the people. 

But if the axle, which carries the ligustian stones, 

Hath fallen down, and hath poured forth the overturned xnoim- 

tain upon the crowd, 
\Miat remains of their bodies ? who finds members — ^who 
Bones ? every carcase of the vulgar, ground to powder, pe- 
rishes ' 260 
In the manner of the soul. Mean while, the family secure now 

The dishes, and raises up a little fire with the cheek, and makes 

a sound with anointed 
Scrapers, and puts together the napKins with a full cruise. 
These things among the servants are variously hastened : but he 

posed the body could no more be found, than could the soul which 
is immaterial ; both yfovdd seem to have vanished away, and disap. 
peared together. 

261. Mean while.'] Interea — q, d. While the slave is gone to 
bring home the provisioqs, and is crushed to pieces, by the fall of a 
jstone-carriage, in his way. See 1. 264, 5. 

The family*'] The servants of the family (Comp. 1. 264.) 

safe at home, and knpwing nothing of what had happened, set about 
preparing for supper. 

262. The ^hes,] Paielk signifies any sort of dish to hold meat. 
— One washes and prepares ^e 4ishes which are to hold the meat 
ivfaen it arrives. 

Raises up a Utile j^e^ Sfc] Another, in order to prepare 

the fire for warming the water for loathing before supper, blows it 
with his mouth, Henpe it is i^aid— rbucca foculum ezcitat— alluding 
to the distension of the cbeel^s in the act of blowing. 

262 — 3. fViihanoiute4 scrapers.] Strigil— -denotes an instrument 
for scraping the foody after bathing: — It had some oil put on it, to 
make it islide with less friction Over the skin. Scrapers were made 
of gold, silver, ifon, or the like, which, wl^i^ gatl^er^ up, or 
thrown down together, made a clatteripg sound. 

263. Puts together the fufpkins.] Lintea— -linen napkins, or 
towels, made use of to dry the body after bathing : these he folds 
and lays in order. 

A full cruise.] Gpttor-4 sort of oil-cruet, wjth a long and 

narrow neck, which poured the oil, drop i^y drop, on the body 
after bathing, ai^d then it was rubbed ^1 qver it. 

264. 7%es^ thiTigs qmong the servants^ Sfc] Each servant, in his 
department, made all the haste l^e could, to get thiqgs ready against 
the supper should arrive, 

— —But he,] Ille — i. e. The servu^us infeljx, (which we read of, 
I. 253.) in his way home with his los^d of provisions^ is killed by 
the fall of a block of stone upon him. 

Digitized by 


nt ^IJVENALIS SATIRJE. »xt: xir- 

Jr.m sedet in ripS> tetrumque novitius horret 265 

Porthmea ; nee sperat coenosi gurgihs ainum 
Infelixy nee habet ^uem porrigat ore trientem. 

Respice nune alia, ae diversa per icula noctis : 
Qaod spatktm tectis sublimibus, unde cerebrum 
Testa ferity quoties rimosa et curta fenestris £70 

Vasa cadimty quanto percussum pondere signent, 
Et lasdant silicem : possis ignavus baberi, 
£t subiti eas6s improvidus^ ad coepam si 
Intestatus eas; adeo tot fata, quot 'dlk 

Noete patent vigiles, te prsetereunte, fenestras. £75 

Ergo opte«y votumque feras miserabile tecum, 
Ut sint content^ patulas efTundere pelves. 
. Ebrius, ae petuhmSj qui nullum forte cecidit, 

265. SHs on the bank.'] Of the ijrer Styx.'^By this account of 
ihe deceased, it is Terj clear, that JuTenal was no £picurean, be- 
lieTing the soqI to perish vrith the body, which some have wrongly 
inferred, from what he says, 1. 261, more anims. Comp. sat. ii. 
h 149^69. 

A novke.'] Just newly arrlv^d^ and now first bieiholdtng such 

a scene. 

265--^. J%e black ferryman^] Porthmea-^-ff om Gf . w^S/xtu^, 
a' ferrjmaiiy one who ferms people orer the water. Charon^ the 
fabled ferryman of hell, is here meant. , 

266. Nor does he hope for the boaty Sfc.y Alnus properly signi- 
fies an alder-tree ; bat as the wood of' this tree was used in making 
boats, it therefore — ^by met^ — ; signifies a boat. 

As the poor decedied had died a violent death, and such a one as 
dissipated all the parts of his body, so as that they could not be col- 
lected for burial, he could not pass over the riyer Styx, but must 
remain on its banks an hundred years, which was held to be the case 
of all unburied bodies. See ViRo. JBn. vi. 325 — ^29, 365, 6. and 
Hon. lib. i. ode xxyiti. 35, 6. This situation M^as reckoned to be 
very unhappy. 

267. Nor hath he afarihingy Sfc."] The triens was a very small 
piece of money — the third part of the as, which was about three 
farthings of our money. It was a custom among the Greeks, to ' 
put a piece of money into the mouth of a de^d person, which was 
supposed to be giyeu to Chfiron, as his fare, for the passage in his 
boisrt^ over the river Styx. This unhappy, man, being killed in the 
manner he Was, could not hare this done for him. 

Though Juvenal certainly believed a future state of rewards and 
punishments, (see sat. ii. 1. 153.) yet he certainily means here, as he 
does elsewhere, to ridicule the idle and foolish superstitions^ which 
the Romans had adopted from the Greeks, upon those subjects, as 
well as on maHy others relative to their received mythology. 

26S. Now* consider^ Sfc.] Umbritius still punpes his discourse, 
and adds fresh reasons for his departure ImaiRotae : which, like 

Digitized by 



Now sits on the baok^ and, a novice, dreads the black ^26$ 

Fenyman ; nor does he hope for the boat of the muddy gulph. 
Wretch [that he is] — ^nor hath he a farthing which he can reach 
forth from hi^ mouth. 

Now consider other, and different dangers of the n^t : 
What space from high roofs, from whence the brain 
A potsherd strikes, as often as from the windows snicked and 
broken < 870 

Vessels fall, with what weight they mark and wouimI 
The stricken flint : you may be accounted idle. 
And improvident of sudden accident, if to supper 
You -go intestate ; there are as many fates as, in that 
Night, there are watchful windows open, MrhUe you pass by. W5 
Therefore you should desire, and c^rry with you a miseiable 

That they may be content to pour forth broad basons. 

One chunken and petulant, who haply hath killed nobody, 

the former, alrea4y giren, arise from tl^e dan^^rs which the infaabi« 
tants, the poorer sort especially, are expos^ to, in walking the 
streets by night — ^These he sets forth with much humour. 

268. Qthery und different dangers."] Besides those already men« 
tioned, 1. 196 — ^202. 

269. What space from high roofsJ\ How high the houses are^ 
and, consequently, what a long way any tkin| has to fall, from tho 
upper windows into the street, upon people's heads that are passing 
by ; and therefore must come with the greater f6r<^ ; insomuch that 
jneces of broken earthen ware, coming from such a height,^ make a 
mark in the flint pavement below, aBd,'of course, must dash out the 
brains of the unft^rtunate passenger on whose head they may hap« 
pen to ali^t. 

272. Uk.l Ignavus-^indolent— negligent of your affairs, q. d. 
A man who goes out te suppei;. aud who has to walk home through! 
the streets at nigh^ may be re^^pi^ very indotait, aud careless of 
his affidrs, as wett as vaiy^ improvidipnjt, if he does not make his will 
before he setji. out 

274. As manj^ fates,'] As many, chap^pes of being knocked oBi 
the head, as there are opm windows, and people watching to thxow 
down ihdr broken crockery into the stree^ as you pass along. 

27^. Thfref ore ^ou should desirey (^cj As the best thing which 
you can expect, that the people at the windows would content tiiem- 
seivea "with emptying the nastmess which is in their pots upon you^ 
and not thrpw down the pots themselves. 

Pdvis is a lai^Q hasQp, or rm^ whenm. tiiey washed their feet^ 
or put to more filthy uses. 

278. Otte dmn^en^ 4!pc.] VinbiftiaP} among the nightljr dangers 
oi Rome, recounts. that from meeting dranJiLai rakes in: 
their cups. 

Digitized by 


)2« JtJVENALIS SATlftiE. sA^.iit, 

Dat poenasjjnoctem patatur lugentis amicum 

Pelidae ; cubat in faciem, mox deinde supmus : ^ 

Ergo non aliter poterit dormire : Qui BUS DAM 

SoMNUM KiXA FACIT : sed quamvis improbus annis, 

Atque mero fervensy cavet hunc, quern coccina laena 

Vitari jubet, et comitum longissimus ordo ; 

Multum pneterea flammaruttiy atqne senea lampa^. ^5 

Me quem Luna 9olet deducere, vel breve lumen 

Candele, cujus dispenso et tempero filum, 

Contemnit : mifierse cognosce prooemia rixas, 

Si rixa est, ubi tu pulsas ego vapulo tantum. 

Stat contra, starique jubet ; parere necesse est ; 29^ 

Nam quid agas, cum te fiiriosus cogat, et idem 

Fortior? undevenisf exclamat: cujus aceto, 

Cujus conche tumes ? quis tecum sectile porrum 

Sutor, et elixi vervecis labra comedit i 

ipmc tarem, rcry iilacli in liquor, and rery sancy and quarrelsome^ 
lioping to pick a quarrel, that he may have the pleasure of beating 
Somebody before he gets home-— to fail of this, is a putiishme&t fo 

279. Tlie night of Pehdes."] The pOet humourously compares 
the uneasiness of one of these young fellows, on missing a quarrel, 
to the disquiet of Achilles (the sou of Peleus) on the loss of his 
friend Patroclus ; and almost translates the description which Ho-* 
mer giyes of that hero's restlessness on the occasion. II. v. 1. 10, 

Nunc lateri incumbeiu, iteram post paulo supinus 

Corporej nunc proQus. ^ 

So the poet describes this rakehelly youth, as tossing and tumbliftg ttt 
his bed, first on his face, then on his back (supinus)— thus eUdeayour' 
ing to amuse the restlessness of his mind, under tKe disappointment 
of having met with nobody to quarrel with and beat— ^thus weary<* 
ing himself, as it were,' into sleep* . . i . . . 

Ml — % To some a quarrel, SfC."] This reminds one of Pror. hr,l6» 
— ^< For they (the wicked and etil men, rer. 14.) sleep not, except' 
^< they have done mischief, and their sleep is taken away unless they 
« cause some to fall." 

282. Wicked from years.'] Improbus also signifies lewd, rtsh,^ 
▼iolent, presumptuous. — ^Though he be all these, owing to his young' 
time of life, and heated also with liquot, yet he takes care whom he 
assaults. -' 

^ 28S. A scarlet doak."] Instead of attacking, he wHl atoid anr 
rich man or noble, whom he full well knows from his dress, as wel 
as from the number of lights and attendants which accompany ^im.^ 

The l»na was a sort of cloak uaually worn by soldiers: bf# 

Digitized by Google I 



Is punished ; suffers the night of Pelides mourning 

His friend ; he lies on his face, then presently on his back : ^£80 

For otherwise he could not sleep : To some 

A QUARREL CA.USES SLEEP: but tho* wicked from years 

And heated with wine, he is aware of him whom a scarlet cloak 

Commands to avoid, and a very long train of attendants, 

Besides a great number of lights, and a brazen lamp. . ^B5 

Me whom the moon is wont to attend, or the short light 

Of a candle, the wick of which I dispose and regulate, 

He despises : know the preludes of a wretched quarrel. 

If it be a quarrel where you strike and I only am beaten. 

He stands opposite, and bids you stand; it is' necessary to . 

obey; 290 

For what can you do, when a madman compels, and he 
ITie stronger ? " Whence come you," he exclaims, " with whose 

** vinegar, 
" With whose bean, swell you ? What cobbler with you 
^* Sliced leek, and a boiled sheep s head, hath eaten ? 

only the rich and noble could afford to wear those which were dyed 
in scarlet. Coccus signifies the shrub which produced the scarlet 
grain, and cocciaus implies, what was dyed with it of a scarlet co- 

^5, Brazen lampJ] This sort of lamp was made of Corinthian 
•brass :. it was very expensive, and could only fall to the share of the 

286. Me whom the moon^ 4r^.] Who walk by moon-light, or, 
at most, with a poor, solitary, short candle, which I snuff with my 
fiogers-r-such a one he holds in the utmost ^ntempt. 

2;08. KnoTO the preludesj Sfc."] Attend a little, and hear what the 
preludes are of one of these quarrels, if that can properly be called 
a quarrel, where the beating is by the assailant only. 

Rixa signifies a buffeting, and fighting, which last seems to be the 
best sense in this place, viz* if that caii be called fighting, where the 
battle is all on one side. 

290. He stands opposite.'] Directly in your way, to hinder your 
passing-^-«nd orders you to stop. 

291. Whai can you do, Sfc/] You must submit, there's no mak- 
ing any resistance ; you are no match for such a furious man. 

^92. fVith whose vinegar, 4*c0 Then he begins his taunts, in 
hopes to pick a quarrel. Where have you b^ ? with whose sour 
wine- have you being filling yourself ? 

293. fVith whose bean, Sfc,'] Conchis means a bean in the shell, 
and thus boiled — a common food among the lower sort of people^- 
and very filling, which is implied by tumes. 

; tVhat cobbler."] He now falls foul of your company, as well 

as your entertainment 

294. Sliced leek.] Sectilis signifies any thing that is or may be 
easily cut asunder. But see sat. xiv. 1. 133, note. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

MB JUVENAUS satire. «a¥. itt. 

Nil mihi refspondet P &ut die, aut accipe calcem : . 295 

(£de ubi consistas : in quft te qu«ro proseuchft i 
Dicere si tenles afiquid, tacitusve recedas, 
Tantundem est : feriunt pariter : vadimonia deinde 
Irati faciunt. Libertas pauperis haec est : 
Pulsatus rogaty et pugnis ccmcisus adcMrat, 300 

Ut tic !ftt palicis cum dentibtis inde reverti. 

Nee tamen hoc tantum metuas : nam qui spoliet te 
Non deeidt, dausis domibus, postquam omnifl ubique 
Fixa catenatse siluit compago tabernds. 

Interduln et ferro subitus grassator agit rem, 505 

Annate quoties tutse custode tenentur 
£t Pontina palus^ et Gallinaria pinus. 

St94. A boiled sheep^s head,'] Venrex particularly ngnifies a we* 
ther sheep. — Labra, die lips, pat here^ by syned* lor all the flesh 
about the jaws. 

995. A kick.'] Calx properly signifies the heel-— but by meton. a 
spurn or kick with the heel. 

i96. Where do ytm abide.] Consisto ngnifies to abide, stay, or 
keep in one place — ^here I suppose it to allude to taking a constant 
stand, as beggars do, in order to beg : as if the assaihmt, in order 
to proToke the man more, whom he is wanting to quarrel with, 
Aieant to treat him as insolently as possible, and should say-«»^ Pray 
<^ let me know where you take your stand for begging ?" — ^This 
idea seems countenanced by the riest of the line. 

^^ — in whai begging^placey Sfc] Proseucha property signifies a 
place of prayer, (from the Gr. 'w^oow;cwS«,) in the porches of which 
beggars used to' take their stand. Hence, by met. a phice where 
beggars stand to ask alms of them who pass by. 

298. Thei^ eqOally strike,] After hairing said erery tftfng to insult 
and proToke you, in hopes of your giving the first bloinr, you get 
nothing by not answering ; for thehr determination is to beat you 
-^th^fore either way, whether you answer, or whether you are si- 
lent, the event will be just the same— it will be all one. 

— : — Then angry^ ^c^^ Then, in a violent passion, as if they had 
been beaten by you, instead of your behig b^^ten b^ theffl^^^Away 
they go, swear tiie peace against you, and make yon give bail, as 
the aggressor, for the assault. 

290. ThU is the liberttfy Sfc] So that, after our boasted freedom, 
a poor man at Rome is in a fine situation — ^AU the liberty which he 
has, is, to ask, if beaten, and to supplicate earnestly, if bruised un- 
mercifully with fisty-cufis, that he may retnm home, from the place 
where he was so used, without having all his teeth beat out of his 
head — and perhaps he is to be prosecuted, and ruined at law, as the 

302. Vet neith^, Sfc] Umbritius, as another reason for retiring 
from Rome, describes the perils which the inhabtenti ark in from 
house and street-robbers. 

Digitized by 


UT, m. JUVENAL'S SAtll^ES. ts» 

** Do you atiiswer me nothing i — either tell or take a kick t 

** Tell where you abide—in what begging^place shall I seek you ?**— • 

If you should attempt to say any thing; or retire silent, 

It amounts to the same : they equally strike : then^ angry, they 

Bind you over. This is the liberty of a poor man. 

Beaten he asks, bruised witli fists he entreats, 300 

That he may return thence with a feMr of his teeth. 

Vet neither may you &ar this only : for one who will rob you 

M'ill not 
Be wanting, the houses being shut up, after, every tvhere, every 
Fixeid fastening of the chained shop hath been silent : 
And sometimes the sudden footpad with a sword does your busi* 

ness) 305 

As often as, with an armed guard, are kept safe 
Both the Pontinian marsh, and the Gallinarian pine \ 

903. The houses being shut tip.l The circumstance mentioned here> 
and in the next line, mark what Jbe says to belong to the alia et di^ 
versa pericula noctis, i. 268. 

304. JTie chained shvpJ] Tabema has mati^ significations; it 
denotes any house made of boards, a tradesman's shop, or ware* 
house; also an inn or tavern. By the preceding domibus he 
means private houses.*— Here, therefore, We may understand tabema 
to denote 4he shops and taverns, which last were probably kept 
open longer than private houses or shops ; yet even these are supi* 
posed to be fastened up, and all silent and quiet within. — ^This 
marks the lateness of the hour, when the horrid burglar is awake 
and' abroad, and when there is not wanting a robber to destroy the 
security of the sleeping inhabitants. 

Compago signifies a joining, or closure, as of planks, or boards, 
widi which the taberaas vme built-^-fixa compago denotes the fixed 
and firm manner in which they were compacted or^fastened toge- 
tber^-'Iaducta etiam per smgulos asseres grandi catena— ^Vet* Schol. 
— « vHth a great chain introduced through every plank"--in order 
to keep them from being torn asunder, and thus the building 
broken open by. robbers. ^' 

The wofd siloit, here, shetrs that the building is put for the inha* 
Utaats widun. Meton«— -The nobe and hurry of the day was over^ 
sad "th^ were all retired to rest. 

305. The sudden footpad.'] GrassAtor means an assailant of any 
IM9 stich as highwaymen^ footpads. Sec One of these may leap 
on a sudden from bis Inrking-place upon you, and do your busings 
1^ stabbing you. Or perhaps Uie poet may here allude to what is 
Yery common In Itady at this day, namely assassins, who suddenly 
attack and stab people in the streets late at night* . 

307. PanOman marsh.'] Strabo describes this as id Campania, a 
champain country of Italy, in the kingdom of Naples ; and Suet, 
tays^ that Jnlitts e«sar had detemlned to dry np this marsh~it was 
anoted harbonr for thieves* 

TOL. i« A 

Digitized by 


lid ^UVENALtS SATIRJB. mv. m. 


Sic inde fane omnes tanqiiam ad vivaria currant. 

Qui fornace graves, ^u& nOn incude catenae i 
Ma^imus in vinclis ferri modns^ ut timeas, nt 310 

Vomer deficiat, ne marrae et sarf Uia desint. 
Felices proavorum atavos, fciicia dicas 
Secnla, quse quondam sub regibus atque tribvnia 
Viderunt uno contentam carcere Romam. 

His alias poteram^ et plures subnectere cansas : 3V$ 

Sed jumenta vocant, et sol inclinat; eundum est : 
Nam mihi conunot& jamdudum mulio virgi 
Inniiit : ergo vale nostri memor ; et quoties te 
Roma tuo refici properantem r^ddet Aquino, 
Me quoque ad Uelvmam Cererem^ vestramque Dianam 320 

307. Cfallinarian pine.'] t. e. Wood, by sjmec. This wasiitaated 
near the bay of Comae, and was another receptacle of robbers* 

. When these pkices were so infested with thieves, as to make the 
environs dangerous for the inhabitants^ as well as for travellers, a 
guard was sent there to protect them, and to apprehend the of« 
fenders ; when thb was the case, the rogues fled to Rome, where 
they thought themselves secure-^-and then these places were rendered 

308. As to vivarie$.'] Vivaria are places where wild creatures 
live, and ar^ protected, as deer in a park, fish in a stew-pond, See* 
The poet may mean here, that they are not only protected in Rome, 
but easily find subsistence, like creatures iu vivaries. See sat. iv^ 
1. 51. i 

What Rome was to the thieves, when driven out of thdr lurking 
places in the country, that London is to the thieves of our time.-* 
This must be the case of all great cities. 

309. In wkai furnace^ S^cJ] In this, and the two following lines, 
the poet, in a very humourous hyperbole, describes the numben of 
thieves to be so great, and to threaten such a consumption of iron 
in making fetters for them, as to leave some apprehensions of there 
being none left to make ploughshares, and other implements of hus- 

312. Our greai'.grandfaihers^ S^c] t. e. Our aacestMs of oh! 
time— •proavorum atavo&^-oid grandsires, or ancestors indefinitely. 

313. Kings and tribunesJ] After the expulsion of the kings, tri- 
bunes, with consular authority, governed the republic. 

314. With one prison.'] Which was built in the forum, or mstf. 
ket-place, at Rome, by Ancus Martius, the fourth king. Robberies, 
and the other offences above mentioned, were then so rare, that thb 
one gaol was sufficient to contain all the offenders. 

316. And more causes. "] t. e* For my leaving Robm. 

316. My cattle caUJ] Summon me away.-^Jt is to be suf^osed, 
that the carriage, as soon as the loading was fiiHshed, (see 1. 10.) had 
-set forward, had overtaken Umbrittus, and bad been some time wait* 
ing for him to proceed. 

Digitized by 


%u.m. jrVCKAL'a SAtlttBt HI 

Thus from theocd' hidleF all run un to itWurieiu 

In what furnace, on .¥ih«t a»vU are not heavy cbiiiii i . 
The greatest quantity of iron (is used) in fetters^ so Uuityou may 

fear, lest . 910 

The ploughshare xm f^U> 1^ t^oei and spades may be wiuitiq;% 
You may call our great^graodfiithers hapm, happy 
The ages, which formerly, under kings and trilnmea. 
Saw Rome eOnteirt with otie prison^ 

To these I could subjoin other and more causes, 315 

But my cattle call, and the sun inclines, I must go \ 
For long since the muleteer, with his shaken whip. 
Hath Imited to me : therefore farewell mindful of me t and as 

often as 
Rome shall restore you, hastening to be refreshed, to your Aqui* 

Me also to Helvine Ceres, and to your Diana, SfiO 

916. Tkt 9un inclines.^ From the meridian towards its setting*. 

I ■ iBdiiMae meridiem 
Sentis— Hoa. lib. iu. od. sxvifi. 1. 5» 

317. J%e mtdeieer*'] Or driter of the mules, which drew the 
carriage containing the goods, (see 1. 10.) had long since giren a hint^ 
by the motion of his whip, that it was time to he gone. This Um« 
brititts, being deeply engaged In his discourse, had not adrerted to 
till now. 

318. Min4fui of me.'] An nsoal way of taking lea?e. See Hon. 
lib. in. ode xxtu. 1« 14. 

£t raeoior nostri Galatea vivai. 

319. Hastening to be rrfreshed.'] The poe£S|. and other stndious 
persons, were very desirous of retiriQg into the country from the 
noise and hurry of Rome, in order to be refreshed with quiet and 

Hon. lib. i. epist. xvlii. L 104. 

Me qaoties leficit gelidiu Digentia iivus> &c* 

See also that most beautiful passage-^0 Rus, &c.-*-»lib. ii. sat^ tl. 
1. eo^% '^ 

Your AqtdmumJ] A town in the Latin way, famous for 

harlng been the burth-phice of Jurenal, and to which^ at times^ he 

320. Helvine Ceres.'] Helrbam Ceferem-^Hdvinns is used by 
Pliny, to denote a sort of flesh^colonr. AiKsw. Sometiung perhaps 
approaching the yellowish colour of com. Also a pale red.oolour^-« 
Heirus. Ainsw. But we may understand Ceres to be called Hel« 
Tinus or ElYinus, which was near Aquuium. Near the fons HeU 
Tinns was a temple of Ceres, and also of Diana^ the Teitigea of which 
are said to remain till this day. 

Digitized by 




Convelle a Cumis t Satirarnm ego (nt pudet illas) 
Adjutor gelidos vem^m caligatus in agros. 

321. Rend from Cumm^ ConTelle — plnck me away — ^by which 
expression Umbritius describes his great unwillingness to be taken 
from the place of his Retreat, as if nothing but his friendship for Ju« 
renal could force liim (as it were) from it. 

322« Armed^ ^c] Caligatus— the caliga was a sort of harness for 
the leg, worn by soldiers, who hence were* called caligati. It is 
used here metaphorically. 

Digitized by 



Rend from Cumse : 1 of your Satires (unless they are ashamed) 
An helper, will come armed into your cold fields. 

<^ I, (says Umbritius,) unless your Satires should be ashamed of my 
^ assistance, will come^ armed at all pomts, to help you in' your at« 
^ tacks upon the people and manneira of the times." By this it ap« 
p«irs that Umbritius wasx himself a poet. 

Your eoidjklds.'] Aquinuni^was situated in a part of Cam« 

pania, much coUer than where Cunue stood* 




Digitized by LjOOQIC 




From ike bixury md prodigaliiy of CrispinuBy whom he lashes so 
severely^ sai. t • 96—9, Juvenal takes occasion to describe a ridU 
adous consuUationy held by Domiiian over a large turbot ; which 
%pas too big to be contained in any dish that eould be found. The 
Poet J with great wit and humour^ describes the senators being 
summoned in this exigency y and gives a particular account of 
their charactersy speedies^ and advice. After long consultation^ 

Jc^CCE iterum Crispmus ; et est mihi ssepe vocandii9 

Ad partes ; monstnim ntiU^ virtute redemptum 

A vitiis, a^er, sol&que libidine fords : 

Delicias viduae tantum aspematur adulter. 

Quid rercrt igitur ^umtisjumifBta ntwet o 

Porticibusy quantSi nemorum vectetur m umbrft^ 

Jugera quot vickia fS^tij ^as emerit tedes ? 

_ ♦ 

Idne 1. AgfUn Crispinus.'] Juyenal meiftioiis him before, sat. U 
27, He was an Egyptian by birth, and of rery low extraction ; 
but ha?ing the good fortune to be a fayourite of Domitian's, he 
came to great riches and preferment, and li?ed in the exercise of all 
kinds of Tice and debauchery, 

3, To his parts.^ A metaphor, taken from die players, who, 
when they had finished the scene they were to act, retired, but were 
called again to their parts, as they were successirely to enter and 
carry on the piece. 

Thus JuTenal ealls Crispinus again, to appear in the pMB^ or 
characters, which he has allotted him in his Satires* 

-— -— By no virtue J ^c] He must be a monster indeed, who had 
not a single virtue to rescue him from the. total dominion of his 
vices, Redemptum here is metaphorical, and alludes to the state 
of a miserable captire, who is enslaved to a tyrant master, and has 
none to ransom him from bondage, 

3* SickJ] Diseased^^perhaps Mi of infirmitfei from his luxury 
and debaucheiy, ,£ger also signifies weak«p4eeble,-^This souse 
too is to be here included, as opposed to fortis, 

-— *— Jnd strong in lusty 4rc,] Vigorous and strong in the gratifi^ 
cation of his sensuality only, 

4* 7%e adulterer despises^ 4^c,] jf, d. Crispinus, a common adol^ 

Digitized by LjOOQIC • 


ii was propo$ed thai the fish should he aU to pieces, and so 
dressed: at last th^ all came over to the opinum qf the senator 
Montanusy that it should be dressed whole; and thai a dish, big 
enough to contain it, should be made on purpose for it, 7%e 
council is ^ten dismissed, and the Satire concludes f but not with, 
out u mast severe censure on the emperorU ir^fustice and cruelty 
towards some of the best smd most worthy oj the Romans. 

i>EHOLD mgam Crupinut ! and he is often to be called by me 
To his parts : a monster by no virtue r^^eemed 
From vicea-— sicIl, and strong in lust alone : 
The adulterer despises only the charms of a'widW. 
"What signifies it, tiberefore, in how lai^e porches he fatigues 9 
His catde, in how great a shade of groves he may be carried, 
How many acres near the forum, what houses he may have 

tecer, sins only from the love of vice ; he neidier pretends interest 
or neoessity, like those who sold their favours to lascivious widows^ 
in hopes of bellig their heirs. Sat i. 9^^-^% He was too ridi for 
this, but yet too wicked not to gratify his passions in the most cri- 
.miiial manner: he would not intrigue with a widow, lest he should 
be suspected to have some other motives than mere vice ; therefoie 
he despises this, though he avoided no other species of lewdness. 

5. In haw large pordUs, 4pc.} It was a part of the Roman luxury 
to build vast porticos in their gardens, tmder which they rode in 
wet or hot weather, that they might he sheltered from the rain, and 
from ihe too great heat of the sun. Jumentum signifies any labour* 
lug beast, either for carriage or draughty Sat. Hi. 316, 

6. Ifoa^ great a shade, ^c] Another piece of luxury was ipt 
. be churned in litters among the shady trees of their groves, in sultry 


7. Acres near the forum/] Where hmd was the most valuable, 
as being in the midst of the dty. 

^-— ^ What houses, 4rc.] What purchases he may have made of 
houses in the same lucrative situation. Comp. sat. L 1. 101^, and 


Digitized by 



KsMO MALV8 FELIX ; minime conruptor, et idem 

IncestuSy cum quo nuper vittata jacebat 

Sanguine adhuc vivo terram subitum sacerdos. 10 

Sed nunc de factis levioribus ; jet tamen alter / »v^j'/- 

Si fecisset idem, caderet sut> juV&ce'inorum. 

Nam quod turpe bonis, Titio, Seioque, decebat " ' ' ' ' 

Crispinuip : qi|id agas, cum dira, et foedior omni 

Crimine pirsotia'^st ? mulium sex millibus emit, 15 

JSquaiit6ni sane paribus sestertia libris, 

Ut perfYtbent, qui de magnis majora loquuntur. 

8. No bad man^ SfcS] This is one of those passages, in which Ju. 
venal speaks more like a Christian, tiian like an heatiien. Gomp. 
Is. lvii.-20, 21. 

A corrupter.'] A miner, a debaucher of women, 

9. Ince$tuous,'] Incestus — from in and castus — in general is used 
to denote that species of unchastity, which consists in defiting those 
who are near of kin — rbnt, in the best authors, it signifies unchaste 
--.<also guilty-i^prof9ne« As in Hor, lib. iiU ode ii. U 29. 

• S»pe Diespiter 

Ncgleotas incesto addidlt integnim. 

In this place it may be taken in the sense of profane, as denoting 
^at sort of unohastitj which is mixed with profaneness, as in the 
instance which follows, of defiling a vestal virgin. 

9^ — 10. A Jetted priestess,'] The vestal virgins, as priestesses of 
Vesta, had fillets bound round their heads, made of ribbons, or the 

10. With blood as yet aUve,"] The vestal virgins vowed chastity, 
and if any broke their vow, ^ey were buried alive i by a law ef 
Kttma Pompilius their founder. 

11. Idghter deeds.] i. e, Snch faults as, in eompariscm with the 
preceding, are trivial, yet justly reprdiensible, and would be so 
deemed in a character less abandoned than that of Crispinus, in 
whom they are in a manner eclipsed by greater. 

12. Under the Judge, Sfc] This seems to be a stroke at the par* 
iiality of Domitian, who punished Maximilla, a vestal, and those 
who had defiled her, with the greatest severity. Susr. Domit. ch. via. 
See UQte 3, on 1. 60. 

Crispinus was a favourite, and so he was suffered to escape pu.. 
nishment, however much he deserved it, as was the vestal whom he 
defiled, on the same account. 

Suet, says, that Domitian, partienlarly^-Morum eorrectienem es* 
ercuit in vestales. 

13. What mould be base, S^c] So partial was Domitian to hia 
favourite Crispinus, that what woidd be reckoned shameful, and be 
punished as a crime, in good men, was esteemed very becoming m 

•— — Titiusy or Seius.'] It docs not appear who these were ; bat 

Digitized by 



No BAD MAN IS HAPPY : least of all » corrapter^ and the 

Incestuous, wit^ whom there lay, latefy, a fiUetted 
PriestesSy^bbnt to go under ground with blood as yet alive. 10 
But now concerning lighter deeds : and yet another, [manners': 
If he had done the same,. would have fallen under the judge of 
For what would be base in good men, in Tltius, or Seius, heeama-^^ 
Grispinus : what can you cto, since dire, and fouler than every 
Crime, his person is i — ^He bought a mullet for six sestertia, 15 
Truly equalling the sestertia to a like number of poundsi 
As they report, who of great things speak greater. 

probably they were some valuable men, who had been persecuted 
by the emperor for some supposed offences. See this sat 1. 151, 2. 

14. What can you doj SfcJ] q, d* What can one do with such a 
.fellow as Crispinus ? what signifies satirizing his crimes^ when his 
person is more odious and abominable than all that can be men- 
tioned ? What he is, is so much worse than what he boss, that one 
is at a lossJiow to treat him. 

This is a most severe stroke, and introduces what follows on the 
gluttony and extravagance of Crispinus. 

15. A muUeiS] Mullas7-4i sea fish, of a red and purple colour, 
therefore called mullus, from mulleus, a kind of red or purple shoe, 
worn by senators and great persons. Ainsw. I take*this to be 
what is called the red mullet, or muUns barbatus, by some rendered 
barbel* Horace speaks of this fish as a great da^ty > 

Landu, intane, trilibrem 
MuUttm ■ ■ Hob. sat. ii. lib. ii. 1. 53, 4. 

.So that about three pounds was thor usual weight : — that it was a 
rarity to find them larger, we may gather from his saying, L 36. — 
His breve pondns. 

Bat Crispinus meets with one that weighed six pounds, and, rather 
ftan not purchase it, he pays for it the enormous sum of six thou* 
sand sestertii, or six sestertia, making about 46/. 17#. td. of our 

For the manner of reckoning sesteroes, see before, sat. L 1. 106, 
and note. 

This fish, whaterer it strictly was, was in great request, as a dain- 
ty, among the Romans. Asinius Celer, a man of consular dignity 
under the emperor Claudfus, is said to haye giten 8000 nummi (c. ۥ 
d§^t sestertia) for one. See Sznbc. epbt. xct. 

16. Trtdjf equalling^ S^cJ] That is, the number of sestertia were 
ciactly equsd to the number of pounds which the fish wdghed, so 
that It cost him a sestertium per pound. 

17. A9 they report^ S^c.'] So Crispinus's flatterers ^re out, who, 
tn exeuse his extraTsganoe, probably represent the fish bigger than it 
was, for H is not easily credible that this sort of fish erer grows so 
lar^ Pliny says, that a mullet is not to be found that weighs more 
Um two poands.i— Hor» ubi sapr. goes so far as three pounds— so 

Digitized by 



Consilbm Unido artifidsy ti munere tanto 

Pk-aecipuam in tabulis ceram senis abstulit orbi. 

Est ratio ulterior, magiue si misit amicae, ; ^ S6 

Quae vehitur chuso latis specuiaribus antrok 

NA tale expectes : emit sibi : multa videmus. 

Quae miser et frugi non fecit Apictus : hoc tu 

Sttccinctus patri& quondam, Cn^Hne, papyro. 

Hoc pretium squanue ? potuit fortasse minorit tt 

Piscatory quam piscb, emi. Provincia tanti 

y^idit agros : sed majores Appulia vendic 

that prohabty these embellishers of Crispinus made the fidi tp be 
twice as big as it really was. 

18. / praise the device^ djrc] If this money had been Iidd qnt hx 
buying such a rarity, in oider to presoit It to some childless old 
man, and, by this, Crispinus had succeeded so we!! as to hare be- 
come his chief heir, I should commend such an artifice, and say that 
the contrirer of itdeserred some credit. 

19. Had obtained the chief aax^ SfcJ] It was Customary for wlHs 
to consist of two parts : the first named tiie primi hastedes, or chief 
heirs, and was therefore called cera pnecipua, from the was whidi 
was upon it, on which was the first seal. The other contidned the 
aecundi hspredes, or lesser heirs : this was also sealed with wax«-*ihk 
was cdJill^ c^ra secunda. 

> 90. ^t%ere is further reason, S^c.'] There might hate been a 
reason for his extraragance, eren beyond the former ; that is, if In 
had purdiased it to hare presented it to some rich woman of qua. 
Uty, in order to have ingratiated himself with her as a mistress, or 
to induce htnr to leare 1dm her fortune, or perhaps both. Comp. 

^at.4iL 199, W, and lb. 1»~4. 

91. Carried in a dose litter,'] Antrum projierly signifies a den, 
care, or the liko-^but there it seems to be descrlptiTe of the lectica, 
or litter, in which persons of condition were carried close shut up» 
-^-^^ Br4Uid mndows.'] Latis specukribus.<-.-^peculari8 means any 
thing whereby one may see the better, belonging to windows, ot 
spectacles. The specularis lapis was a stone, clear like glass, cut 
into small thin panes, and in old times used for glass. 

This was made use of in the construction of the litters, as glass 
is with us in our coaches and sedan chairs, to admit the I^t, and to 

. keep out the weather. 

The larger these windows were, the moreexpenslTC they most bci 
and the more denote the quality of the owner. 

29. Expect no luck thing, ^c] If you expect to hear that 
something of the kind above mentioned was a motive for what he 
did, or tint he had any thing in view, which could In the least ex« 
cuse it, j^ou will be mistaken % for the tr^ith is, he bought it only for 

' himself, without any other end or view than to gratify his own self« 
islmess and gluttony. 

• 93. JipMus.] A noted epicure ^and glutton m the days of Neso. 

Digitized by 


mit.rK JtTVBNAL'B SATIttS^ 138 

I prsose the device of the cotttrhrer, if, mA so ht^ ft plk^ 
lie had obtained the €hief wax <m the will of a chiUless oM 

There is further reason, if he had sent it to a great mistress, 20 
Who is carried in a close jiUer with broad windows* [things 
Expect no such thing : he bought it for himself: we see many 
Which the wretched and frugal Apicius did not: this thou [didsQ 
Crispinus, formerly girt with your own country flag. 
Is this the price of a scale i perhaps, at less might £5 

The fisherman, than the fii^, be bought. At so much a pro- 
Sdb fidds : but Apulia seHs greater. 

'He wrotis a voluttie concemhig the ways and means to provolce ap* 
petite, spent a lai^e estate on his gnts, and^ growing poor and de- 
spised, hanged biniself. 

The poet means, that even Apicius, glutton as he was, was yet a 
mortified and frugal man in eomparison of Orispinus. 

^ Thou, Criipinnsy hast done^ what Apiduf nerer did." 

34. Pormerfy giri^ Sfc.'] q. d. Who wast, when thou Bmt earnest 
to Rome, a poor .Egyptian, and hadst not a rag about thee, better 
tiiaa what was made of the flags that grow about the river Nile. 
Of tjie papyrus, ropes, mats, and, among other things, a sort of 
dotiilng was made. 

This iag, and the leaves of it, were equally caHed papyrus. See 
sot f . 1. 96, 7. where Crispinus b spoken of much in the same 

f 5. 1^ price of a scaie,'] Squamae, here, by synec. put for the 
'fish Itself: but, by this manner of ezpresnon, the poet shews his 
eontempt of Crispinus, and means tor make his extravagance as con* 
tempfflle as he can. 

*5. A pro^ince^ i^c.'] In some of the provinces which had be- 
come -subject to Rome, one might purduise an estate for what was 
laid out on this mullet. 

27. Bid Jpukay 4rc.] A part of Italy near the Adriatic gulph, 
where land, it seems, was very cheap, either from the barrenness and 
Mggy h^i^t of the mountainfli, or from the unwholesomeness of 
the air, and the wind atabulus : 

Montes 4puUa notos 
Qpoft torret «tBbidii8. Hoft. Ub« i. sat. ▼. I. V7, S. 

.f. d. The priise of this fish would purchase an estate in some of the 
provinces; but, in Apulia, a very extensive one. 

'F^i }e» some ivovinces whole acres sell : 
N«yi in ApuUa* if you bargain weB» 
A ^Bailor w«^ cost less than such a meal. 


Digitized by 


140 JUVBNAIilS SATIR:S. aat.xt. 

Quales tunc ^pulad ipsom glutieis^ putemus 
Induperatorem^ cum tot sesl^rtia, partem 
Exiguani, e^ modicn sumptam de margine jGoense 30 

Purpureus magni ruct&rit scurra palati. 
Jam princeps equitum, magn^ qui voce solebat 
Vendere municipes pactil^ mercede siluros? 

Incipe C^liope^ licef hx con^iderc: non est 
dantandum, n s v^.. oritur: narrate pueUae 35 

Pierides ; prosit mihi vds dixisse puellas. 
^ Cum jam semianimum laceraret Flaviu3 orbem 

28, Uie emperor, Sfc."] Doinitian.-^. d. What Bmst we suppose 
to be done by him, in order to procure dainties ? how much expense 
must he be at to gratify his appetite, if Crispinus can swallow what 
cost so many sestertSa in one dish, and tiiat not a principal one ; not 
taken from the middle, but merely standing as a side-dish at the edge 
of the table ; tiot a part of some great supper, f^Ten on an extraor* 
dinary occasion, but of a common ordinary n^al* 

31. ^ purple buffoon.'] No longer dad with the patpyrus of 
^gypt, (see note on 1. 24.) but decked in sumptuous apparel, or* 
namentcd with purple. So sat. i. 37. 

Crispinus, Tyrias humero revocante laceraas. 

Though advanced to great dignity, by the favoi^r of (he emperor, 
yet letting himself down to the low senrility and meanness of a 
court-jester or buffoon. 

Bekhed.] The indigestions and crudities, which are gene» 

rated in the stomachs of those who feed on various rich and^lusciotts 
dainties, occasion flatulencies, and nauseous eructations. The poet, 
here, to express the more strongly his abhorrence of Glispinns's 
extravagant gluttony^ uses the word ructarit — the effect for the 
cause. See sat. iii. 233, note.' 

32. Chief of knights,'] t. e. Chief of the equestrian order. 
Horace hath a thought like this, concerning a low-bpm slave, 

who, like Crispinus, had been advanced to equestrian dignity. 

Sediiibusqne in primis eques 

Othone coatempto «edec. Epod* iv. 1. 15» 1^6. 

See before, sat. iii. 159, and note. 

3^ — 3. Who used'-io sell, ^c] Who usecf formerly^ in 1^ flag- 
jacket (1. 24.) to cry fish about the streets. 

33. Shads,] What the siluri were I cannot find certainly de« 
fined ; but must agree that they were a small and cheap kind of fish, 
taken in great numbers out of the river Nile — hence the poet jeer« 
ingly styles them municipes, q. d, Crispinns's own countrymen.-«- 


For hire.] Various are the readings of tlus phice-^^u fracto 

de merce— pacta de merce — pharia de merce-*but I think, with Ca- 
saubon, that pacta mercede gives the easiest and best sense : it still 
exaggerates the wretchedness and poverty of Crispinus at his outset 




What dainties then can we think the emperor himsdf 
To have swallowed^ when 8o many sestertiay a small 
V$Tt, and taken from the mai^ of a moderate snpper, 50 
A purple huffoon of the great palace belched? 
Now chief of knights, who used, with a loud voicf , ; > 

To sell his own country shads fiodLUve. ^ v«»-*^a 6*^ ^ * f *^ "^ 

Begin Calliope, here you may dwell : you must not 
Sing, a real matter is treated : relate it ye Pierian 35 

Maids — ^let it avail me to have called ye maids — 

When now the last Flavins had torn the half-dead 

in life, as it denotes, that he not only got his living by bawling fish 
.about the streets, but that these fish were not hb own, and that he 
sold them for the owners, who bargained with him to pay him so 
mach for his pains — ^pacta mercede — ^lit. — ^for agreed wages or hire. 

34. Caliiope.'] The mother of Orpheus, and chief of the nine 
mnses : said to be the inventress of heroic verse. 

To heighten the ridicule, Juvenal prefaces his narrative with a 
Imrlesque invocation of Calliope, and then of the rest of the muses* 
■ Her9 you may dxeeUJ] A subject of such importance re- 
quires all your attention, and is not lightly to be passed over, there- 
fore, here you may at down with me* 

34 — 5. Not 9ing,'\ Not consider it as a matter of mere invention, 
and to be treated, as poetical fictions are, with flights of fancy : my 
theme is real fact, therefore— non est cantandum — it is not a subject 
for heroic song— or, tibi understood, you are not to sing — 

Begin Calliope, but not to ting : 

Plain honest tmth we for our subject bring. Duke. 

35. RekUe."] Narrate corresponds with the nqn est cantandum-— 
9. d deliver it in Simple narrative. 

35 — 6. Pierian maids.'] The muses were called Pierides, from 
Fieria, a district of Thessidy, where was a mountain, on which Ju- 
piter, in the form of a shepheid, wasiabied to have begotten them 
on Binemosyne. See Ov. Met. vi. 114. 

36. Let it avail me, Sfc,'] He banters the poets who gave the ap- 
pellations of nymphae and puelfae to the muses, as if complimenting 
them on their youtii and chastity. It is easily seen that the whole 
of tins invocation is burlesque. 

37. When now,'] The poet begins his narrative, which he intro. 
!^Qces with great sublimity, in this and the following line; thus 
I finely continuing his irony ; and at the same time dating the fact in 
iliocli terms, as reflect a keen and due severity* on the character of 

^ The last FUoius.] The Flavian family, as it was imperial, 

legan in Vespasian, and ended in Domitian, whose monstrous cruel* 
ies are bere alluded to, not only as affecting the city of Rome, 
tat as felt to the utmost extent of the Roman ^npire, tearing, as it 
rere, the world to pieces, S^niaoimum— half dead under oppret* 
lioa. Metaph. 

Digitized by 



UltiiniMy et e^vo senriret Ronut Neronii 

Incidit Adriaci spadum admirabiie rhombic 

Aote domum Veneris, quam Doiica sustinet Ancon^ 40 

Implevitque sinus i n^que emm Ifinor iSeberat illb, 

Quos operit ^acies MaK>ticay ruptaque taS&em 

Solibus effundit torpentis ad ostia Pond, 

Desidift tardos, et longo frigore pingues. 

Destinat hoc monstrum cymbae linique magister 45 

Pontifici summo : quia enini proponere talem, 
Aut emere auderet i cum plena et littora multo 
Delatore forent : dispersi protinus algae 

38. Was hi bandage to bald NerOi'] Was in bondaga and slareiy 
to the tyrant Domitian. This emperor was bald ; at which he was 
so displeased, that he would not suffer baldness to be mentioned ia 
his presence. He was called Nero, as all the bad emperors were, | 
from his cruelty. Sendre*— implies the serrice which is paid to a iy* j 
rant : parere — that obedience which is paid to a good prince. ! 

30. There feU^ ^cS\ Hating related the time when, he now men* 
tions the pUce whiere^ this large turbot was caught. It was in the 
Adriatic sea, near the city of Ancon, which was built by a people 
originally Greeks, who also built there a temple of Venus. Thif 
city stood on the shore, at the end of a bay which was finmed by 
two promontories, and made a curre like that of the elbow when 
the arm is bent«^hence it was called a/yiuny the elbow. The poei^ 
by being thus particular, as if he were relating aa ev^it, ereiy cir« 
cumstance of which was of the utmost importance, enhances the 

The Syracusans, who fled to this part of Italy from the tyranny 
of Sionysius, were originally fjrom the Dorians, a peo|ile of Achaia : 
henco Ancon b called Dorica: it was the metropoUs of Picenuow 
Ancona is now a considerable city in Italy, and belongs to the 

40. SuiittinsS] Sustinet does not barely mean^ that this temple of 
Venus stood at Ancon, but thait it was upheld mmI maintained, in all 
Its worship, rites, and ceismonles, by the mhabitants. 

41. Into a net/] Sinus, lit. meanstbe bosom or how of the n^^ 
which the turbot was so Ja^ge as entirely to £U. 

Stuck.'] Haeserat»-^had entangled itself, so as to stick fast. 

42. 7%« MtBotk ice.] The Maeotis was a vast lake, whioh jn the 
winter was frozen oTer, and which, when thawed in summer, dis* 
charged itself into the Euxine sea, by the Cimmerian Bosphorns. 

Here vast quantities of fine fish W(Nre detained while the frost! 
lasted, and then came vnth the flowing waters into the month of th$ 
Fontus £uxinus. These, fish, by lying in a torpid stat& during the 
winter, grew fat and bulky. 

43. 7%e dull JPontio.] So called from the slowness. of its tidi» 
This might, in part, be occasioned by the vast quantitias of brokei 
ice, which came dawa inmL the lake Meotis^ and jEeUrded ii 

Digitized by 



Worlds and Rome was in bondage to baM Nero, 

There fell a wondrous si^e of an Adriatie taiboli 

Before iSie house of Venus whieh Doric Aneoa sustains^ 40 

Into a net and filled it, for a lesa had not stuck dian those 

Which the Mseotic ice covers, and at length, broken 

By the sun, pours forth at the entranee of the duU Pontic^ 

Slow by idleness, and, by long cold, fat* 

The master of the boat and net destines this moiister 45 

For the chief pontiff«>«*for who to offer silcfa a one to salei 
Or to buy it would dare ? since the shores too with many 
An informer might be full : the dispersed inquisitors of sea^weed 

The Eaxine, or Pontic sea, is sometimes called Pontuaonlj. See 
AiMsW. Euxinas and Pontus; 

45. Net"] LiaamWit. signifies flax, and, by meton. thready 
which is made of fla£*-Jliut as jiets are made of thread, it frequenti^^ 
as here, Mgnifies a net Meton. See Virg. Georg. it. 1. 143. 

46. For the chief pontiff ,"] Domiticms whose title, as emperor, 
was Pontifex Suiomus, or Maximus. Some think that die poet al« 
lades Ui the glatfcony of the pontiffs in general, which was so great 
as to be proTerbial.«>i-The words glutton and priest were almost syw 
nonymous^-pCcensB pontificum, or the feasts which they made on 
public occasions, surpassed all others in faixury. Hence Hon. 
lib. ii. ode xiii. ad fin* 

PoBtificuni potioK ccsnis. 
Jurenal, therefore, may be understood to have selected this title <tf 
tile emperor, by way of equiTOcally calling him what he durst not 
plainly hare expressed—- the chief of gltitton8.-^omp|. sat. ii. 1. 113. 
^fie was particularly the Pontifex Sammus of <he college at AIba« 
See note on 1. 60. ad fin. 

The poor fisherman, who bad caught tius monstrous fish, knew 
foil well the gluttony, as well as the crudty of Domitian : he there- 
fore determines to make a preset of it to the emperor, not daring 
to offer it to sale elsewhere, and knowing that, if he did, nobodj 
would dare to buy it ; for both buyer and seller would be in the 
utmost danger of Bomitian's resentment, at being disappointed of 
such a rarity. 

47. Since the ihoresy 4rc.} The reign of Domitian was famous 
for the encouragement of informers, who sat tbemselTes in all 
places to get intel%ence. These particular people, who »e menw 
tioned here^ were officially placed on tiie shore to watch the landing 
of goods, and to take care that the rerenue was not defrauded. 
They appear to hare been like that s]^edes of rcTcnue officers 
amongst us, which are called tide-waiters. 

48. Inquisitors of sea^weed.'] Alga signifies a sort of weed, which 
the tides cast up and leare on the ^hore. The'poet*s calling these 
people algae inquisitores, denotes their foun^Bpg accusations on the 
merest trifles, and thus oppressing the pubfic. They dbpersed tiieai* 
selTes in sadiamanner-arnotio be aroMod, 

Digitized by 



InqiuBitores ager^t cuin reiliige nudo ; 

Non dubitaturi fiigitivtim dicere pkcem, ,60 

Depastumque diu vivaria Caesaris, inde 
Elapsutn, veterem ad^minuin debere reverti. 
Si ^uid Palphurioy si credimus Armiliato, 
Quicquid conspicuum, pukhnunque est aeqoore toto, 
> Res fisci est^ ubicimque natat. Donabitur ergo, 65^ 

Ke p^fisat. JanTleUiifero cedente pruinis 
AutumnOy jam qinfftanam spefSntibus fegris, 
Stridebat cJeformis Ef ems, praedamque recentem 
l^rvabat : tamen hie properat/ velut urgeat Auster : 
Utque lacus suberant, ubi^ quanquam diruta, servat 60 

49. Would immediate^ contend, SfcJ] They would immediateif 
take advantage of the poor fisherman^s forlorn and defenceless con« 
dition, to begin a dispute with him about the fish ; and would eveir 
bare the impudence to say, that, though the man might have caught 
the fish, yet he had no right to it — ^that it was astray, and oug^t to 
letum to the right owner. 

51. Long had fed, ^rc] ViTarium, as has been before observed, 
denotes a place where wihl beasts or fishes are kept, a park, a war« 
ren, a stew or fish.pond. 

The monstrous absurdity of what the poet supposes these fellows 
to adyance, in order to prove th^t th*is fish was the emperor's prb« 
perty, (notwithstanding the poor fisherman had caught it in the Adrian 
tic sea,) may be considered as one of tliose means of oppression, which 
were made use of to distress the people, and to wrest their property 
from them, under the most frivolous and groundless pf etences, and at 
the same time under colour of l^al claim. 

53. Paiphurius — ArmiUatusJ} Both men of consular dignity; 
lawyers, and spies, and informers, and so favourites with Oomitian. 

Here is another plea f^ainst the poor fisherman, even granting 
that the former should fail in the proof; namely, that the emperor 
lias, by his royal prerogative, and as part of the royal revenue, a 
right to all fish which are remarkable in size or value, wheresoever 
caught in an)i part of the sea ; and as this turbot came within that 
description, the emperor must have it, and this on the authority of 
those great lawyers above mentioned. By the law of England^ 
whale and sturgeon are called royal fish, because they belong to the 
king, on account of their excellence, as part of his ordinary reve- 
nue, in consideration of his protecting the seas from pirates and rob- 
bers. See Blacks. Com. 4to. p. 290. 

65. Therefore it shall be presented.'] ^ The poor fisherman, aware 
of all this, rather than incur the danger of a prosecution at the suit 
,of the emperor, in which he could have no chance but to lose his fine 
turbot, and to be ruined into the ba.rgain, makes a virtue of neces- 
sity^ and therefore wisely determines to carry it as a present to Do- 
witian, who was at that time at Alba. 

56. Lest it should be lost.J Lest it should be seized^ and takea 
from him by the informers. 

Digitized by 



Woiiid immediately cdhtend with the naked bostman^ 

Not doubting to say that the fish wad a fugitive, 5d 

And long had fed iti Caesar*s ponds, thence had 

Escaped, and ought to return to its old niaster. 

If we at all believe Palphurius, or Armillatus, 

Whatever is remarkable, and excellent in the whole se^. 

Is a matter of revenue, wherever it swims. — -Therefore it shall 

be presented 55 

Lest it should be lost. Deadly autumn wa^ noW yielding to 
Hoar-frosts, the unhealthy now expecting a quartan^ 
Deformed winter howled, and the recent prey 
Preserved: yet he hastens as if the south witkl urged. 
And as soon as thej had got to the lakes, where, tho' demo^ 

lished, Alba 60 

The boatmah then shail a, \r\a^ {Present mtii&i 

And give the fish, before the seuers take. Dokb; 

br — ^it sbadl be presented, and that nnmedisitely, lest it should grow •. 
stale and stmk. 

56. DeadSy auiumnj S^t,'] hf this we leani, that the autumn^ 
in that paft'of Italy^ was very unwholesome, aitd that, at the begitiJ 
ning of the winter, quartan agiies wete expected by persons of i 
weakly and sickly habit. Spero signifies to expect either good or 
e%il; This periphrasis describes the season in wiAch this liisitter hap-» 
pened, that it was in the beginning of wiilter, the weather coM, tfa^ 
heats of auttinin succeeded by the hoar-frosts^ so that the fiiih was in 
no danger of being soon corrupted. / 

59. Ifet he hastens^ 4'<^*] Notwithstanding the weather was ^o 
fkTOurable for preserving the fish from tainting, the poor fisherman 
made as much haste to get to the emperor's palace^ as if it had been . 
now stimmer-Umei 

GO. They.'] t. Ci The fisherman, arid hb comp^ons the inform 
mers-^they would not leave him. 

Got to the lakes,'] The Albanian lakes^-^these are spoken of 

by Hob. lib. iv. odi i. 1. 10, 20. 

Albaiioit pro]^e te laciid 
Potiet manaaream'siib trabe cttrel^ 

The city of Alba was built between these lakes and itie hilts^ whicti^ 
for this reason, were called Colles Albani; hence these lakes werci 
also c&lled Lacus Albani. Alba was aboiit fifteen iniles from 

Tho^ demotished, JSfc.] Tullus Hostitids, king of Home, 

took away all the treasure and relics which the Trojdns bad placed^ 
there ih the ttople of Vesta ; only, out of h iuperstitious fear, the 
fire was left; but he otef^rew the city. See Ant; Un. Histi 
Tol. xi. p. 310. All the temples Were spar^. Lit. I. li 

The Albans, oti thdj^ mMortuHes^ neglecting their worgfalp, were 
commanded, by taHous prodigies, to restore their ahcieiit rites, the 
diirf of which was^ to keep fterpetually burriiiig the testal fire which- 
TOl. I. t 

Digitized by 


146 JUVENALIS SATIKifi. trf. iV. 

Ignem Trojanuni], et Vestam colit Alba mmorem, . 

Obstitit intranti miratrix turba parumper : * 

Ut cessity facili patuenint cardine valvae : 

Exclusi spectant admissa opsonia patres. 

Itur ad Atddem : turn Picens, accipe, dixit, 65 

Pnvatis majora focis ; genialis agatur 

Iste dies ; propera stomaSEum laxar^ saginis, 

was brought there by ^neas, and his Trojans, as a fatal pledge of 
the perpetuity of the Roman empire. 

Alba LoQga was built by Ascanius the son of iEncas, and called 
Alba, from the white sow which was found on the spot. See Virg. 
^n. iii. 390 — 3. -^n. Tiii. 43 — 8. 

Domitian was at this time at Alba, where he had instituted a coU . 
lege of priests, hence called Sacerdotes^ or Pontifices Albani. As 
be was their founder and chief^ it might be one reason of his being 
called Pontifex Summus, 1. 46. when at that place. Tb« occysioq 
of his being there at that time, may be gathered from what Pliny 
says in his epist. to Corn. Munatianus. 

<^ Domitian was desirous to punish Com. Mammilla, n. yeptal, by 
<^ burying her aUve, she haying been detected in unqhustlty ;ih'9 went 
<^ to Alba^ in order to conTake his college of priests, and there,. in 
<< abuse of his power as chief,'he condemned her in hei; absence, and 
<< unheard." See before, 1. 1% and note. 

Suetonius says^ that Domitian went erery year to Alba, to cele* 
brate the Quinquatria, a feast so called, beaause it lasted five dajs, 
and was held in honour of Minerva, for whose serriqe he* Kad.also 
instituted the Albanian priests— this might hare occasioned his being 
at Alba at tiiis time. 

61. 77ie lesser Festa."] So styled, with respect to her temple at 
Alba, which was far inferior to that at Rome built by Numa. 

62. Wondering crotiDd.'] A vast number of people assembled to 
View this fine fish, insomuch that, for a little while, parumper, they 
obstructed the fisherman in his way to the palace. . . • 

63. As it gave wayJ] t. e. As. the, crpwd, having satisfied their 
curiosity, retired, and gate way for him to pass forward. 

; — ;^ The gates, Sfc*j, Valirse — tbe^^largq.fplding^ 49^^ 9f ft^ Pa- 
lace ^rethrown open, and afford a ready an4 welcome cntrano; to 
one who b^oyght such ^ delicious and acceptable present Comp* 
HoR. lib. i. od. xxt. 1. 5, 6. 

. 64. Th €xdi$d^d fathers.^ I^a^es-Wr e. pAtres consc^pQ^.the 
senators^ whom ]>omitia^ h^d coi^v^anded. to attend hUi^^at Ajba, 
either outof 9^te,prinordei^ to form h^s pnTj*/^ouncU . Qn, state affiijurs. 

Tliere is an. antithesis here. betweeiTi. th^ admissa opsQu^ j^nd the 
exclusi patres, i^timati^, that thp;isenatQr& wefe shut. put of tl^^ pa* 
iaee,.whefi the -doors were thrown opea.,to^|^e fi^hermai^ajidjkis 
t$irbot : these- Tenerafole person^^ had pnly the privilege of look« 
ing.Mit> wit wa8,qarrtedthrp)i|gji;th^c^^^ . , « :.. ^ •. . 

Many copies read expectant — q. d. The senators are to wait. 

Digitized by 


*^.^.. JlJ^ENAt'S ^t'lft^^-? ^*f. 

t \ » 

Preserves the Trojan fy'e, and worships the lesser Vesta, 
A wondering cro>y(J, for a while, opposed him'aslie entered : 
As it gave way, tHe gates opened with an easy hinge r' ' 
The excluded fathers behold the admitted daintiest 
He conies to Atrides : then the Picenian said — ^^ Accept 6S 
** What is too great for private kitchens : let this day be passed' 
<< As a festival, hasten to release your stomach front its cram« 
"tnings; * ^ • . 

while the business o£ the turbot is settled^ before they can be admit* 
ted — ^lit. they^await the admitted victusUs* See expectant used ia 
this seiise. Virg. ^n. iv. L 134. 

Casaubon reads spectattt, which seems to give tjfie most natural 
and easy sense. 

64. Dainiies.'] Opsonium-ii-^signifies any ti(ituals eaten with 
bread, especially fish. Ainsw. Or. <^ov, proprie, piscis. Hed.^^ 
So likewise in S. S. John vi. 9. ^vo iy^»fi», two little fishes. Here 
Juvenal uses opsonia for the rhombus. 

65. Atrides,'\ So the poet here humourously Calls Domitiati, in 
allusion to AganemUoo, tike son of Atreus, whose, pride prompted 
him to be styled the commander over bX\ the Grecian generals. 
Thus Domitian affected the titles of pux ducum-^PriUCeps princi« 
pum, and even Deus. 

-^ The Picenian*'] i. e. The fisherman, who was an inhabitant 


^ccep^.] Thus begiiis the fisherman's abject vid fulsome* 

address to the emperor, on presetiting the turbot. ^ 

66. Wh(U is too great.'] Ldt. greater than private fires. Focus is 
properly a fire-hearth, by met. 'fire. FoCis, here, means the fires 
by "^rhich victuals are dressed, kitchen fires; and so, by met. 
kitchen^, q. d. The turbot which he presented to the emperor was 
too great and valuable to be dressed in any private kitchen. 

67. As a festival,] The adj. genialis signifies cheerful — ^merry-^ 
festival — so, genialis dies — a day of festivity, a festival^ — ^such as 
was observed on marriage or on birth-day's: on these latter, they 
held a yearly feast in honour of their genius, or tutelar deity, which 
was supposed to attend fheir birth, and to live and die with them. 
See pEVs.^sit. ii. I. 3, and 'note. Probably the poet here means 
much the same as Horace, lib. Si. o'dc'xvii.—- ^by genium curabis^^ 
you shall indulge yourself — ^mak^ merry. ' ' 

— -^Basien to release^ 4*^-] T'he poet here lashes I>omitian^s 
gluttony, by making the fisherman advise him to unload, and set. 
his j^tomach at liberty from the dainties which it contained, (which 
was usually done by vomits,) In order to whet it, knd to m^e room 
for this turbot Sagina lit. means any meat wherewith tldngs are 
craonmed or fattedf, and is well applied here to expresii the teperor's 
jituffifis and craminin^ himself, by his daily gidttonyy like a beast or 
fi ?oVf&at 6 put up tb' be fattened. ' ' 

Digitized by 



Et tua servatum consume in saeciila rhombum : 

Ipse capi voluit. Quid apertms ? et tamen illi 

Surgebant cristae : nihil est, quod credere de sc 70 

Non possit, cum laudatur Dis aequa potestas. 

Sed deerat pisci patin« mensura : vocantur ^ 

Ei^o in conciliumT)rocere8, quos oderat ille ; 

In quorum fecie misefae, magnaeque sedebat 

Pallor amicitise! Primus, clamant^ libumo, 75 

Currite, jam sedit, rapti properabat abolla 

Pegasus, atlonitae positus modo villicusTirbi : 

Anne aliud tunc Praefecti ? quorum optimus, atquc 

• 68. Reserved for your age.'] As if Proiridence had purposely 
formed and preseryed this fish for the time of Domitian. 

69. Itself it would be taken.'] The very fish itself was ambitious 
to be' caught for the entertainment and gratification of your Ma- 

f^at could be plainer?] What flattery could be more open, 
toore palpable than thb ? says Juvenal. 

70. His crest arose.] This flattery, which one would have thought 
too gross to be recdved, yet pleased Domitian, he grew proud of it 

^snrgebant cristae. Metaph. taken from the appearance of a 

cock when he is pleased, and struts and sets up his comb. 

There is nothing^ Sfc] i. e. When a prince can befieve him- 

self equal in power to the gods, (which was the case with Domitian,) 
no flattery can be too gross, fulsome, or palpable to be received ; he 
will believe every thing that can be said in his praise, and grow stiM 
the vainer for it. 

Mr. Dryden, in his ode called Alexander's Feast, has finely inuu 
gtned an instance of this, where Alexander is almost mad with pride, 
. at hearing hhnself celebrated as the son of Jupiter by Oiympia. 

• With ravish'd ears 
The monarch hears ; 

Assumes the god. 

Affects to nod, 
And seems to shake the spheres. 

72. But — a size^ Sfc] They had no pot capacious enough, in its 
dimeuMons, to contain this large turbot, so as to dress it whole. 

-Patina is a pot of earth or metal, in which things wiere boiled, and 
brought to table in their broth. AiNsw. 

73. lie nobles.'] Proceres — ^the senators — called patres, 1. 64. 
'--.'^ Are caUed into council.] To ddiberate on what was to be 

done in this momentous business. 

Whom he hated.] From a consciousness of his being 

dreaded and hated by them. 

74. The paleness^ We have here a striking representation of a 
tyrant, who^ conscious that he must be hated by all about him, hates 
them, and they, knowing his capricious cruelty, never approach 
hun without horror and dread, lest they should isay or do something, 

Digitized by 



sAT.iv. jrUV^NAL'S SATIRES. 149 

" And consume a turbot reserved for your age : 
" Itself it would be taken." — What could be plainer ? and yet? 
His crest arose : there is nothing which of itself it may not 70 
Believe, when a power equal to the gods is praised. 
But there was wanting a size of pot for the fish : therefore 
The nobles are cdled into council, whom he hated : 
In the face of whom was sitting the paleness of a miserable 
And great friendship. — First, (a lifoumian crying out — 75 

** Run — ^he is already seated/') with a soatched-up gown, hastened 
Pegasus, lately appointed bailiff to the astonished city — 
Were the Praefects then any thing else ? — of whom [he was] the 
best, and 

bowever undesignedly, which may cost them their lives. Comp. 

75. ji Libumian.'} Some have observed that the Romans made 
criers of the Liburnians, a remarkable, lusty and stoat race of 
men, (see sat. ill. 240.) because their voices were very loud and 
strong. Others take Libamus here for the proper name of some 
particular man who had the office of crier. 

76, Run, Sfc."] '^ Make haste — ^lose ho time — ^the emperor has 
^^ already taken his seat at the council-table— >don't make him 
« wait.". 

— * — With a snatched^up gown."] Abolla, here, signifies a senator's 
robe. In sat. iil. 11 5, it signifies a philosopher's gown. — On hear, 
ing the summons, he caught up his robe in a violent hurry, and 
huddled it on, and away he went. 

This Pegasus was an emment. lawyer, who had been appointed 
pnefect or gpvernor of the city of Rome. Juvenal calls him villi- 
cus, or bailiff, as if Rome, by Domitian's tyranny, bad sd far lost its 
liberty and privileges, that it was now no better than an insignificant 
Tillage, and its officers had no more power or dignity than a country 
bailiff — a little paltry officer oyer a small district 

The pnefectus urbis (says Kennett, Ant. lib. iii. part ii. c. 13.) 
was a sort of mayor of the city, created by Augustus, by the advice 
of his favourite Maecenas, upon whom at first he conferred the new 
honour. He was to precede all other city magistrates, having power 
to receive appeals from the inferior courts, and to decide almost all 
causes within the limits of Rome, or one hundred miles round. Be- 
fore this, there was sometimes a pnefectus urbis created, when the 
kmgs, or the greater officers, were absent from the cii^, %o 4ddii, 
nister justice in their room. 

But there was an end of all this, their hands were now tied up, 
their power and consequence were no more ; Domitian had taken 
every thbg into his own hands, a|id no officer of the «aty pould act 
farther than the emperor deigned to permit, who kept the whole city 
in the utmost terror and astonishment at his crq^lty and oppression. 

78. Of whom, ^fc] This P^asus was an excellent magistrate, 
^e best' pf any that nad filled that office^^most conscientious and 


Digitized by 



Interpres t^um sanctissimus ; omnia quapquam 
•Temporibus dins, tracbnda pu&bat inermi 80 

Justiti&. Veqit et Criapi jucitnda 8ene<:tu8, 
Cujua erant mores, qiSlis facundia, mite 
I mgemum. Maria, ac terras, populosque regenti 
{^s comes utilior, si clade et peste sub ill& 
Saevitiam damnare, et honestum afferre liceret 6S 

Consilium i sed quid violentius aure tyrannic 
Cum quo de nimbis, aut aestibus, aut pluvioso 
Vere locuturi fatum pendebat amici f 
Ille igitur nunquam direxit brachia contra 
Torrentem : nee civis erat, qui libera posset QO 

Verba animi proferre, et vitam impeudere vero. 
Sic multas hyemes, atque octogesima vidit 
Solstitia : his.armis, ill^ quoque tutus in aul|^. 
. Proximus ejusdem properabat AcUius aevi 
.Cum juvene indigno, quern mors tarn saeva maner^t, §5 

£t dogini gladSs jam fefitinata : sed olim 

faithful in his administration of justice— neyer straining the laws Itq 
oppress the people, bat expounding them fairlj and honestly. 

Spur-l. With unarmed justiceJ^ Such was the cruelty and tyranny 
of Domitian, that even P^asns, that good, and upright magistrate, 
was deterred from the exact and punctual lUlministration of justice, 
: every thing bdng now goterned as the (smperor pleased ; so that t^e 
Uws had not their force ; i^or dared the judges execute them, hut 
. according tp the m^|11 of the exbperor — jusiice waiS disarm^ of its 
powers. . . , . ^ 

81. CfispuB.'] Yibins Crispus, tfho, whei^ one asked him, if any 

: body was with Caesar? answered, '' Not eren a fly.", Domitian, at the 

.^ beginning of his reign, used to amuse himself with catching flies, and 

sticking them through with a sharp pointed instrument. K^ sure pre-t 

s^e of his future cruelties* . 

82—- 3. A gentle disposUion>'\ . He was as remarkable for sw^t- 
-ness of tempe^ as for iiis eloquence, pleasantry,' and good nature. 
Comp. HoR. lib. ii. sat. i. 1. 72. Mitis saptentia Laeli. 

84. Who a more useful companion,'] The meaning is, who coiil4 
bare been a mpre salutary friend and cqiUpanion, as well a$ couuseU 
lor, to the emperor, if he ha4 dared to have spoken his min4, to 
bare reprobate the cruelty of the emperor's proceedings, and to 
have given his a4Tice to a man, who, (ike sword and pestilence, de- 
stroykl all that he took a dislike to. 

86« Whai is more violent, SfcJ] More rebellious against t)ie dic- 
tates of honest truth?— more impatient of adrice — ^rnpre apt to imbibe 
the most fatal prejudice84 

87. Sp^ak of showers J ^<j.] Such was the.capricionsness and cru- 
elty of DoQiltian, that it was unsafe for his friends to converse with 
him, even on the most indifierent subjepts, such ^ the weather, an(| 
the like 2 the least word misunderstood, or taJcen ill, miglit cost % 

Digitized by 


.•¥?;'.y- JWYENAL'.S SATIRES. 151 

M< ^ tyri^ht in terpreter of laws ; | ^ ^ all things, ^ [80 

jt In direful tunes, lie thouglit were to be manned with unarmed 
Justice. The pleasant old age of Crispus also came^ 
Whose manners were, as his eloquence, a gentle 
Disposition : to one governing seas, and lands, and people, 
Who a more useful companion, if, under that slaughter and pes- 
It were permitted to condemn cruelty, and to give honest 65 
Counsel i But what is more violent than the ear of a tyrant. 
With whom the fate of a friend, who should speak of diowers> 
Or heats, or of a rainy spring, depended ? 
He therefore never directed his arms against 
The torrent : nor was he a citizen, who could utter §0 

The free words of his mind, and spend his life for the truth. 
Thus he saw many winters, and the eightieth 
Solstices : with these arms, safe also in that court. 
.Next, of the^Mune i^e, hurried Acilius 

With a youth unworthy, whom so cruel a death should await, 9^ 
And now hastened by the swords of the tyrant : but long since 

man hb life, though to that moment be had been rc^rded as a 

.89. Never directed, ^c] Never attempted to swim against the 
stream, as we say. — ^He knew the emperor too well ever to venture 
an opposition to his will and pleasure. 

91. Spend his life, ^c] Crispas was not one of those citizens who 
dared to say what he thought; or to hazard his life in the cause' of 
truth, by speaking Ms mind. 

92 — 3. Eightieth solstices.'] ESghty solstices of winter and sum- 
mer-^, e. he was now eighty years of age. 

93. fVith these arms, Sfc.j Thus armed with prudence and cau- 
tion, he had lived to a good old age, even in the court of I>omitian, 
where the least offence qx prejudice would, long since, have taken 
him off. 

94. jtcHius,'] Glabrio-^a senator of singular prudence and fi- 

95. With a youth, ^c] Domittos, the son of Acilius, came with 
his father ; but both of them were soon after charged with designs 
against the emperor, and were condemned to death. The father's 
sentence was changed into banishment, the more to grieve hhn with 
the remembrance^ of his son's death. ! . 

r- ' Uka^J^.'] Not deserving that so cruel a death should 
await him. - , 

This unhappy young man, to save his life, affected madness, and 
fought naked with wild beasts in the amphitheatre at Alba, where Bo* 
mitian every year celebrated games in honour of Minetva : but he 
was not to be deceived, and he j^ut Domitius to death in a cruel mSin- 
neir. Seel. ti9, lOO. 

96. The swoirds.J Gladiis, in the phur« dther by syn* for g1a<i ., 
' ' i 4- ■' ^ • • • 

Digitized by 



Prodigio par est in nqbilitate senectus : 

iJnde fity ut malim fraterculus psap ^igantiim. 

Profuit ergo nihil misero, quod cominu9 urso^ 

Jigebat Numidosy Albank nudus ^reo& 100 

. Venator : quis enim Jam non intelligat artes 

Patiiciaa i quis priscum illud miretur aciuneni 
, Brule, tuum i fapile est barba^o impooere re^t 

Kec melior vultu, quamvis ignobilis ibat 

RubriiiSy offepsae veteris reus, <it<]ue tacendae ; |05 

£t tanien improbior satirain ^cribente cii^o. 

jMontani quoque vfsnter adest, abdomine tardus ; 

jEt niatutino siidans Crispinus amomo ; 
■'''"•*■'' «k' ' ' 

010, sing, or p^erhaps to signify the rarions methods of tortuve and 
4eath used by this emperor. 

96. Of the t^ani.'\ Domini, lit. of the lord— i. jc, the emperor 
Domitian, who thus lorded it OTer the lives of his sabjects* 

97. Oid age in nopility.'] q. d. From the days of Nero, till this 
hour, it has been the practice to cut off the nobility, when the em. 
peror^s jealousy, fysLVj ^r hatred, inclined him so to do ; iBSQmi}ch 
that, to see a nobleman lire to old age, is something like a prodigy; 

•«nd indeed this has long been the cswe. 

:^ 98,. Qf the gianfsj] These fabulous beings were supposed to be 
fhe sons of Titan and Tellus. These sons of Earth were of a gigan- 
tic size, and said to rebel and fight against Jupiter. See Ov. Met. 
lib. i. fab. yi. 

q. d. Since to be bom noble is so very dangerous, I had much ra- 
ther, like these Terrae filii, claim no higher kindred than my parent 
Earth, and, though not in size, yet as to origin, be a brother of 
theirs, than pe dpsccmded from the highest families amon^ puf no. 

101. Who cannot nozp, ^c.] Who }8 igporaqt of the arts of the 
nobility, either to win the emperor's favour, or to avoid his dislike, 
or to escape the effects of his displeasure ? these are known to every 
^ody — therefore it can hardly be supposed that they are unknown 
to the eipperor— whence poor pomitius misqirn^ in his stratagem. 
See note on 1. 95. . ' 

Domitian could perceive, yet could swjillpw c^own the grossest fliat- 
tery, am} thus far deceive himself, (corop. 1. 7P.) yet no shift, 
or trick, to ayoid his destructive purposes could ever deceive 

102. Who can wonder^ ^'c."] Lucius Junius Brutus saved his life 
|iy affecting to p^y the fool ip Jhe court of Tarquin the Proud, when 
many pf the nobility were destroyed, and, among the rest, the bro- 
ther of Brutiis. Pence he took the surname pf Brutus^^ which sig- 
nifies senseless — void oif reasop. 

q- d. Thi9 old piece of policy would not be surprising now ; 

it would be looked upon but as a shallow device: therefore^ 
loireTer it might succeed in those days of ancient simplicity, wc^ 

Digitized by 



Old age in nobility is eqnai to a procKgy : 

Hence it is, that I had rather be a little brother of the giants. 

Therefore it nothing availed the wretch that he pierced 

Numidian bears in close fight, a naked hunter in the Alban 100 

Theatre : for who cannot now understand the arts 

Of the nobles i who can wonder at that old subtlety of thine, 

O Brutus i It is easy to impose on a bearded king. 

Nor better in countenance, tho' ignoble, went 

Rubrius, guilty of an old crime, and ever to be k^t in sUence : 105 

And yet more wicked than the padiic writing satire. 

The beliy of Montanus too is present, slow from his paunch : < 

And Crispinus sweating with momii^ perfume : 

find it would jiot do now, as the wretched Domitius sadly ex- 

103. On a b^ardetf k$ng.'] Alluding to the simplicity of andent 
times, when Rome was governed by kings, who, as well as tbdr 
people, wore their beards ; for shaving and catting the beard were 
hot in fashion till later times. Barbatus was a sort of proverlMal 
term for simple, old-fashioned. See Ainsw. 

It is remarkable that, long before the days of Brutus, we have 
an instance of a like device, by which David saved himself at the 
» court of Achish, king of Gath. 1 Sam. xxi. 10—15. 

104. Nor better in countenattce.'] He looked as dismal as the rest 
See 1. 74. 

Tho' ignoble.'] Though he was of plebeian extraction, and 

therefore could not be set up as a mark for I>oroitian's envy and 
suspicions, as the nobles were, yet he well knew that no rank or 
degree was safe: as none were above, so none were bdow hb dis- 
pleasure and resentment. 

105. 6?w%, 4c.] What this offence was, is hot ssud particular- 
ly ; however, its not being to be named, must make us suppose it 
something very horrible ; or that it was some offence against the em- 
peror, which was kept secret. 

Some commentators have supposed it to have been debaucTiing Ju- 
Ha, Domitian^s wife. 

106. And ^et more zcicked, ^c] More lewd, more abandoned, 
than even that unnatural wretch, the emperor Nero, who, though 
himself a monster of lewdness, yet wrote a satire against Quintianus, 
in which he censures him severely for the very abominations which 
^cro himself was guilty of. See Ainsw. Improbus, No. 7. 

107. The belly ^ ^-c. ] As if his belly were the most important thing 
belonging to him, it, rather than himself, is said to be present. This 
Montanus was some corpulent glutton, fat and unwieldy. 

108. Crispinus^ i^clj^ Here we find Crispinus brought forward 
4g^in— vocatus ad partes — See 1. 1 and 2. v t. v i. 

-With morning perfume.] The amomum waii a shrub which 

the Easternij used in embalming. Of this it fine perfumed ointment 
was made, with which Grispmus is described as anointing himself 

Digitized by 



Quantum vix redolent duo fuaera : saevior iUc 

Fompeiiw tenui jfl^oa aperire tiwurro : 1 10 

£ty qui'VultMribiu Bervabat viscera liAciSf 

»F4i8cu8y marmoreft medtUtos pctelia vi^ : 

!Et cum moitifero pnidens Veiento CatuUoi 

Qai nimqiiam viine flagrabat amore pueUae, 

Grande, et conspicuttm nostro queque tempore moqstrum ! 115 

Cag gus adul ator, dinisque a ponte'satelles, 

13ignu8 Aricinos qui mendicaret ad axes, 

Blandaque iTevexae jactaret basia riiedae. 

Nemo mspB ifiombomslupttit a nam {durima dixit 

In laevum converaus : at illi dextra jacebat l^ 

Belliia : sic pugnaa Cilicb laudabat, et ictus, 

early in a morning, and in such profuuon, as that he. seemed to 
sweat it eat of his pores. 

Some think that the word matutino, here, alludes to the part of 
the world from whence the amomum came — ^t. e. the East, where the 
t sun first arises : but I find no example of such a use of die word. 

109. Two funeralsj Sfc,"] Crispinus had as much perfume about 
him as would hare served to anoint two corpses for burial. It was 
a custom among the ancients to anoint the bodies of persons who 
died with sweet ointments. See Matt xxvi. 1% This custom, among 
others, was derived from the Easterns to the Romans. 

110. Than him more cruel^ S(cJ] Pompeius was anoiher of this 
assembly, moro cruel than Crispinus, in getting people put to death, 
by the secret accusations which he whispered against them into the 
emperor's ear. 

111. F^scus, who zDOi preserving^ 4'cO Cornelius Fusous was 
sent by Domitian general against the Dacians, where his army and 
himself were lost, and became food for the birdis of prey. 

112. Meditated wars, Sfc,'] An irony, alluding to his being sent 
to command, without having any other ideas of war, than he con. 
cdved amid the sloth and luxury of his sumptuous villa. 

113. Prudent Feiento.] See sat iii. 185. The poet gives Veiento 
the epithet of prudent, from his knowing how to conduct himself 
wisely, with regard to. the emperor, so as not to risk his displeasure, 
and from his knowing when, and how, to flatter to the best advan- 
tage. See 1. 123. 

Deadly CatuUtis,'] So called from his causing the death of 

many by secret accusations. He was raised by Domitian from beg- 
ging at the . foot of the Aricine hill, in the via Appia, to be a mi* 
Ulster of state. 

114. fVho burn% ^c] Catullus was blind, but his lust was so 
great, that he could not hear a woman mentioned without ra^ng 
with desire. Or perhaps tbiii alludes to some particular mistress 
which he kepty and was very fond of. ' 

115. tn our timesf Sfc."] .He was so wicked, as, even in the q;iost 
degenerate times, to appear a. monster of iniquity. 

Digitized by 

Google JijyE]^AI>S SATIllES- 115 

Two funerals scarcely smell so much. Pompeius too. 

Than him more cruel to cut throats witii a gentle whisper. IIO 

And Fuscusy who was preserving his bowels for the Dacian 

Vultures, having meditated vrars in his talurble villa. 

And prudent Veiento, with deadly Catullus, 

Who bum'd with the love of a girl never seen ; 

A great, and also, in our times, a conspicuous- monster f 115 

A blind flatterer, a dire attendant from the bridge, 

Worthy that he should beg at the Aricinian axles. 

And dirow kind kisses to the descending carriage. 

Nobody more wonder'd at the turbpt : for he said many thiilgii 

Turned to the left, but on his right hand lay IfiO 

The fish : thus he praised the battles and strokes of the Ciliciim, 

116. A bUnd flatierer.'] As he could admire a woman without 
seeing her, so he could flatter men whom he never saw ; rather than 
fail, he would flatter at a yenture. 

A dire attendant, ^c] There was a bridge in the Appian 

^ay, which was a noted stand for beggars. From being a beggar 
^t this bridge, he was taken to be an attendant on the emperor, and 
a most direful one he was, for he ruined and destroyed many by se- 
cret accasatioiis. 

117. Worthy that he should beg.'] This he might be allowed to 
•deserve, as the only thing he was fit for. See note 2, on 1. US. 

Aricinian axles.'] Axes — ^by sjm. for currus or rhedas-^V f < 

the carriages which passed along towards or from Aricia, a town in 
the Appian way, about ten miles from Rome, a very public road, 
and much frequented ; so very opportune for beg{;ars. — See Hon. i . 
}ib. i. sat V. 1. 1. Ifod. U Ric<j|i. } ^ 

118. Throw kind kisses.] Kissing his hand, and throwing it from 
his mouth towards the passengers in the carriages, as if he threw 
them kisses, by way of soothing them into stopping, and giving him 
abns. See sat. iii. 1. 106, and note. 

The descending carriage.] Aricia Was built on the top of 

^n high hill, which the carriages descended in their way to Rome : 
this seems to be the meaning of devexse. See Ainsw. Devexus-a* 
ttm. From de and vehp, q. d. Deorsum vehitur. 

119. Nobody more won^r*d.] That is, nobody pretended more 
to do so, out of flattery to I>omitian ; for as for the fish, which Ju- 
venal here calls bellua, (speaking of It as of a great beast,) he could 
not see it, ]but turned the wrong way from it, and was very loud in 
|ts praises : just as he used to flatter I}Qmitian, by praising the fen.* 
K»rs at the jpmes he gave, and the machinery at t]|e theatre," when it 
was not possible for him to see what was going forward. Juyenal 
might well call kim, 1. 116, cpejsus adulator. 

121. The Cilidan.] Some famous gladiator, or fencer, from Cili. 
m^ whi^ probably, was a favourite of Domitlan. 

Digitized by 


156 .JUVENALIS SATIBjE. sat, it. 

£t p^ma, et pueros inde ad velaria raptos. - ^ 

Noii^edit Veiento, sed ut fanaticuB oestro 

Percussus, Bellona^ tuo divinat ; et in^ens 

Omen babes, Iflquit, magni clarique triumphi : 125 

Regem aliquem capies, aut de temooe Britanno 

Excidet Arviragus : peregrina esn>ellua, cernis 

Erectas in ter^ra sudes ? hoc defuit unum 

Fabricioy pa,tnam ut rbombi memoraret, et annos. 

Quidnam igitur censes? conciditur? absit ab illo 130 

Dedecus hoc, Montanus ait ^testa alta paretur, 

t -Qu» tenui muro spatiosum coUigat orbem. 

3 Debetur magnus patinae subitusque Prometheus : 

Argillam^ atque rotam citiusjroperate : sed ex hoc 

Tempore jam, C9eBar;'figuirtua castra sequantur. 135 

122, The machine.'] Pegina— (from Gr. w^ywp, figo) a sort of 
wooden machine used in scenical representations, which was so con- 
triyed, as to raise itself to a great height-— Boys were placed upon 
|t, and on a sudden carried up to the top of the theatre. 

The coverings,'] Velaria — ^were sail-cloths, extended 4)vcr 

the top of the theatre, to keep out the weather. Ainsw. 

l^S. Veiento,] We read of him, sat. iii. 1. 185, as obserring 
great silence towards those who were his inferiors ; but here we find 
him very lavish of his tongue when he is flattering the emperor. 
Seel. 113. 

-r — - Does not yield.] Is not behindhand to the others in flattery, 
not even to blind Catullus who spoke last. 

124. O Bellona,] The supposed sister of Mars ; she was fabled 

to preside over war — ^Virg. JEa, viii. 1. 703. describes her with a 

bloody scourge. Her priests, in the celebration of her feasts, used 

' to cut themselves, and dance about as if they were mad, pretending 

also to divine or prophesy future events. 

(Estrus signifies a sort of fly, which we call a gad-fly ; in the 

summer-time it bites or stings cattle, so as to make them run about 

1*^ At5cXjJtu^us if they were mad. See Virg. G. iii. 1. 146 — 53. By oieton. 

?>*>v . : Irt/. inspired fury of any kind. Hence our poet humourously calls the 

spirit Which inspired the priests of Bellona by this name. For fa- 

' naticus — see sat. ii. i. 112. 

Divines.] In flattery to Domitian, he treats the eweai of the 

' tnrbot as somethhig ominous, as if the taking it predicted some sig- 
nal and glorious victory, the taking some monarch prisoner — per- 
haps Arviragus, then king of the Britons, with whom Domitian was 
at war, might be prefigured, as falling wounded from his chariot into 
- the hands of the emperor. 

127. Is foreign.] Therefore denotes some foreign conquest. 

128. Spearsj Sfc] Sudes — properly signifies a stake — a pile 
driven into the ground in fortifications, also a spear barbed with 
iron. — Hence Kar»x^iuufq, the fin of a fish. Ainsw. 

9. d. Do you perceive his sharp fins rising on his back ; they l%ok 

Digitized by 



And the machine, and the boys snatched up to the coverings. 
Veiento does not yield : but as a fanatic stung with thy gad-fly, 
O Bellona, divines, and says, *^ A great omen 
*' You have, of a great and illustrious triumph : 125 

** You will take some king, or from a British chariot 
*^ Arviragus will fall : the fish is foreign ; do you perceive 
'^ The spears erect on his back?" l^is one thing was wanting 
To Fabricius, that he should tell the country of the turbot, and 
its age. ["be 130 

" What thinkest thou then?— Must it be cut?" " Far from it 
" This disgrace," says Montanus ; " let a deep pot be prepared^ 
*' Which, with its thin wall, may collect the spacious orb. 
'' A great and sudden Prometheus is due to the dish : 
** Hasten quickly the clay, and the wheel : but now, from tbisr 
" Time, Caesar, let potters follow your camps." 135 

like so many spears, and portend and signify the spears which yoQ 
shall stick in the backs of Tanqaished foes. 

12SL FabriciusJ] i. e. Fabricius Veiento. He was so diffuse in 
his harangue, that, in short, there wanted nothing but his telling 
where It was bred, and how old it was, to complete and establish his 
prophetic history of the fish. 

130. What thinkest thou then^ ^c] The words of Domitian, 
who puts the original question for which he assembled these sena* 
tors, 1. 72, viz. as no pot could be got laige enough to dress the 
turbot in, that they should advise what was to be' done ; this they 
had said nothing about — ^therefore Domitian asks, if it should be cut 
in pieces. 

131. Montanus.'] The glutton^— ^See 1. 107. He concludes the 
debate, with expressing a dislike of disfiguring this noble fish, by 
diyiding it, and, at the same time, by flattering the emperor, and 
raising his vanity. 

Let a deep pot,'] Testa — signifies a pot, or pan, made of 

clay. He advises that such a one be Immediately made, deep and 
wide enough to hold the fish within its thin circumference, (t^ui 
muro :) by this means the fish will be preserved entire, as in such a 
pot it might be dressed whole. 

133- PrometheuSy Sfc,'] The poets feigned him to have formed 
men of clay, and to have put life into them by fire stolen from hea- 
ven. Juvenal humourously represents Montanus as calling for 
Prometheus himself, as it were, instantly to fashion a pot on so 
great an occasion, when so noble a fish was to be dressed, and that 
for so great a prince. 

1 34. Hasten.'] That the fish may not be spoiled before it can be 
dressed. . . 

• The dat/y tind the wheel.] Clay is the material, and a wheel, 

which is solid, and turns horizontally, the engine on which the pot* 
ter makes his ware. Tfafo was very ancient. Jer. xviii. 3. 

135. Let potters foUowy ^c] This is a most ladicrous idea^ and 

Digitized by 


UBf JUVENALIl SATIRoS!^ 9xt. it« 

y icU digaxL viro seotentia : noverat iUe 

Jjuxuiiam imperii vetocem, nocte^que. Neronis 

Jam mediasy aliamque famem, cum pulmo Fs^emo 

Arderet: nuUi majoi: fiiit usus^edendi^ 

Tempestate ixiek* Circeis nata forent, an ]^4(X 

Lucramm ad saxupi, tdtupiaove edita fiindO; 

Ofttrea, caUet^at primo deprendece morau ; 

£t 9ea»el a^pecti Uttus diccbat echini. 

SuFgitur, et misso proceres exire jubentur 
Com^i&o, quoa Albaoam dux magnus in arcem I4J^ 

Traxerat attonitos, et festinare coactos^ 
Tanquam de Cattiti aliquid, torvisque Sicambri$ 
Dicturus ; tanqiiSxi diver«is partibua orbis* 
Ataxia piteeipiti venisset epistola penn&. 

Atque utinam his potius nugis tota ilia dedis^et 15Q 

Tempora ssvitiasy claras quibtis abstulit urbi 
Ulustreaque animas impune^ et vindice nullo. 
Sed periit; postquam cerdonibuB esse timendus 

seems to carry with It a yery sharp irony on Domittaii, for haying 
called his council together on such a subject as this— but, howeter 
it might be meant, Ihe known gluttony of Montanus, which is de- 
scribed, 1. 136---43, pass for serious adWce, and as such 
|)omit]an understood it, as the next words may inform us. 

136. The opimouy Sfc,"] What Montanus had said about dressing 
the fish whole, was thoroughly worthy his character; just what 
loight have been expected from him^ and as such prevailed. 

He had known, Sfc."] He was an old court glutton, and was 

well acquainted with the luxury of former emperors, here meant by 
^uxuriam imperii. No man understood eating, I)oth in theory 
igod practice, better than he did, that ha^ lived in my Ijime, sayif 

137. Nero."] As Suetonius observes, used to protract his feasts 
from mid-day to mid-night. 

138. Another hunger y Sfc."] t. e. WhaJ: could raise a new and 
firesh appetite, after a drunken debauqh. 

140. Circan.'] -orum. A town of CaQipania, fa& Italy, at the 
loot of moont Circello on fte sea coast. 

141. The Lucrine rocA:.] The Lucrine rocks were in the bay of 
jLncEinum, in Campania* All these places were famous for different 
sorts of oysters. 

•r, Rutyfian bottom.'] Rutupoe-aruixi, Richburrow in Kent — 

Rutupina littora, the Foreland of Kent The luxury ol the Ro- 
mans must be very .great, to send for. oysters at such a distance, wheil 
•o many places on the shores of Italy afforded them. 

143. Se^MnrMn."] Echinus, a sort of .m||^ with piiekles on its 
shell, reckoned a great dainty, q.d. So sk^^ in eating was Mon- 
tanus, that at tiie fio|t bite qf an oyster, or at the #cst sight of a 
*Mib,.^.«o)ad toU wJwi^ Jbgr ivere take^ 

Digitized by 


%Afg. IT. JOVENAI/S SAttRBSl llti 

The omnioD, worthy the mmti, prevailed : he bad kno^il 

The old luxury of die empire, and the nights of Nero [leman 

Now half sp&atf and tftidthel' hungek', wt^d the hug* iv&b Fa* 

Burned : none had a greater expenenoe in eating 

In my time. Whether oysters were bred at Cirdeei, or 140^ 

At the Lucrine rock, or sent forth from die BDrtnpiairbottdlA^ 

He knew welt to discover at the first bite ; 

And told the shore of a sea-urchin once looked at. [iKsmisaWMl 

They rise — and the senators are commanded to depart from the^ 
Council, whom the great general into the Alban tower 145 
Had drawn astonished, and compelled to hasten, 
As if something concerning the Catti, and the fierce Sicambri 
He was about to say ; as if from different parts of the world 
An alarming epistle had come with hasty wing. [150 

And I wish that rather to these trifles he had given all diose 
Hmes of cruelty, in which he took from the city, renowned. 
And illustrious lives, with impunity, and with no avenger. 
But he perished, after that to be fear*d by cobblers 

144« 7^^ rise.'] Surgitur, unp. the council broke up. See L 65. 

145. The great generai.] Domitiany who gave the word of com^ 
mand for them to depart, as before to assemble. 

Into the Alban toiaer.'] To the palace at Alba, where the 

emperor now was. The word traxerat is very expressive, as if thej 
had been dragged thither sorely agsunst thdr wills. 

146. Astonished-^ompeUedy S^c.'] Amazed at the sodden sum* 
mons, bttt dared not to delay a moment's obedience to it. Comp. 

147. CaHf.'] A people of Germany, now subject to the Land* 
grave of Hesse — Sicambri, inhabitants of Guelderland.— 'BoUi these 
people were formidable enemies. 

140. An alwrming epistle^ SfcJ] Some sorrowful news had been 
dispatched post-haste from various parts of the empire. 

Little could the senators imagine, that all was to end in a con* 
saltation upon a turbot. 

The satire here is very fine, and represents Domitian as anxious 
about a matter of gluttony, as he could have been in affairs of the 
utmost importance to the Roman empire. 

150. And J wish, Sfc."] u e. It were to be wished that he had 
spent that time in such trifles as this, which he passed in acts of 
cruelty and murder, which he practised with impunity, on numbers 
of the greatest and best men in Rome, nobody daring to avenge 
their sufferings. 

153. But he perUhedj ^-c] Cerdo signifies any low mechanics, 
Buch as cobblers, and the like. Cerdonibus stands here for the rabble 
in general. 

While Domitian only cut off, now and then, some of the nobles, 
the people were .quiet^ however amazed they might be, (comp. 1. 77.) 

Digitized by 


1«0 JUTENALIS SATIRiE. sat. in 

Coeperat; hocnbciiit Taij^ahim caede madcntL 

but when he extended his crueltieB to tile plebeians, means were de« 
Yised to cut him off, which was done by a conspiracy formed against 
him. See Ant. Un. Hist yoI. xt. p. 87. 

154. The LamuB.'] The Lamian family was most noble. See 
Hon. lib. iii. ode xrii. Of tiiis was ^ias.Lama, whose wife, Do^ 
ttitia Longlna, Domitian took away, and afterwards put the has* 
band to death. 

li^he Lamise, here> may staM for the nobles in general, (as bdbie 

Digitized by 



He had begun : this hurt him reeking with slaughter of the La^^ 

the cerdooes for the rahble in general,) who had perished tthder tiie 
cruelty of Domitian, and with wbose blood ht might be said to be 
reeking, from the qulinlity of it whidi be'had'shM daring his reign. 
He &ed ninety-six years after Christ, aged forty-four years, ten 
months, and twenty-six dap. HH iBlyilid fifteen years and ia:fe days, 
and was succeeded by Nenra ; a man yery unlike him, being a good 
man, a good statesman, and a-fQEOd^aoUier. 

mam^mt m hJiia. n i M^xa ^ t 


I '^i I I fli I 

TOL. I. 

Digitized by 



7%e Poet diisuades T^biuSy a paraHiejfromfrequenitng the tti^les 
of the greaty where he was certain to be treated with the utmoift 
scorn and contempt. Juvenal then proceeds to stigmatize she 

ol te propositi nondum pudet, atqve eadem est mens, 

Ut bona summa putes alien& vivere quadr& ; 

Si potes iDa pati, quae nee Sarn^ntna ioiqua^ 

Caesaris ad mensasy nee vilis Guba teiSset, 

Quamvis Jurato metoam tibi credere testi. S 

Vegi^jpShil novj faigalina : hoc tamen ipsum 

])efecisse puta, quod inant sufficit idvo. 

Nulla crepido yacatf nusquam pons^ et tegetis parar 

Argimenty Urn 1. ParasUe.l From mofa, iOy and ovrv;, com — 
anciently signified an cyfBioer under the priests who had the care of 
the sacred com, and who was invited as a guest to eat part of the 
aacrifioe. Afterwards it came to signify a sort of flatterer, a buf- 
foon, who was iuTited to great men's tables by way of sport, and 
who, by coaxk^ and flattery, often got into lekTour. See sat L 
L 139, and note. 

1. Of your purpose.'] Tour determination to seek for admittmice 
at the tables of the great, howerer ill you may be treated. 

3. Highest happiness*] Sunnnabona. — ^Perhaps JuTenal heread- 
Terts to file Tarious dispute^ among the philosophers about the sum- 
mum bonum, orisinef good oi man. To inquire into this, was the 
design of Ciceio in his celebrated fire books lit Finibus, wherein k b 
supposed all aIoi|g,.that man is capable of attaining the perfection 
pf happmess in JUs life, ixA he is neter directed to look beycmd its 
upon thb principle, this parailte lought his chief happiness in tha 
present gratification of hb sensual appetite, at die tables of the rich 

-; — Another's trencher. J Quadra signtfie?, Hteratfy, a square 
trencher, from its form : but here, aliena rifere quadia, is to be 
taken metonymically, to signify— liTlng at another's table— or at 
another's expense. 

3. Sarmentus.] A Roman knight, who, by his ilatteiT and buf* 
f ooneiy, Insinuated himself into the fsrour of Augustas Caesar, and 

Digitized by 




huolence and luxwrjf of the nobiUip, their treatment of their 
poor dependenisy whom th^ almost wjger to starve j wMe ths^ 
themselves fare delidously. 

±F you are not yet ashfuned of your purpose, and your mind 
is the same, [trencher ; 

That you can think it the highest happiness to live from another's ' 
If you can suffer those things, >i'hich neither Sarmentus at the 

Tables of Caesar, nor vile Galba could have borne, 
I should be afraid to believe you as a witness, tho' upon oath. 5 
I know nothing more frugal than the belly : yet iBuppose even 

To have £edled, which suffices for an empty stomach. 
Is there no }»ole vacant i no where a bndgef and part of a rqg 

often came to his table^ where he bore all manner of scoffs and af« 
fronts. See Hoa. lib. L sat v. L 51, 3. 

5— 4« 3%e unequal tablesS\ Those entertainments were called 
iniqae mense, where the same food and wine were not provided for 
the gnests as for the master. This was often the case, when great 
men invfttfd parasites, and people of a lower kind ; they sat before 
them a coarser sort of food, and wine of an inferior kind. 

.4. Crolba.'] Such another in the time of Tiberias. 

6. 4fraid to brieve J\ q. d. If yon can submit to such treatment 
as this, for no other reaso^ than becanse you love eating and driak*\ 
ing, I shall thiiik you so void of all right and honest principle, that 
I would not b^eve what you say, though it wore upon path. 

6. Nothing more frugat^'] The mere demands of nature am 
casBy supplied — hunger wants not deUcades. 

. Suppo^ even tha/y^.'] However, suppose that a man has 

not wherewithal to procniie efp^ the little that nature wants to sa. 
tisfy Us hunger. ^7;^ , I f.. .. ; -, i c ' " 

3. Is there no hole^ SfC.'] Crq^ido^-^liioi^'Or^iIacaby the l&^. 
way, where beggars sit. 

A driV^.] The bridges oh the highways w^e comlaoil 

stiuds for be^^tfs«. Sat. iv. 116. 


Digitized by 



DimidiaL brevior ? tantine injuria coens ? 

Tarn jejuiia fametf; cum possis honestius illic ID 

£t tremere, et sordes ferris mo'rdere canini ? 

Primo fige jocfli. quocTtu dia cumb erc jussus 
Mercedem solidam vetenuu c^pis officiorum.^. 
Fructus amicitiae magnae cibus : impulat hiino B,ex, 
£t quamvis ranun, tamen imputat. Ergo duos post 15 

Si libuit menses neglectum aittibere clientem, 
Tertia ne vacuo cessaret culcitra lecto^. 

Ot Sh^Ur S^ ihi Aio^] Teges — sigaifies a eoane rag^ woni hy 
b9ggatrs to keep them wacsii. q'd. Is no oooree rag, or evea a hit 
of one, to be gotten to cover your nakedness ?' 

— /* the injury of a supper^ Sfc.'] Is it worth while to saffer 
t]^.809f& andaffirofits w^h^yxHi undergo at a> great, man-'s.table?^ 
Do you pciine these so highly as rather to endure theov. than- be^ ex- 
eladecl?—ror thsM^. follow the method, which, l pro{)ose? Cqrnp* - 
1.10, 11.— rl should observe, that some are for iuterpreting injuria 
ccDnae by injuriosa coena: so Grangius, who refers to Virg. JEn. m. 
266, injuria caedis — ^pro-caede injuriosa.; but I cannot think that 
tills cQines up to the point,, as the reader may see by consulting the 
passage, wfaidr the IMphiir ititerpreter expounds by injuria cssdfs 
nobis iHatsQ-rand so T eeneeive it ouglfet to be ; and if so, it is no 
precedent for changing injuria ca^nas into injuriosa aena. How- 
ever, it is cedaki tbaC tM^ is adopted in^ the Yajriorura^ edi^oa of 
S(4ivev«lius-^Taiitiiie ttbi. est injosiosa et eontDiiiettosa- coena^; ui 
propter earn turpissimnm adulatorem velis agere, et tot mala, tot op- 
probria et contumelias potius perferre velis, quam mendicare ? Lubix, 
To-lfais purpose Marshal^ Ptateus^ and others; Doobtless this gFVe» 
an excellent sense to the passa^ { but (fiefr this- ifr come at^ by -sa^ ^ 
posing that Jlivenal says one thing and means^anottfer : foi^ he^'says^ 
injuria eesna^^Iitertily, the* mjui^ of a supper — f« e* the injury 
sust^ued by N«vo]'us^ «he*lndignii)p and *affi«nts which he met witb^ 
when he went to Vhrro^ laMe» tie poet asks-r^ntme injuria, not 
tantine coena^ meaning, a» 1- conceive, a sajrcasm on the parasite for 
his attendance where he was- sure to utidiBVgo all manaer of con. 
tempt and' ill areatment, as tllORgli he wep# so-s^jeet as to^ prefer 
this, and hoM; it in Mgfr estnna^«% ift-eompwison with-dieway of 
life- whichi J'uvenaT reeomm^nds- as- more' h^ouraJbl^ Henee the 
explmation of the passagje-wliich^I have above given, appears to me 
to Be most like the x>oe<fsmdaaing[, as it essaistly eoineides wi& his 
manner of expression. I-would lastly observe^ ttetPrateus, JMffk^ 
edif. interprets— tan^ne injuria ccenae ? I^ — an^ land est contumelia 

10. Is hunger so craving.'] As to drive you into cdl. thiS) when 
you might satisfy It in tKe-more-hon«urabIe way of begging? 

More honesify,'] With more reputation- to yHHUMtf«r 

jF^ere; J At a stand for l^ggws. 

11. Tremble.'] Shake with cold, haviognodung bu4<a part <rf a 

Digitized by 


Shorter by the half? is flie injiwy 6f z ^tipper t)f 96 gf ^t vfilii^ ? 

Is hunger so cravfeig, ivvhen you might, iMte iton^S^^iltieft TO 

®oth Uemble, and gnaw tin >fllfh of dogs'-^nefct ? 

Fix in the first place, Aat you, bidden to sit down at tkMe, 
^^^^^^R«ceive a solid reward of old senHices : 
^^^'^^lEiiod is the fruit of great fri^ndsliip : this the great man reckorft, 

Aiid tho' rare, yet he reckons it. Therefore if, after tWo 15 

Months, he likes to invite a neglected client, 

Lest the third piHow should *e icHe on an tmpty bed, . 

TOg to cover you^ I. 8, S. Or, at least, pretending it, in order 4o 
move compassion. 

11. Gn»w thefkk^ ^c] Far— Mterally signifies all manner of 
corn ; also meal and flour — ^hence bread toade tiiereof. A coarser 
sort was made for the common people, a coarser still was gircn to 
dogs. But perhaps the poet, by farris canini, means what was 
spoiled, and grown musty and hard, by keeping, ^nly fit to be 
thrown to the dog& 

The substance of this passage seems to be this*'*-^. that the situ- 
* Ation of a common beggar, who takes bis stand to ask alms — thoogh 
half o^ed-^-Kshakiag with e^d---aiid forced to satisfy Ms hanger 
witii old hard crusts, such as Were |pven to the dogs, oQght to be 
reckoned far more reputably and iheiefore more digible, than those 
abject and scaodaloas means, by #hidi the parasite subsisted* 

12. Fixj ^-c] Fix it in jour hand, as a certain thing, in the first 

. Tb sit down «/ tMbk."] IKMiumbeffe-4it mc^ns^to He dow«, 

f as on a couch, after the manner of the Hemans at Aeir meals. 

13. A solid reimrtl.'] Whaterer scnriccs yon may havfc I'cndered 
the great man, he thfaiks that an mritadcHi to sapptor is a very solid 
and full recompenee^ 

14. F0vd is the fruO^ ^e."] A meal's mcait (as we say) Is all you 
get 1>7 your friendly offices, bat then ^y mast have bten Tery 
great. Or ms^ns anicitke may mean, as in sat. ir. L 74, i». tite 

. friendship qf a great man, tiit fruit of which is an inritation to 
I supper. 

! -- — T%e great man re^hcns^ ij-c] Rex»»»llt. a king, is oftto 

used to denote any great and high personage. 8ee sat. i, 136. — ^He 
sets it down to your account ; however s^Iddin you m^ be invited, 
yet he reckons it as a set^qff against your servi^)es, Hunc relates 
to the preceding cibus. 

17. Lest the third pillow^ ^c] q. d. Only invites you io fill up 
a place at his table, which would be otherwise vacant. 

In the Homan Aiiiiig.,room was a fable hi fashion at an half, 
moon, against flie routed part whereof they ssct tJrree beds, ever^ one 
tontaifring three petsons, 6ad(i of ^l^h had a (cufcitra) pfllow tp 
ieanupoii: 'they wens sold, di^cumtxete, to lie vH meat upon a bed. 
We say — sit at table, because if^e use cliairs, on which we sit. 
See Vino. -Sfi. i. 1. 712.— Torts jussi dli^cimtbere plctls. 

H 3 

Digitized by 



Unt BunuS) ait : votonim mitnina ; quid ultni 

Qusris i habet Trebius, propter quod rumpere somiium 

Debeaty et li^Ias dimittere; aollicitus, ne 20 

Tota salutetnx jam turba percent orbem 

Sideribus dubiis, aut illo temporCy quo ee 

Friyida circumagunt piaayw^aca IBootaB. 

Qualis ccena tamen ?|vininn quod iuccida noitt 

Lana pati : de convivli Corjbanta videbis. ^25, 

Jurgia proludunt : 8ed mox et pocula torq^ies 

18. << Let us be together j^^ say» Ae.] Sopposed to be the words 
•of •some great man, inritiiig in a familiar way, the more to enhance 
the obligation* 

The sum of your toiihes.'] The sum total of all your desures 

—what can you think of farther! 

10. TVebiw.l The name of the parasite with whom JuTenal is 
supposed to be conTersing. 

— For whkh he oughty :ISfc'} Such a fatonr as this b sufficient 
to make him think that he ought, in return, to break his rest, to 
•inse before day, to hurry himself to the great man^s leree in such a 
manner as to forget to tie his shoes ; to run slip-shod, as it were, 
for fear he should seem tardy in paying his respects, by not getting 
there before the circle is completely formed, who meet to pay thmr 
Compliments to the great man. . See sat. iii. 137 — 30. where we find 
one of these early lerees, and the hurry which people were in to 
get to them. 

l^igula means not only a shoe-latchet, or shoe-tie, but any l^atnie 
which is necessary to tie any part of the dress ; so a lace^ or point 
— -ligula cruralis, a garter. Ainsw. 

22. The itars dMibious,'] So early, that it is uncertinn whether 
the little light there is, be from the stars, or from the first breaking 
of the morning.— « What is the night ?"—<< Almost at odds with 
<< morning, which is which.'' — Shak. Macb. act III. sc. ir. 

23. Bootes*'] A constellation near the Ursa Major, or Great 
Bear— -Gr. /3ft«mt$^— I«at bubulcus, an herdsman — ^he that ploughs 
with oxen, or tends them. Called Bootes, from its attending, and 
seeming to driyo on, the Ursa Major, which is in form of a wiui^ 
drawn by oxen. Cic. Nat. Deor. lib. il. 42. 

Arctophylmxy vulgo qui dicitnr esse Bootes* 

Quod quasi temone iidjunctum pra se quatit Arctum. 

Arctophylax» who commonly in Greek 

Is termed Bo8tes> because he drives before hira 

The greater Bear, yoked (as it were) to a wain. 

Aretophylax — fronf apxro^, a bear, and ^7^, a keeper. 

We call the Ursa Major---Charles's wain, (see Ainsw. Arctos,) 
seren stars being so disposed, that the first two represent the oxen^ 
the other fire represent a wain, or waggon, which they draw» 
Bootes seems to follow as the driyer. 

39^3. The cold spoiW.] Sarraca, plur. — the wain consisUng of 

Digitized by 


Baf.>. J0V£NAL*S SATIRES. 1S7 

^ Let us be together,'' aajs hew-^b b the sum of ]FOinr wishea^- 

what more 
Do you seek ? Trebius has that, for which he ought to break 
His sleep, and leave loose his shoe-ties ; solicitous lest M 

The whole salutiiq^ crowd should have finished the circle. 
The stars dubious, or at that time, in which the 
Cold wains of slow Bootes turn themselvesround. 
Yet, what sort of a siipper? wine whicH'iimit wool j r^. * . [ < ^ 
Wou'd not endure : from a guest you will see a Coryban t^ £5 
They hegia brawls; but presently you throw cups, 

naoy starB.-^Frigida9 cold— -because of (heir pro^dmity to the north 
pole, which, from thence, is called Arcticus polos. ^ Ainsw^ 
23. Slow Bootes :] 

Sive est Arctophylax* sive est p^ger Ule Bootes. Ovid. 

■ Nnnquid te pigra Boote 

Flaastra vehant. Maetial. 

The epithet piger, so often applied to Bootes, may rdate to the 
slowness of his motion roaad.tJie north pole, his circuit being very 
small; or in reference to the slowness with which the neat-herd 
drives his ox. wain. Yirg. Eel. x. 1. 19. Tardi venere bubulcl. 
See Ovid. Met. lib. i. fab. i. 1. 170, 7. 

Thru themsefves roumL'] Not that they ever stand still, bat 

they, and therefore their motion^ can only be perodved in the night* 

This constellation appearmg always above the hcMnaon, is said bj 
ike poets neyer to descend into the sea. 

Juvenal means, that Trebins would be forced oot of his bed at 
break of day — steilis dnbiis-^-see note on 1. 2S.-«-^r, perhaps, at 
that time, when BooteS| with his wain^ would be to light him — i. €• 
whHe it was yet night : 

<« When Charles's warn b seen to loH. 

«• Slowly about the north pole." DvvtTBa. 

24. Whai ioriy 4v.} After all the pains wMdi you* may have 
taken to attend thiiB great man's levee, in order to ingratiate yourself 
with him, and after the great honour which you think is done you 
by hb invitation to supper— pray how are you treated ? what kind 
of entertainment does he give you i 

Wine^ 4>c.] Wine that Is so poor, that it is not fit to soak 

wool, In order to prepare it for receiving tiie dye, or good enough 
to scour the grease out of new-shorn wool. See Aiirsw« Sucddus. 

S5. A Cor^banL"] The Corybantes were priests of Cybelei and 
who danced about In a wild and frantic manner. 

^ this whie was so heady, and had such an effect on the guests 
who drank it, as to make them frantic, and turn them, as It were^ 
Into priests of Cybele^ whose mad and strange gestures they imi- 

26. They begin brawh.'] Or brawb begui. — ^Proludo (from pro 
and ludo) is to flourish^ as fencers do^ before they b^iu in 

M 4 

Digitized by 



..SiiiiaM^f «t)iiiM ifet^^ 

Inter vos qubties, libertorumque cohortem 

^se ca^RtQ ,4i/%|iftin co|ls^l€ poiVl^ 

Cardiaco nunquMn i&yatbiW iQmuri^ s^Hiico. 

CraTbibet Alto^is irfiqui^ ^ vvwtiibiiw, wt 4e 

Setinis, cuJvib pi^iofli, tiftiULmq|V9 aepo<>^» 

Deleyit wMi veteia fuJigioe leslpe : &5 

Quale coromui Tbf«4^y ljUlyi4iu«^9il^ J|^el»p,t^ 

Brutomin et Cassi natalibus. Ipse capaces 

-Hmftdum crii8ta§9 <et kiisqiiales h»tyUo 

good earnest — to bedn, to (commence. BraTrls, or strifes of words^ 

are begun by way of preludes to blows. 

27.- With a red napkin.'] Stained .with the "blood of the comba. 

^nts. See Hon. lib. i. od. xxvii. 
'38. lyopp affreedmen.^ T^he liberti were those, who, ^ slaves^ 

AT bondmen, were made free: the great people had nu«iber9 of 

these aftoiit them, and they were y^ry insolent and quarrelsone on 
*^ese occasions. 

29. Saguntine pot.'] Sagunt^m was a elty ef Spain) /iunons for 
•\i» earthen ware. 

' 4?his elty was fftmons for holding out against Hannibal ; ifiher 
than submit, they burnt themselves, their wives, and children. Plig- 
Miatt eominittere, is a military term for engaging in fight. 

30. He.] Ipse— the patron himself. 

'*- — iVnujt was radted.] ' IKffiisuin-^oiired, raoked, or filled 
oat, from i^e wine-Tat into^he cask. 

*— -^FSWu Ae consul, 6^c.] Capillato consnle— In old time^ 
when the consuls wore long hair, Ainsw. - See sat« iv. 103. 

31. Social wars.] The civil war, or the war of the allies, some- 
times called the Marsian war, (of which, see Akt. Univ. Hist. 

' ToL %uk* p. 34^} wkch broke oat ninety yeaffs before iDhrist^^<--So 

' that 4lfis wine jpinsthairelNien Tei^ oM vban this satire was wjriilan. 

33. Chali^tf.^ tC^rdiaco«-^a wo^m, Qor)nr<^ck U haatlrTrfdao 

4aii that is gti^, or h^Ml a iMani pi|ia ia ti|e siomaieh. (Grood M 

wine ia recommended by CelsuB, «| hi^y niefiil in sndi a ^om^ 
:j(llaint Fliny say6, lib- «|iii< c» 1. GurdiacQcn|a jnorbo naicam 
:^9^mA in wiip n69 tf^um eiit, 

. Mai so selMi Is Ais great vun auppoied io be, that Jie would BOt 
^apaie>«0 fokith as a sip^e cup of it to save one's life. 

33. From the JIbau mousOaius.] The Aiban hiUs here A fte* 

'Mttt;:gtape, -and thevlnei ham not y^ degtnevaiad, fiiMr jihe -nao A1-* 

49000 ts irtiU in -gmt esteen), 

> ^4- fCke B«ttne.'l f atsa, tiie oify vhirii gate {ume te limp Wky 

lies not far from Terraoina, in Campania. 
36. fMk muUim&>]i Ibika^it. iuucfa. See Aixstr. A(n)tus^ 

*f9- 8. 

Digitized by 


Wounded, and iv^ MtMiiifb inri^ 

ilow often, between ^ou md fl^lnoop of freednea, 

Does die battle j(^w, wUob H b^t witba SagttBtme pot? 

He drinks what was FaQked off wb^ the ooBitil ii^ne loi^ kaify 

And possesses the griipe trodden in the social wars, [SO 

Never about to send a eup [<^it] to a cholicky friend* 

To-morrow he^U drii\k something from the Alhao nmntabs. 

Or from the Setine, wbfO^ qountry, and title, old-iage 

Has blotted out, by the thick «aottldiness of the old cask. So 

Such Thraseas swd iJ^lvidius dsank, croiinnad, . 

On die birth-day of the Brut|«iid Ciaasius. Virro kiniielf 

\^olds capacious piec^ of the H«liades, and cups with beryl 

Casks which are long kept in cellars contract a mouldiness, which 
so overspreads the oatslde, as to concesd every mafk and character 
which may have been impressed on them — as where the wine grew, 
. aml*^ nwi^ {tttukini) by wihioh It is dMngwhed; 

36. Tbrme0$^-Jlelvidim.^ Thfaseas was io Helvi. 
^1^. Th^y were batii mtmioiB^ and oppaaers of Nero's tyranny. 
Thraseas bled to death by the o^amaod of Nero-'--'Heividi«s was 

' -^-**^^<9f0IPd£f«] The Romsas ^ thvir earoasals, on ftstival-days, 
wore crowns ^r garlands of fiowen i^ien their heads. See Hon. 
lib* ii. od« vii* !• 7, 8. and ft3-^6. 

9f« Of ike Jh^if <^c.] In commemoration of Junias, and of Deu 
cios SratiMS : th? former of which expelled Tarquia the Proad ; the 
latter delivered his country from the power of Julias Cnsar, i^ as. 
^^awaiitiilg hiai in Ihe senate-honse. Casans was also o«e of the 
coDspirators and assassins of Caesar. These men aetcd from a love 
of iibsrty, and tiiesefore were remembered, espeoially in afier^thnes 
of ^i^annv imd4 oppvession, with the highest hononr. The best of 
wine Wfl# hvo^ight forth on the oooaaion. 

VirroJ] The master of the feast — peihaps « fioddens name. 

38. PU$f$fif ihe HeiiadBs.'] JQrinking caps made of .large pieces 
of amber. The Heliades (from ri^M?, the sun) were the daoghtera of 
Phcebus and Clymene, who, bewailkig their Biaeton, were tamed 
into poplar.trees : of whose tears came amber, which distilled coh- 
.tiQU^Jjr from their branches* See Ov« Met lib. i* fiib. ii. and iii. 

fnde'ittiiint laciirymv 1 s^Hataqtie sole ngescunt 

Ibieiplt ; et nifinkwi vMft pi9M»^% Uiifm. Fas. iii. 

*-^ — Hoids,^ Tenet — holds them in his hands when he drinks. 

C^upj.] PhiaJ^r-l-means a gold cup^ or beaker, to drink out 

of. Sometimes drinking cups, or vessels, made of glass. See Ainsw* 

Beryi*'] A sort of precious stone, cut into pieces, which 

were drinking cups, here said to be inasquales, from the in- 
eqiyOity or roughness of the outward surface, owing to the protub^^ 
ya^ces qt the pfetes of berjrj with whic^b it was inlaid. 

Digitized by 


170 ' JUVENALiS SATIILE; mt.t. 

V. y irro tenet phiaias-c tibi wm c<MMiiittitiir attram ; 
Vel 81 quando datur, custoa affixna ibidem, 40 

Qui numeiet geminaa, unguesque observe acutos : 
Da veniam, prsclara illic laudatur iaspis ; 
Nam Virro (ut multi) gemmas ad pocida transfeit 
A digitis ; quaa in vaginas fronte aolebat 
Ponere zelqtypo juvems pr»latas Hiarbse.. 45 | 

Tu Benevenbini sutoris nonien habentem 
Siccabifl calicem naaorum quataor, ac jam 
Quassatum, et rupto poscentem sulj^ura vitro. 

Si'ltomachus domini fervet vinove cibove, 
Frigidior Geticis petitur dei^ta pruinis. 56 

Non eadem vobis pom modo vina querebar2 
Vos aliam potatis aquam. Tibi pocula curjor 
Gaetulus dabit, aut nigri manu8 osiiea Mauci,. 

39. Goid is not tommiitedJ] Ton are looked upon in too despU 
eMe a light, io be intrusted with any thing made of gold. Bat if 
this should happen, yon will be narrowly watched, as if you were 
suspected to be capable 

4U Who may county 4*^.] To see that none are missing. 

Sharp naih*!^ Lest you should make use of them to pick { 

out the precious stones with which the gold cup may be inlaid. 

42. A bright jasper^ Sfc.'] Pmclara, very bright or clear — is 
commended by all that see it, for its transparency and beanty, as 
well as for its size, therefore you must not take it ill that Virro is 
80 watchful over it. 

The jasper is a precious stone of a green colour ; when large it 
was venr valuable. 

43. rtrro (as many^ SfcJ] The poet here censures the vani^and 
folly of the nobles, who took the gems out of their rings to oma- 
ment their drinking-cups — this, by the ut multi, seems to have been 
growing into a fashion. 

44. Such asj in the front^ Sfc."] Alluding to Vino. ^n. It. 

1. aei, 2. V 

Atqqe illi stettatus liispide fulT^ 
Ensis erat. 

Virro had set in his cups sueh precious stones, as iEneas, whom 
Dido preferred as a suitor to HIarbas, king of Getulia, had his sword 
dcck^ with ; among the rest, that sort of jasper, which, though not 
yellow throughout, was sprinkled with drops of gold, which sparkled 
like stars, something like the appearance of the spots in the lapis 
lazuli. ' 

By tlte frons vaginae, we may understand the hilt of the swor4» 
and upper part of the scabbard ; for Virgil says ensia, and Juvenal, 

47. The Beneventane cobbler ^ Sfc.'] We read in Plant, of nasiter* 
na:, a vessel with three handles ; here one is mentioned of four han- 
dleS) nasoram quatuor. — ^Ferhaps it Tiad four cars,' or spouts^ which 

Digitized by 



Unequal: to you gold is m(fc committed : 

Or if at any time it be given, a guard is fixed there, 40 

Who may count the gems, aad observe your sharp nails : 

Excuse it, for there a bright jasper is commended ; 

For Virro (as many do) transfer his gems to his cups 

From his fillers ; such as, in the front of his scabbard, 

The youth prefeiVd to jealous Hiarbas used to put. 45 

You shall drain a pot with four handles, having 

The name of the Beneventane cobbler, and now 

Shattered, and requiring sulphur for the broken glass. 

If the stomach of the. master is hot with wine, or meat. 
Boiled [water] is sought, colder than Getic hoai**fro8t8. . 50 
Was I just now complaining that not the same wines were set 

before you ? 
You drink other water. To you the cups a Getulian 
Lackey will give, or the bony hand of a black Moor, 

stood out like noses. The cobbler of Beneventum was named VatU 
nins, and was remarkable for a lai^ge nose, as well as for being a 

Viiia satoris calicem inoDttiiie jta Vatini 

Accipe, sed aasus iongior ille fait. Mast* lib. xir. eptgr. 96. 

Hence those glass ctips which had four noses, handles, or spouts, 
which resembled so many large noses, were called calices VatiQiani ; 
as also because they were such as he used to drink out of. 

48. Shattered.'] So cracked as hardly to be fit for use. 

Sulphur for fJie broken glass.'] It was the custom at Rome 

to change away broken glass for brimstone matches. 

Qui pallentia sulfurata fractis 

Permutant vitrcis. Mart, lib, i.'cpigr. 4?. 

And lib. z. epigr. 3. 

Quae sulfurato nolit empta ramentOf 
Vatiniorum proxeneta fractoraiii« ^c. 

49. If the stomach of the master.'] t. e. Of the master of the feast 
-^the patron. If he finds any unusual heat in hb stomach from what 
he eats or drinks. Com p. sat iii. 1. 233, 4. 

50. Boiled water j S^c] Decocta. — It was an invention of Nero's 
to have water boiled, and then set in a glass vessel to cool, in heaps 
ef snow, which the Romans had the art of preserving in ca« 
Terns and places, like our ice-houses, in order to cool their liquors 
in the summer.time. 

Getky Sfc] The Gretes were neighbours to the Scythians ; 

their country was very cold, and their frosts exceedingly severe. 

52. Other water.] While the master of the house regaled himself 
with this iced.water, hib meaner guests had only common water to 

53-74. AGeUdian lackey.] Not one of those delicate domestics, 
described h 56^ bat alow servant, a foot^boy, a mere runner of er.* 

Digitized by 


Et cui per mediam nolis f>cciin«re iaoctem, 

Clivosas veheris dum per fnonknenta liiMtiiMe^ 55 

Flos^Asise ante ipsimiy pretio majove paratus * 

Quam fuit et ToUi census pngoacis, et Anci ; 

£tj ne te teneam, Romanonim omnia regum 

Frivola. Quod cum ita sk, tu Gaettuhim Gai^metElem 

Hespice, cum sities : n^sdt tot millibus emptas SO 

Pauperibus.miscere puer : sed Cmrmay sed^tas 

Digna supercilio. Quando ad ie pervenit iile ? 

Quajido vocatus adest calidas, gelidieve ittkusierf 
. Quippe indigoatiHr Teteri paiere clieati ; 

{fQuodque aliquid poscas; et ijiiod se staote recumbas. ' 6a 

'Maxima qujb<que domvs sebvis s$t plena 9T7|>eb^is. 

Ecce alius quanto porrexit murmure panem 

Vix fractum, solidae jam mucida frusta kkmm, 

Quae genuinum agitent, non adn^ittentk morsum. 

rands. Or ^Mrko, like a rumnng footman, ran bdbre hkr maister^s 
horses and carriages. Getulia was a eouatry of Afrioa, where the 
inhabitants were blacks, or, as we call them, negroes. 

53. The bony hand of a bUtck Mo4»r^ ^c] A |;reat, hideous^ and 
raw-boned Moor, so frightful as to ixmiy people who should hap- 
pen to meet with him in the night-time, when trayelling am^ng those 
mansions of the dead, which are in the Latin waj. See sat. M 
1. 171. — ^He might be taken for some hideous spectre that haunts the 

56. Afiovser of AsiaJ] The master of i^ feast has for his cup- 
bearer an Asiatic boy, beautiful, and blooming as a flower^ and who 
had been purchased at an immense price. The poet here exhibits a 
striking contrast. Comp. 1. 53. 

57. Tultus and Ancus.'] The third and fourth of the Roman 
kings, whose whole fortunes did not amount to what Virro gave for 
this Asiatic boy. 

58. Not to detain you,"^ i, e. To be short, as we say, Comp« 
sat. ill. 1. 183. 

Trifles^ 4-c.] The price gbrea for this boy was so great, as to 

make the wealth of ail the ancient Rojaan kings friroloiis and trifling 
. in comparison of it. 

The poet means, by this, to set forth the ^gwf^ of kxnry aad «i- 
pense of the great men in Rome. 

59. Ganymede.'] The poet alludes to the beautiful eap^bearer of 
Jupiter, and humourously gives his name to the Getuliaa negro 
foott^boy, mentioned 1. 52, 3. — Respice-^look back at the Gany. 
mede behind you^ and caU to liiffl, if you want to ba helped to some 

61. To mingle, Sfc.J It was the office of the cup-bew^ to poor 
the wine into the cYip in such proportion, or quantity, as eyery oae 
chose.^^This was called miscere. So Makt. ]j9b» Jdii. cpigr* 108. 
MiKcfi dfe^st koc a Gaayaiede otervm. 

Digitized by 



Aqd whom you would beiuawiUiiig to meet at midnight. 
While you are canned^ thso' the monuments of the hilly Latin 

way. 55 

A flower of Asia b.before him^ purchased at a greater price. 
Than was the estate of warlike TuUus^ and of Ancus : 
And, not- to detain you, all the trifles of the Roman 
Kings. Which since it is SO;^ do thou the Getulian Ganymede 
Look back upon,, when you are thirsty : a boy bought for so 

many 60 

Thousands knows not to mingle [wine], for the poor : but his- 

form, his age^i .^ [ -. . 
Are worthy disdain. When, does he come to you ? 
When, being called, does he attend [as] the minister of hot or 

cold water? 
For he scorns to obey an old^ client; 
And that you should ask for any thing, or that.yoashoidd lie 

down^ himself standing^. 65 

Every very great bqusb is full op paoiiB seb^- 

Behold^ with whatgnunbling another has reached out bread> 
Hardly broken, pieces of solid meal already musty, 
Which will shadce-a grinder, not admitting a bitew 

^ Wvrth^dhdain.'] q. d. His ymith and beauty josiify his con* 
tempt ; they de9er?e that he should despise such guests. 

63. Wl^ does he attend^ Adest-i— < Ut. when is he present ? 

Ai the minister. "] To^ serve yoa with — to help you to — cold 

or hot water. Both these the Romans^ especially in winter-time^ 
bad at their^ feasts^ that the guests might be served wifh either, as 
tbey might choose* 

04. He seomsy SfcJ]' This smart favourke looks down with too. 
much contempt on such a poor needy sponger, as he esteems an old 
hanger-on npon his master to be, to think of giving him what he 
calls for. He is aft*0]iled that snch a one should presume to expect 
his attendance upon him, and that he should be standing at the table 
as a servantj whihl the client is lying down at his ease, as one of 
tbegnests* . . 

66. Evert/ very great houscy 4*^.] And, therefore, where can you 
find better treatment, than you do at Virro's, at any of the tables of 
thench and great? 

W^ Has pesteked ouij ^c] When yon have called for bread, It 
has indeed- been brought, but with what an ill-will have you been 
Be^efl— hoiw- has the sla/ve that' reached, or held it out for you to 
take, murmured at what he was doing ! 

(i9i-HMr^yfbp»keTK] \¥iththontmost difficulty broken into pieces. ' 

— ^ €f soUd m^r] Gtown i^to hard^ solid lumps, by being so 
old and Mlale^ ahd:n«W'gtdwti^«oliMy. 

W.^jm slMBr^)grifid9r.J 6te!iiini»-^ram gena^ iho chedc-< 

Digitized by 



Sed tener, et niveus, moUiqoe siligine factus 70 

Servatur domino : dextrani cohiba'e memento : 
Salva sit artoptae reverentia : finge tamen te 
Improbuluin ; superest illic qui ponere cogat. 
Vin' tu conttuetis, audax conviva, canistiis . 
Impleri, panisque tui novisae colorem? 75 

Scilicet hoc fuerat, propter quod aiepe relict^ 
Coinage, per montem adversum, gelidasque cucurri 
Esquilias^ fremeret ssv^ cum grandine vernus 
{ Jupiter^ et multo stillaret penula nimbo. 

Aspice, quam longo distendfat pectore lancem, 80 

v/hat we call the grinders, are the teeth next the cheeks, Vhich grind 
food. So far from belng^capable of being bitten, and thus diTided, 
it would loosen a grinder to attempt it. 

70. Soft Jhur."] The finest flour, out of which the bran b en- 
tirelj sifted, so that no hard substance is left ' • 

71. To restrain^ Sfc.'] 0on't let the sight of this fine^ white, and 
new bread, tempt you to filch it — mind to iLeep your hands to your, 

72* The butlerJ] Artopta — 6r. «fmmi; — ^from »ptof, bread, and 
citrrxtt, to bake— signifies one that Inkes bread — a baker* Or ar- 
topta may be derired from ofrot, bread, zad orrofiou, to see— -i. e. an 
inspector of bread— « pantler, or butler — ^one who has the care and 
OTcrsight of it. This I take to be the meaning here, f . d Hare 
«il due respect, to the dispenser of the bread ; don't offend Inm by 
putting your hand into the wrong basket, and by taking softie of 
the fine bread. 

Suppose yourself^ 4*^] But suppose you are a little too 

bold,' and that you make free with some of tiie fine bread, there's 
one remains upon the watch, who will soon make you lay it down 
again, and chide you for your presumption* 

74. Wilt thoUf Sfc.'] The words of the butler on seeing the poor 
client filch a piece of the white bread, and on making him lay U 
down again. 

— — Tlie accustomed baskets."] t. e. Thoae^ in which the coane 
bread is usually kept — and do not mbtake, if you please^ white for 

75. FiUed.'] Fed— satbfied. 

76. fVell^ this has been^ Sfc."] The supposed words of Trebins, 
Texed at finding himself so ill repaid for all his services a/id attend- 
ances upon his patron, q* dL ^' So— this is what I havQ been, toiling 
ii for — for this I have got out of my warm bed, leaving my wife, at 
<^ all hours of the night, and in all weathers," &c. 

77. The adverse mount.'] The £squi||ne hill liad a rery steep 
ascent, which made it troublesome to g^ up, if one weretn haste. It 
must be supposed to have lain in the parasite's^ way to Us patron's 
house^ andy by iti steepness, to hare been a hbiAwce to his speei 

Digitized by 



But the tender md ubite, and made widi soft floiir, 70 

Is kept for the master. Remember to restrain your right hand : 
Let reverence of the bntler be safe. — ^Yet, suppose yourself 
A little knavish ; there remains one who can compel you to lay 

it down. 
*' Wilt thoUj impudent guest, from the accustomed baskets 
*' Be filled, and know the colour of your own bread ?** 75 

*' Welly this has been that, for which often, my wife being left^ 
** I have run over the adverse mount, and the cold 
^' Esquiliae, when the vernal air rattled with cruel 
^' Hail, and my cloak dropped with much rain.'' 
See, with ^ow long a breast, a lobster, which is brought 80 

Henee he calls it adTersum montem* Adversns signifies opposite— 
a4irersam may n>ean,,t)iat it was.oii^osite to the parasite's house, 

77 — 8. Tne cold Esquiliee.'] Its height made it very bleak and 
cold at- the top, especially in bad weather. See sat. iii. 1. 71. 

78. 7%e vernal mr.'] Vernus Juplter< — ^The Romans called the 
air Jupiter. See Hob. lib, i. od. i. j. 95. — ^Theair^ in the spring of the 
year, is often fraught with storms of bail and rain, witJi which the 
poor parasite often got wet to the skin, in his nightly walks to at* 
tend on his patrq||. . 

^^ A pretty business, truly, to suffer all this for the sake of being 
. ^< invited to supper,, and then to be so treated !" 

^ All this Jnvenal represents as the treatment which Trelniis would 
meet with, on being IfiVited to Yirro's house to sapper — *andas the 
monrnfal com plaints > which he would hare to make on finding all his 
attendances aud services so repaid-rttherefore Trebius was sadly mis* 
taken in placing his happiness in living at the tables of the great, and 
in order to this to take so much, pains. Comp. L % 

80. With how long a breast^ Sfc."] Such a length is his chest, or 
forepart, as to fill the dish, so as to seem to stretch its size. 

ji lobster.'] Squilla. — It is hardly possible to say, with pre« 

ckion, what fish is here meant . Mr. translates it — a stur. 
geon, and says, in his note, ^' The authors, whom I have the op. 
^^portunity to consult, are not agreed what fish is meant : I have 
<<, translate it a stuigeon, I confess at random, but it may serve as 
<^ well." See Trans, of Drtden, and others. 

AiNswoRTH calls it a lobster without legs. 

Hon. lib. ii. sat. viii. 413. seems to use sqnBlas for prawns or 

Afiertar KpnUaa inter miinnia natantes 
lo patiftft j»orrecta. 

In a large dish an out-itretch'd lamprey liies* 

>Vith ahrisps all floating rotoid. Fbavcis. 

Periiaps what we call a shiimp, or prawn, may be the pinno« 
tbttZj or^ittuophylax, of Pz;iN. ill. 42. — the squilla parva. The 
shrimp h a sort of lobster m miniature ; and if we understand the 
word parva to distinguish it from th<riG^ which is simply called 

Digitized by 



17(1 JtlVENAtXS SAflrtRJJ. 8A*t. 

Qme fertur domiiid, s^nUlk ; et cj^lkM ulidique septa 

Afi|parflgi9, qaif^ dcspiciaf cotivttriii: edudft, 

Cum venk excdw muiiitaiit snblaia flfliinistri. 

Sed' tibi dnnidio<€oa9li«et!U8 C^anuiftttM oMd- 

Ponitur, exigu^ feralis coena patelT^. 85 

Ipse; VeBi^aiio' ftmBO^ peifiiiidit : at hk^ qui 
Pallidus oiFertur misers tibi caulk^ olebk 
LatBmsnni; illudremm venlris daCur riveoUs^ quod 
Canna Micipsamm piidi4 subve?fcit aeutiL ; 
Propter quod Riomn oum Boccteare nemo laviitiir ; 90 

Quod tutos etiam facif a netf^SAhiiB Afros; 

MuUua eritidomiiiaf qttem-misitCorncay.vel qtiem 

squills^ tbe I^ter ntay pmbiULj slgntiy a l^bitSlr, piUtionlarty here^ 
from whfit isiVeiBarkcd of the lailc(|; 83.) wMtli'is the miost ddidou^ 

81. A^pmtt^is.^. Asparagii^ phiA may Iiere> dettot^ tlte jrduiig^ 
sbcmt^- or bi)^ of: Yavlon9-faerb8k-*^Sc» AivsW: Aspairagusf^* No: % 

With theaa-'it wan perhaps usual to- gcumish^ their dishes; 
. 8S. fVUhvOuU Or. foifi^ <^] Whaifr a nobkrtaSt he display^-^^^idi 
what cootbnpt docBr< he soem* to look- doim upon file rest' of the 
banquet; when lifted on high, by a tall slave^ oyer the heais* of the 
guerts, in onlor to be plasced on the tables 

84. AcrahJ] Cammaras*^^ sovtt of «, called also Oam- 
mras-*« very viltt food^ as we maj inoagine byits bein^' opposed to 
the delioioas^sqoiHaf whosh was set before the'inaster of tile feast 

SkfwHci] I thinJc Ifailyday Vrendef4tig'o# cooMrictus near« 

est the sea«ie of the wxyrd,. which lif. sigiklfier straitefted^^^nanrow. — 
CraFfafi, if kept lonf^ out of water, will wttfile and' shrink u)) 'in the 
shell, and when boiiedwUDbe half filU' of Water; so Ibbsters, as 
every day?» experieoce erinces. 

Farnaby explains it by seaaiphieims^^hatfilidl^ or spent^ as be 
calls< tt^ whiek eoitveys the* same> idea. 

Thisf sense alsocontraste thn fisk widf the plottiptiess of the fore- 
going* Comp. 1. 80--«^« 

With half an egg."] To^ mk iiHtk it wken yon eat it-^Mi 

poor alloivaace.- Manyeonstt'ae txMistrictii^ i« tte sense of' paratas 
— -ooctus — Gonditniiy^aiid' the like^-i^Vi/» dressed or seasoned* with 
half an egg. 

'85» Fimerai stipper^ S^c"] TherRomadS^vseiAtopbce, in asnall 
dish on the sepulchres of the dead, to appease their manesj nuBki ' 
honey, water, wine, flowers, a Tery lift^ of each; wkidi dmun- 
stances, of the smaJlness of the dish and of the quantify^ seem to 
be the reason of this allusioff« 

Altitle plaiter.^ Patella is itself a tlhnf&iititeefpat^a; hut 

the poet, to make the matter the more eontemplible, adds eBU^ea* 

Ihis is a contrast to the lancem, 1. 80;v^which fii0ufiee-a gifirt 
broad plate— ^ deep, dish to serre meat up io^ 

86, He.J Vircoj the master of the.feaf tr 

Digitized by 


To the master, distetkis the dish^ and nvith nrhat aspuhigQi) 

On all sides surrounded ; with Avbat a tail he can look do^ii M 

the banquet. 
When he cotnes borne aloft by the hands of a tall servant. 
£ut to you is set a shrunk crab, with half an eggy 
A funeral supper in a little platter. ^ 

11 -J He besmears his fish with Vctiafran (oil)-^btit this 
^^^Bale tabbage, ^hich is brought to miserable J6\k, tVill stAHiti 
Of a lamp, for that is given for Jrour saucferd, which 
A canoe of the Micips^ brought over in its sharp protir. 
For which reason, nobody at Rome bathes with a Bdcchaf, §0 
Which also makes the Africans safe from serp^ts. 

A mullet will be for the master, which Corsica sent^ at which 

8G. Fenafran aH."] Yenafrum was a city of Campatiia. fanious 
fdr the best oil. Hoa. Kb. ii. od* vi. l. 15, 16. 

87. Fak cdbbiige.J Sickly looking^ as if it Was half witHerfcd. 

88. Your saucers,] Alyeolus signifies any wooden vessel ttiada 
fidllbw — ^hfere It may be HhdfcMtooaof Wooden trays, of saticeH, in 
which the oil was brought, which was i6 be poUreld oh f li^ cabbslgi^. 
' B9. A danot.'] Cailna-^^ ittcrtl Vessfcl niade 6f the (iaitej or krge 
reed ; which grew to a great size and height, and which Wa^ a prlA^ 
dpal materia! iil btiildiilg tfife African cancNss. 

-'-'•'-^ MiR^sat.'\ It seeifas to hat^ Been a gt^ii^l li^e grfen io iH 
the Nnmidians, from Micipsa, one of fhefr ItJtigg. These Wei^ a 
bsttbttt-oii* j)eopfe drf tH<^ i^hdi-'e of Afrfca^ liea-t Algiers, fronl whence 
came the oil which the Romati^ tis^ ih tttdr laihpk. 

-^^ Sknrp ptoie.] AHn^tigtb th^ sha^fe bf the AMtkH <iaii6es, 
Whfeh Were veiy «harp>.healed. 

90. Bocchar,'] Or Bocchor--^ Mauritanian nam6, Biif hd^^, pf o- 
hMfj faf any African. This was the name df Ode bf thfehr kitigs, 
aad bttM the ^tet takes otctt^oil td nieritiOB Hj i^ if he said, that 
^< the Ntitfiidiaiis and Moorsj ^ho aii6ittted thenii^efTes with this dl, 
" stunk so c^tfcesfefvcly, fhat rioBwffy at Rome Wduid go Inter £hd 
<' same batft With one df tberit; no, fhdii^ it werc^ kln^ BoCehar 

01. St^from setpeHts.'] Sdhdrntf M fhesiirtll bf theife Afndaiiirf, 
fifett, in their o#h country;, their scrp^ttt* ifbii\A liot cottfcJ near 
ffiMrt. ^^ What tKM' likni^t ybti e&diirb, \tt hating this sade dil to 
^^ pour on your cabbage, while you have the mortificatioit of sdehr^ 
^vtMi^pa^Oii ^6ak His Mi M\t\i the fiifer and sweei oil of Vena. 
<^ Mritt !^I shottid think thinr atidthet utstanc^f of that ^dif of hte^U 
^ fc^tit, wMch shdtild abate your rag^ of bifag invited td the taffile 
•^ df A greae man." 

9i. AmMef.'i Sfeefsat iv. l4, aiid note. 

The master.'] Virro, the master of the feasi 

— ^ — Corsica sent,] Which came from Corsica, an island fat the 
Mediterranean, famous perhaps for this sort of fish. 
TOii. I. K 

Digitized by 



Taurominitanae rupes, quando omne pei^ctum est, 
Et j|am cTefecit nostrum mare ; dum gula saevit, 
Retibus assiduis penitus scnitante macello 95 

Proxima ; nee patitnr Tyrrhenum crescere piscem : 
Instruit ergo focum provincia : sumitur illinc 
Quod captator emat Lenas, Aurelia vendat. 
Virroni^urana datur, quae maxima venit 
Gurgite de Siculo : nam dum se continet Auster, 100 

Dum sedet, et siccat madidas in carcere peunas, 
Conteixmunt mediam temeraria Una Charybdim. 
Vos anguilla manet, longae cognata colubrae, 
Aut glacie aspersus maculis Tiberinus, et ipse 
Vemula ripanmij pinguis torrente cl^^, 105 

9S. TaurominHinian rocks J] On the sea-coast, near Tauromi. 
niam, in Sicily* 

Our sea is exhausted^ S^cJ] Such is the luxury and gluttony 

of the great, that there is now no more fine fish to be caught at 

94. While the appetite^ 6(c.'] While gluttony is at such an height, 
as not to be satisfied without such dainties. 

95. The market,'] The market-people, who deal in fish, and who 
•upply great tables. 

fnth assiduous netSj SfcJ\ Are incessantly fishing in the 

n^ghbonring seas, upon our own coasts, leaving no part unsearched, 
that they may supply the market* 

96. A Tyrrhene Jish.'] The Tyrrhene sea was that part of th« 
Mediterranean which washes the southern parts of Italy. 

So greedy were the Roman nobility of delicate fish, and they 
were caught in such numbers, that they were not sufiered to grow to 
their proper size. 

97. Therefore a pravincey Sfc] They were forced, therefore, to 
go to the coasts of some of the foreign provinces, which were sub- 
ject to the Romans, in order to catch such fish as they wanted for 
the kitchens of the nobles. Comp. sat. ir. 66, aqd note. 

From theneeS] From some of the foreign coasts. 

98. What the zeheedler Lenasy Sfc,"] Some famous captator, or 
legacy-hunter, one of the people called haeredipetae, who courted 
and made presents to the rich and childless, in hopes to become their 
heirs : they also took care to buy whatever was rare and curious 
for this purpose. 

'—Aurelia seU,"] This may probably be the name of some fa- 
mous dealer in fine fish. The commentators suppose also, that this 
might hare been the name of some rich childless widow, who had 
so many presents of fine fish, that she could not dispose of them 
to her own use, and therefore sold them, that they might not be 
spoiled and thrown away. 

99. To Virro a lamprejf is given^] i. e. Is given him to eatr-& 
set before him at table. 

Digitized by 



The Taurominitinian rocks, since all our sea is exhausted. 
And now has failed : while the appetite rages, 
llie market, with assiduous nets, is searching thoroughly 95 
The neighbouring (seas,) nor suffers a Tyrrhene fish to grow : 
Therefore a province furnishes the kitchen ; from thence is taken 
What the wheedler Lenas might buy, Anrelia sell. 

To Virro a lamprey is given, the lai^est that came 
From the Sicilian gulph : for while the south contains itself, 100 
While it rests, and in its prison dries its wet wings, 
The rash nets despise the middle of Charybdis. 
An eel remains for you, a relation of a long snake ; 
Or a Tiberine sprinkled with spots by the ice, and that [l05 
An attendant of the banks^ fat with the rushing conunon-sewer, 

100. The Sidlian guJph.'] That part of the sea which formed the 
Straits of Sicily, which, at times, ivas most formidable and danger^ 
ous, especially with a strong wind from the south. But, by what 
follows, 1. 102. the dreadful whirlpool of Charybdis seems to be 
meant; where, in fine weather, the fishermen would venture to go, 
and fish for lampreys. 

101. // restsJ] Refrains from blowing — is perfectly quiet. 
In itspfison^ SfcJ] Alluding to Virg. JEn. i. 1. 58-^8. 

— — Vasto rex .£olas antro 
Luctantes ventos tempestatesque sonoras, ■ 

Iiuperio premk, ac vinc'lis et carcerc fnenat. 

Its wet tnngs.'] It was usually attended with heavy rains 

aud storms. 

102. The rash nets."] Lina — see sat. iv. 1. 45. Lina here means 
the persons who use the nets — ^the fishermen. Meton. — ^They 
would, in calm weather, despise the danger of Charybdis itself, in 
order to catch the fish which lay within it, so good a market were 
they sure to haye for what they caught. Charybdis was a dangerous 
whirlpool in the Straits of Sicily, near the coast of Taurominium, 
OTer against Scylla, a dreadful rock. See Virg. Mn, iii. 414 — 32. 

103. An eely SfcJ] Thd contrast between Virro's fine lamprey, 
and Trebius's filthy eel, is well im.agined. 

Relation of a long snakei\ Perhaps we are to understand 

the ed and snako to appear as related, from the likeness of their 
form. Some have supposed, that eels and water-snakes will engen- 
der together. 

104. A Tiberine,'] Tiberinus, i. e. piscis — a pike^ or some other 
fish, out of the river Tiber. 

Unde datum sentis, Lupus hie Tiberinus—- 

&c. . HoR. lib, ii. sat. ii. 1. 31. 

Some common, coarse, and ordinary fish is here meant, which^ 
in the Winter.time, when the Tiber was frozen, contracted spots, 
perhaps from some disorder to which it might be liable — this was 
reckoned the worst sort of pike. 

105. An attendant^ ^-c] Vemul^t^-lit. signifies a little bond. 


Digitized by 



£t solitus mediae ciTPtam penetrare Subume* 

Ipsi pauca velim^ iacilem si praebeat auretn : 
Nemo petity modicis qu% mittebantur amieis 
A Senecft ; quae^Piso bonus, quae Cotta solebat 
Largiri : mmiqtie et titulis, et iascibus olim 110 

Major habebatur donandi gloria : solum 
PoscimuSy ut coenes civiliter : hoc fiice, et esto, 
Esto (ut nunc multi) dives tibi, pauper amicis. 

Auseris ante ipsum magni jecur, anseribus par 
Altilis, et ilavi dignus ferro Meleagri IIS 

Fimiat aper : post himc raduntur tubera, si ver 

Blare, or scrrant. Hence tltis fish is so called, from lis constant at» 
tendance on the banks of the river, in some of the holes of which it 
was nsuallj fotiiid. 

105. Faij Sfc."] From this circnmstance, one would be inclined to 
think ihat a pike is here meant, which is a roracious, fonl-feeding 
fish. Juvenal, to carry on his description of the treatment which 
Trebios must expect at a great man's table, adds this circumstance— 
that the fish set before Trebius would be a pike, that of the worst 
sort, and fatted with the filthy contents of (he commoo-sewer, into 
which the ordure and nastiness of the city were conveyed, and which 
ran under (he Suburra, down to the Tiber, and there emptied itself 
into the river, 

106. Acautomed to penetrate^ S^cJ] This fish is supposed to enter 
the nouCh of the drain, that it might meet the filth in its way, and 
feed upon it. For Subnrra — see sat. iii. 5. 

107. To kimseff^ ^c] To Virro the master of the feast. Ipsi 
pauca velim — ^Kke Ter. And. act I. sc. i. 1. 2. pauois te volo — a 
word with you. Colmak. 

109. Seneca.ll L. Anuseus Seneca, the tutor of Nero ; he was 
Tery rich, and very munificent towards his poor clients. See sat x. 
1^. where Juvenal styles him pra?dfves — very rich. 

Piso."] L. Calphurnins Piso, one of the Calplumjan family 

descended from 'Numa; he lived in the thne of Claudius, and was 
famous for his liberality. Hon. Ar. Poet 291^ 2. addressing the 
l^sones, says— Vos O Pompilius sanguis. 

Cotta.'] Aurelius Cotta^ another numficent character in the 

time of Nero. 

110. Titles and offices^ <^c.] High titles of nobility, or Oieeii. 
signs of magistracy. See sat. iii» 12S, note. 

1 12. That you would sup civilly,'] Civiliter — courteously— with 
150 much good manners towards your poor friends, as not to afiront 
and distress them, by 4ihe difference you make between them and 
yoursdf when you invite them to sapper. 

Do this.] Consult the rules of civility, and then jfii^ wiU 

accommodate yourself to the condition of youj: gnesls» 

113. Be^ as many now are, Sfc] When you sof) alone, then^ tt 
maay are, be — dives tibi^ h a. fane as exf^eosiveiy. and a% suttplu- 

Digitized by 



And accustomed to penetrate the drain* of the Suburra. [ear : 
1 would say a few words to himself^ if he would lend an easy 
Nobody seeks^ what were sent to his mean friends 
By Seneca ; what good Piso^ what Cotta used 
To bestow : for, than both titles and offices, formerly, 1 10 

Greater 'was the glory of giving esteemed : only 
We ask that you would sup civilly : do this, and be, 
Be (as many now are) rich to yourself, poor to yom* friends. 
Before himself (is placed) the liver of a great goose ; equal to 
A cranuned fowl, and, worthy the spear of yellow Meleager, 115 
Smokes a boar : after him truffles are scraped, if then 

ously as you please; spare no expense to gratify yourself. But 
when you inyite your poor friends, then fare as they do : if you 
treat them as poor and mean, so treat yourseJf, that you and they 
may be upon ijie same footing — thus be pauper amicis. 

q, d. This is all we ask ; we don't require of you the munificence 
of Seneca, Piso, Cotta, or any of those great and generous patrons, 
y^ho esteemed a serrice done, or a kindness bestowed, on tl^r poor 
friends, beyond the glory of titles of nobility, or of high offices hi 
the state ; this, perhaps, might be going too far — therefore, we die* 
sire no more, than that, when you inyite us, you would treat us' d« 
villy at least, if not sumptuously ; fare as we fare, and we shadl be' 

This Kttle apostrophe to Virro contains a humourous, and, at tite 
same time, a sharp reproof of the want of generosity, and of the 
indignity with which the rich and great treated their poorer friends. 

1 14. Before himself,'] u c Before Virro himself. 

The liver,, S^c] This was reckoned a great dainty ; and hi 

order to increase the size of the liver, they fatted the goose with 
figs, mixed up with water, wine, and honey ; of this a sort of pastie 
was made, with which they crammed them until the liver grew to a 
very large size. See Pebs. ti. 1. 71. Hon. lib. ii. sat. viil. 1. W. 
and Mart, epigr. Iviii. lib. xiii. 

Aspice quam tameat magno jecur aiuere majus. 

115. A crammed fowW] Altilis — ^from alo^ere — fatted, te^^ 
crammed. Probably a fat capoi^is here meant, which grows to a 
large size : Juvenal says here, equal in size to geese«-par anseribus^ 

YeUovo^ ^-c] Yellow-haired. — ^See AiNSw.-^The story oi 


Golden-haired. Holyday. — ^See Virg. iEn. iv. 6m. Hon. 
Ub. ifi. 6d. \X. L 19. lib. iv. od. iv. 1. 4. 

116. Smokes a boar.'] See sat. i. 140, I. 

After him^ ^c] The next dish, which comes after the boar, 

is composed of truffles — tuber signifies a puff, oi what we call a 
toadstool, itom tnmeo, to swell — but it* seems to denote mushrooms,^ 
trufles, and other fungous plants, which are produced from the' 
eartbi Taberd terrde. sat; xiv. T. 

N 3 

Digitized by 


18« JUVENALIS SATIRiE. .sat. t. 

Tunc erit, et facient optata tonitrua coenas 

M ajores ; tibi habe fi umentuniy AUedius inquit, 

O Libya, disjuiige boves, dum tubera mittas. 

Structorem interea^ ne qua iudignatio desity .120 

Sfdtantem spectes^ et chironomonta volanti 

Cultello^ donee peragat dictata magistri 

Omnia ; nee minimo sane discrimine refert. 

Quo gestu lepores, et quo gallina seeetur. 

DucSris planti^ velut ictus ab Hereule Caeus, 125 

£t pon^re foris, si quid tentaveris unquam 

Hiscere, tanquam habeas tiia nomina. Quando propinat 

Virro tibi, sumitque tuis contacta labellis * 

Poeula ? quis vestriim temerarius usque adeo^ quis 

Here some understand truffles, others mushrooms; Txrhich last, 
rainy and Jthundering. springs produce in abundance, and therefore 
-were desired. But the same weather may also have the same effect 
on truffles, which are a sort of subterraneous mushroom, and so on 
all fungous excrescences of the earth. Plin. xix. 

117—18. Make suppers greater. "^ By a plentiful addition of 

118. AUedius.'] Some famous glutton. — ^Rome was supplied with 
great quantities of corn from Libya, a part of Africa, which bor- 
ders upon ^gypt; "and, it should seem," (says Mr. Brown,) 
^' with mushrooms too." See Dryoen's Jut. note on this place. 
However^ from the circumstance of their being brought from Libya 
to Rome, I should apprehend that species of '' under-ground edible 
^^ mushrooms" (as Bradley calls truffles) to be meant here, which 
grow best in dry chapped grounds, and will bear to be carried a 
great way, and to be kept a considerable time without being spoiled. 
— This is not the case with that species of tuber which is called bo- 
letus, or mushroom ; they remain good but a little while, either 
growing or gathered. Hence, upon the whole, and from the cir. 
cumstanc^ of the word raduntur, 1. 116. which may imply the scrap- 
ing, or shaying off, the outward thick bark, or rind, which is pecu- 
liar to truffles, these ^re most probably meant in this passage. See 
Chambers. Truffle. 

119. Unyoke your oxen A Disjungc — ^^lit. disjoin them. q. d. 
Plough and sow no more, that there may be the more land for truf- 
fles to grow. A fine speech for an epicure. 

120. The carver.'] Structor signifies a purveyor of victuals, a ca- . 
tercr ; alsp a server, who setteth the meat upon the table — ^also a 
carver of meat : — this last seems to be meant here, and he is sup- 
posed to do it with some *ntiq gestures, somethujg like capering or 

121. Flourishing.] Chirpnomon-ontis (from x"^, manus, and yo/Ao;« 
lex) signifies one that sheweth nimble motions with his hands— hence 
l^hironomia, a kind of gesture with the hands, either in dancing, or 
lU earring meat. Ainsw. Chironomonta is from the ace. sing. (Gr< 

Digitized by 



It be springy and wished-for thunders make suppers 
Greater : — ^* Have thy corn to thyself," says Alledius, 
^* O Libya, unyoke your oxen, while you will send truffles." 
Mean while the carver, lest any indignation be wanting; 120 
You will behold dancing, and flourishing with a nimble 
Kmfe, till he can finish all the dictates of his 
Master ; nor indeed is it a matter of the least concern, 
With what gesture hares, and with what a hen should be cut. 
You will be dragged by the foot, as the stricken Cacus by Her- 
cules, 125 
And put out of doors, if you ever attempt 
To mutter, as if you had three names. — When does Virro 
Drink to you, and take the cup touched by your 
lips ? which of you is rash enough, who so 

X»^i>o/A&yT») of the participle of the verb ;^Et;oyo/jifw— manus ceria Iefi;e 
motito— concinnos gestus edo>— gesticulor. 

q. d. That nothing may be wanting to mortify and vex yon, yon 
not only see all these fine things brought to table, bat you will be a 
spectator of the festivity, art, and nimbleness, with which the carver 
does his office, till he has exhilnted all that he has learned of his mas- , 
ter in the art of carving. See the next note^ ad fin. Dictata — Sec 


123. Nor indeed is it a matter^ ^fc.] It is now by no means reck- 
oned an indifferent matter, or of small concern, in what manner, or 
with what gesture, a hare or a fowl is cut up; this, as well as gluttony 
itself, b become a sciehce. This was so much the case, that we find 
people taking great pains to learn it under a master. See sat. xi. 
1. 136 — 41. 

126 — 7. If you ever attempt to mutter.'] Hiscere — so much as to 
open your mouth, as it were, to speak upon the occaslouj as be- 
traying any dislike. 

127. Three names."] t. e. As if you were a man of quality. The 
great men at Rome were distinguished by the pnenomen, nomen, 
and cognomen, as Gains Cornelius Scipio — ^Caius Marcus Coriohu 
; nus, and the like. 

If you were to take upon you, like a nobleman, to complain or 
find fault with all this, you would be dragged with your heels fore- 
most, and turned out of doors, as the robber Cacus was by Hercu- 
les. See ViRG. ^n. viii. 219 — 65. 

127- — 8, When does Virro drink to you.] The poet, having parti- 
calarized instances of contempt, which were put upon the poorer 
guests, such as4iaving bad meat and drink set before them, &c« here 
mentions the neglectful treatment which they meet with. 

q. d. '* Does Virro ever drink your health^'-'^r '^ does he ever 
<^ take the cup out of your hand in order to pledge you, after it has 
^^ once touched your lips ?''--r-By this we may observe, that drink-, 
jng to one anodier is very ancient. 

l?9. Is rash enough^ ^cJ] After all the pains which you take ta 

N 4 

Digitized by 


1^ jyVKNALIS SATIRE m^t^y. 

PerdituS) ut dic9t regi/ bibe Jf Plurima sunt quae 130 

: Non audent hoinines pertu&a dicere Isen^. 
Quad^iqgent^ tibi si quis Deus, aut similis Dis, 
jEt melior fetia, doomret ; hoI^^nciay quantus 
f X nihilo fieriss ! quantus Virronis amicus ! 
Da TrebiOy pone adi TifelNum : vis, frater, ab istis 135 

Jlibus ? O J^ummiy vobi^ banc i^raestat honorem ; 
Vo^ e^tis fr^tres. Qomimis t^mea^ et domini r^ 
Si vis tu fi^eri^ uuUus tibi parvulus ^vlk 
jLuserit £neas, nee filia dulcior illo. 
Jucundum et carum steolis facit uxor amiciim. ^40 

Sed, t^a n^ii^c Micale pariat licet, et pueros tres 
In gremium patxis fundat simul ; ipse loquaoi 
Gaudebit nido ;. viri^em tboraca jubebit 
^fFerri^ niimiQasque ^^Qea, assenique rogatum, 

be inyited to great tables, is there one of you M^ho dares venture to 

open his mouth tfi the gr^t nian, so much as to say-^^^ drink"— as 

if you ha4 soiqq fopiyiarity with him? M we should say-^^^ put 

^' the bottle a,bput." 

. 130. Jii^gmai mm-'] Regi-^-§ee before, 1. 14. 

, 13^ Pmr hun^r^d- se^terHa.'] A knight's estate. See sat i. 

}. 106, and note. 

. 19^ ^B^f^rfh^nthft/atp^J] i. tf. Better a^d kinder than the fates 

have Wtt. to you, in. maJi;iog you so poor. 

- — 7- P^QK mQrtaf.^ Hopiimoio means a poor sorry £cUow — such 
>f as Tr^bius m his. prof^ st^te, : 

. 134. Fror9, nPiMng^ 4c«*] The poet here satirizes the Tonality 
and profligate meanness of such people as Virro, whose insolence 
|ind, contempt towards their poor clients, he has giTen us so many 
striking ei^mples of. Se^e h^ shews the change of conduct towards 
them, which would be created immediately, if one of them should 
liappeu, to become rich. 

135* Giv^ tQ. TreMusy ^c] Then, says he, if you. were inTited to 
#np witkYiriFO, iiQtbing would be thought too good-r-you would be 
offered eyery choicest dainty upon the table, and the serrants would 
)}e ord^ed to set it before, you. 

. 136. Of th^ei d0iniifisi\ Hiar-r-Iitii signifies entrails, or bowds— 
of which some ^ery choice, and dainty dishes were made; as of the 
goose's liver, and the like— -see 1. 1 14. Ha would ia the most kind 
jkuum^ cs^l ^ou pother, an4 i^tite you to taste of the most delicate 

— ■: — , Q ricke$i 4<^0 A natuKsl exdaraajtiou on the occasion, by 
which he giyes understand) that aJL this attention, was not 
paid io him oa his oifx^ sipconnt;^ but solely qhl that, of his money. 
See sat, u 1, 11%, 3. 

137. 1& av^ ftrc/Affift.] Y% O ye four hundred sestertia, are tho 
friends and brethren of Virro, to whom be pays his court Whon 
))«.ealled Trej^us brother, (1. 19&.) he really meant ^oi|. 

Digitized by 


U!^ t- *UVBNAL»R SATIRES. 185 

Desperate, as to ssiy to llie greal vMin—drink? Many diiogs 
there are, ISq 

Which men in a torn ooat dase not say. 

If to you four liumdr^ (soslertifiL) any god, or one Uice the gods. 
And better than the fates, should pnesent ; poor mortal, how great 
From nothing would you beooone ! hqw gfeat a friend of Virro ! 
« Give to Trebi^is— set before Toehias :*^woukl yo* have^ bro- 
ther, some 135 
** Of those dainties ?" — Q riches 1 he g^es this honour to you — 
Ye are brethren. But if a lord, and sovereign of a lord 
You would become, in your hall no little 
^neas must play, nor a daughter sweeter than he. 
A barren wife makes a pleasant and dear friend. 140 

But tho' your Micale should bring forth, and should pour 
Three boys together into the bosom of their father, he in the prat- 
Nest will rejoice ; he'll command a green stomacher 
To be brought^ and small nuts, and the asked-for penny, 

137. And sovereign of a lord^ S^c,"] If you would be in a situa^ 
^on, not only of domineering over poor clients, but even over the 
lords of those clients — ^you must be childless, you must have neither 
son nor daughter to inherit your estate. 

138. In your holly Sfc.'] See IMdo's words to -ZEneas. Virg. 
;En. iv. 1. 328, 9. 

Si quis mihi parvulos autt 
Luserit .£aeas. 

Which Jnvenai applies on this occasion very humourously. 

140. A barren wife^ «^c.] While a wife remains without child, 
bearing, so tiiat there is no. ostensible heir to the estate, the husband 
will not want for people who will pay their court to him, and pro- 
fess themselves his friends, in hopes of ingratiating themselves, so far 
as to be made his heirs. 

141. BtU tho* your Micale.'] The name of Trebius's wi£e. 

q, d. But suppose it to happen otherwise, and your wife should 
not only have children, but bring you three at a birth — still as you 
are rich, they'll pay their court to you, by fondling your little ones. 
He, Virro (imself, (ipse,) will pretend to rejoice in your young fa-, 
mily^r-^nido—- a raetaj^orical expression, taken from a brood of 
young birds in a iiest, 

143. A green stomacher, ] Viridem thoraca — ^lit. breastplate. — 
What this^ was, cannot easily be determined, but it was, doubtless, 
some ornament which children were pleased with. 

144. Small nutsJ] Nuces — lit. signifies nuts : but here it de. 
notes little balls of iyory, and round pebbles, which were the usual 
playthings of children ; and which to ingratiate themselves with the 
parents, such mercenary persons as had a design upon their fortunes 
used to make presents of. See Hon. lib. ii. sat. iii. L 171, 2. 
j^B^NCis' note; and Peas. sat. i. 1. 10... 

Digitized by 



Ad mensam quoties parasitus venerit infkns. 145 

Vilibus ancipites fungi ponentur amicis^ 
Boletus domino ; sed qualem Claudius edit^ 
Ante ilium uxoris^ post quern nihil amplius edit. 
Virro sibiy et reliquis Virronibus ilia jubebit 
Poma dariy quorum solo pascaris odore ; 150 

Qualia perpetuus Phaeacum autumnus habebat ; 
Credere quae possis surrepta sororibus Afris. 
Tu scabie frueris mali, quod in aggere rodit 
Qui fegitur parrn^ et galesi ; metuensque flagelli 
Discit ab hirsuto jaculum torquere CapeM. 155 

144. 7%^ asJced^for jienny.] The as was about three farthings 
of our money. We are to suppose the little ones, children-like, to 
ask Virro for a small piece of money to buy fruit, cakes, &c. which 
he immediately gives them. 

145. As often as^ <5^c.] Virro not only goes to see the children, ' 
but inyltes them to his table, where they never come but they wheedle 
and coax him, in order to get what they want of him. Hence the 
poet says — ^Parasitus infans. 

146. Doubtful funguses.'] There are seyeral species of the mush, 
room-kind, some of which are poisonous, and it is sometimes diffi- 
cult to distinguish them, therefore the eater cannot be certain that 
he is safe — hence JuTenal says, ancipites fungi. 

It is to be obserTcd, that the poet, after his digression on the mean 
Tenality of such people as Virro, (who wonld pay their court to 
those whom they now use with the utmost conteolpt, if by any ac- 
cident they became rich,) now returns to. his main subject, which was 
to particularize those instances of ill. treatment which the dependents 
on great men experienced at their tables, in order to dissuade Tre- 
bius from his present servile pursuits. 

' 147, A mushroom.] Boletus signifies a mushroom of the whole- 
some and best sort. 

But such as^ Sfc] They were not only of the best sort, but 

the best of that sort ; such as regaled the emperor Claudius, before 
the fatal catastrophe after mentioned. 

148. That of his wife,] Agrippina, the mother of Nero, and sis- 
ter to Caligula, the wife of Claudius, who succeeded Caligula in the 
empire, destroyed her husband, by mixing poison in a mushroom 
which she gave him to eat. 

149. The rest of the Virros.] i, e. The rest of the great men at 
his table, who, like Virro, were yery rich, and of course much re- 
spected by him. 

150. Apples*] Poma is a general name for fruits of all kinds 
which grow on trees, as apples, pears, cherries, &c. and signifies, 
here, some of the most delicious fruits imaginable^-— which poor Tre- 
bius was to be regaled with nothing but the smell of at Virro's 

151. Phceacians,] A people of the island of Corfu, or Corcyr% 

Digitized by 



E • 

.As often as the infant-pai*asite comes to his table. 145 

Doubtful funguses are put to mean friends^ ' 

A mushroom to the lord; but such as Claudius ate 
Before that of his wife, after which he ate nothing more. 

Virro will order to himself, and the rest of the Virros, tliose 
Apples to be given, with the odour alone of which you may be 
fed, 150 

Such as the perpetual autumn of the Phseacians had ; 
Which you might believe to be stolen from the African sisters. 
You will enjoy the scab of an apple, wliich in a trench he gnaws 
AVho is covered with a shield and helmet, and, fearing the whip, 
Licarns from the rough Capella to throw a dart. 155 

in the Ionian sea, where there was feigned to be a perpetual au- 
tumn, abounding with the choicest fruits. 

152. The-Afncan sisters.'] Meaning the Hesperides, £g1e, He- 
.retusa, Hespcrtusa, the three daughters of Hesperus, brother of 

Atlas, king of Mauritania, who are feigned to have had orchards in 
Africa, which produced golden fruit, kept by a watchful dragon, 
which Hercules slew, and obtained the prize. 

153. The scuh of an apple.'] While Virro and his rich guests 
have before them fruits of the most fragrant and beautiful kinds, 
you, Trebius, and such as you, will be to enjoy scabby, specky, 
rotten apples, and such other fruit as a poor half-starred soldier in 
a fortress, who is glad of any thing he can gety is forced to take up 

1 54. Fearing the whip,] Being under severe discipline. 

155. Learns — to throw j Sfc] Is training for arms, and learning to 
throw the javelin. 

From the rough Capella.] This was probably the name of 

some centurion, or other oflScer, who, like our adjutant or serjeant, 
taught the young recruits their exercise, and stood over them with a 
twig or young shoot of a vine, (which flagellum sometimes signifies, 
see AiNsw.) and with which they corrected them if they did amiss. 
See sat. viii. 1. 247, 8, and note. 

The epithet hirsute, here, may intimate the appearance of this 
centurion, either from his dress, or from his person. As to the first, 
we may observe, that the soldiers wore a sort of hair-cloth, or rough 
garment, made of goat's hair. — Virgil, G. iii. Sll-r— 13. says, that 
the shepherds shaved the beards of the he-goats for the service of 
the camps, and for coverings of mariners : 

Nee minus interea barbas, incanaque menta 
Cyniphii tondent liirci, setasque comantes, 
Usum in castrorum, et miseris velamina nautis. 

Usum in castrorum — ^may mean, here, coverings for the tents, but 
also (as Ruseus observes) hair cloths fqr the soldiers garments, as 
well as for those of mariners. 

The roughpess of his person must appear from the hairiness of its 
appearance — ^from the beard which he wore, fropa the neglected hair 

Digitized by 


1S8 JDVENALIS SATIRi!^. »at. ▼. 

Forsitan impensae Virronem parcere credas : 
Hoc agit, ut doleas : nam quae conacedia — ^mimus 
Quis melior plorante gul& ? ergo omnia fiunt, 
Si nescisy nt per lachrymas efFundere bilem 
Cogaris, pressoque diu stridere molari. l60 

Tu tibi liber homo, et regis conviva'videris ; 
Captum te nidpre suae putat ille culinae : 
Kec male conjectat : quis enim tarn nudus^ ut iUum 
Bis feraty Hetruscum puero si eontigit aurum, 
Vel nodus tantum, et signum de paupere loro ? l65 

Spes bene coenandi vos decipit: ecce dabit jam 
Semesum leporem, atque aliquid de clunibus) apri ; 
Ad nos jam veniet minor altilis : inde parato, 

of his head, and, in short, from the general hairiness of his whole 
body. See sat. ii. 1. 11, 12. and sat. xIy. 1. 194, $. 

Sed caput intactum buxo, naresque pilosas 
Annotet, et grander miretur Lslius alas. 

This passage of JuTenal has been the occasion of yarions conjec- 
tures among commentators, which the reader may find in Holyday's 
note, who himself seems to have adopted the least probable. The 
reading hirsuto Cape! la as the name and description of some person^ 
appears to me, as it does to Marshal and others, the most simple and 

156. Perhaps you may think.'] The poet, with much archness, 
and, at the same time, with due scTerity, concludes this Satire by 
setting the behaviour of the patron, as well as that of the parasite, 
in its true light, and, from thence, endeavours to shame Trebius out 
of his mean submission to the indignities which he has to expect, if 
he pursues his plan of attending the tables of the great. A useful 
lesson is to be drawn from hence by all who affect an intimacy with 
their superiors, and who, rather than not have the reputation of 
it, submit to the most insolent treatment; not seeing that every 
affront which they are forced to endure is only an earnest of still 

Virro spares^ 6;c,'] Perhaps you will set all this down to a 

principle of parsimony in the great man, and that, to save expense, 
Virro.lets you fare so ill — ^but you are mistaken. 

157. He does (hisj Sfc."] All this is done, (ergo omnia fiunt, 
1. 158.) first to vex you, and then to laugh at you. 

For what comedy^ Sfc] There can be no higher comedy, or 

any buffoon or jester (mimus) more laughable, than a disappointed 
glutton (gula, lit. throat) bemoaning himself (plorante) with tears 
of anger and resentment at such ill fare, and gnashing and grating 
his teeth together, having nothing to put between them to keep 
them asunder. — This, if you know it not already^ I pow tell you, 
to be the motive of Virro^s treatment of you, when he senda for 
you to sup Mith him. 

Digitized by 



Perhaps you may think Virro spares expense : 
He does this that you may grieve : for what comedy— what 
Mimic is better, than deploring gluttony f therefore all is done. 
If you know not, that by tears to pour forth vexation [160 

You may be compelI*d, and long to creek with a press'd grinder. 

You seem to yourself a free man, avid a guest of the great 
He thinks you are taken with the smell of his kitchen, 
Nor does he guess badly : for who so naked, that would 
Bear him twice if the Etruscan gold befel him when a boy, 
Or the nodus only, and the mark from the poor strap ? l65 

The hope of supping well deceives you : " Lo— riiDW he will give 
" An half-eatea hare, or something from the buttocks of a boar: 
" To us will now come the lesser fat fowl " — ^then with prepared, 

161. A free man^ 4*^.] A gentleman at large — ?& we say-«-«nd 
think that you are a fit guest for a rich man's table, and that, as 
such, Virro invites you. 

162. He thinks^ ^c] He knows you well enough, to suppose 
that you have no other view in coming but to gormandize, and that 
therefore the scent of his kitchen alone is what brings you to his 
house : in this he does not guess amiss, for this is certainly the case. 
Nidor signifies the savour of any thing roasted or burnt. 

163. For who so naked^ 4*^*] So destitute of all things, as after 
once being so used, would submit to it a second time ? This plainly 
indicates your mean and sordid motives for coming. 

164. If the Etruscan goldj Sfc.'] The golden boss, or bulla, 
brought in among the Romans by the Etrarians, was permitted, at 
first, only to the children of nobles: afterwards to all free-bom. 
It was an ornament, made in the shape of an heart, and worn before 
the breast, to prompt them to the study of wisdom — ^they left it off 
at the age of sixteen. See sat xiii. 1. 33. 

165. 7%e nodus onfy."] A bulla or boss of leather, a sign or note 
of freemen, worn by tiie poorer sort of children, and suspended at 
the breast hy a leathern thong. 

The meaning of I. 164, 5. seems to be, that no man, one should 
think, could bear such treatment a second time, whatever sitaation 
of life he himself might be in, whether of a noble, or of a freed- 
man's family. 

166. The hope of suppmg weU deceives J] Your love of gluttony 
gets the better of your reflection, and deceives you into a notion, 
that however ill-treated you may have been before, this will not 
happen again. 

'' Lo — now he TBiUgroe^ Sfc."] This is supposed to be their 

reasoning upon the matter. 

167. An half^eaien hare,"] " Now*% say they, " we shall have 
*^ set before us what Virro leaves of a hare — or part of the haunches 
*^ of a wild boar.'' 

168* The lesser fat fowl.'] A fat hm or pullet— called minor al- 

Digitized by 


19a JUVENALIS SATIRiE: sjur.r. 

Intactoque omnes, et stricto pane tacetis» 

Ille sapit^ qui te sic utitur: omnia feri^ 170 

Si potes, et debes ; pukandum vertice raso 

Praebebi« quandoque caput, nee dura timebis 

Flagra pati, his epulis, et tali dignus amico. 

tills, as distlDguishing these smaller damties from the larger, such as 
geese, &c. 

168. nen with prepared^ Sfc/] Then, with bread ready before 
yOu — which remains untouched, as you reserve it to eat with the 
expected dainties, and ready cut asunder into slices, or, asjsome, 
ready drawn out — metaph. from the drawing a sword to be ready 
against an attack. 

169. Ve are silent,'] You wait in patient expectation of the good 
things which you imagine are coming to you. 

170. He is wise J 4*c.] Mean while, Virro does wisely; he treats 

Digitized by 



And untouched^ and cut breads ye are silent. 

He is wise who uses you thus : all things, if you can, 170 

You also ought to bear : with a shaven crown you will some time 

Offer your head to be beat, nor will you fear hard 

Lashes to endure, worthy these feasts^ and such a friend. 

yoQ yery rightly, by sending none of his dainties to yonr part of 
the table ; for if yon can bear such usage 'repeatedly, you certunly 
deserve to bear it. 

171. With a shaven crowny Sfc/] q. d. You will soon be more 
abject still ; like slayes, whose heads are sharen, in token of their 
serrile condition, you will submit t(^ a broken head; you'll not 
mind an hearty flogging. 

173. Worthy these feasts^ SfcJ] Thus you will pfOTC yourself 
deserving of such scurvy fare as you are insulted with at Virro's 
table, and of just lueh a patron 8is Virro to give it you. 


Digitized by 




ms Saii^e k itdmMi ivdke thi ieHg^ of iin§ tf ih^ rest^ Und is u 
bitter iuvective against the fair sex. Tkb iUdies of A&fk& itr€ 
her9 represented iH A tery shodc^g Ughi. T%e Poet iak9$ oc^ 

Credo pudicitiam SattlfHt) ttp Itiorit^Wi 

In terrisy visamque diu ; cum frigida parvas 

Praeberet spelunca domos^ ignemque, Laremqtte, 

£t pecusy et dominos communi clauderet umbr& : 

Silvestrem montsdia torum cum sterneret uxor 5 

Frondibus et culmo, vicinarumque feraram 

Pellibus : haudnmills tibi, Cynthia^ nee tibi^ cujus 

Turbavit nitidos extinctus passer ocellos : 

Sed potanda ferens infantibus ubera magnis, 

Et saepe horridior glandem ructante marito. 20 

Quippe aliter tunc orbe novo, coeloque recenti 

Vivebant homines ; qui rupto robore nati, 

Compositique hilo auUod hftbuere ^ftf entes. 

Multa pudicitiae veteris vestigia forsan. 

Line 1. Saturn,'] The son of Coelum and Vesta. Under his reiga^ 
in Italy, the poets place the Golden Age, when the earth, not forced 
by plough or harrow, afforded all sorts of grain and fruit, the whole 
world was common, and without indosure. 

2. Was seen long,'] During the whole of the Golden Age, 

3. Tlie household god,] Lar signifies a god, whose image was 
kept within the house, and set in the chimney, or on the hearth, 
and was supposed to preside over and protect the house and land. 

5, The mountain^mfe,'] Living in dens and caves of the moun. 

7. Cifnthia,] Mistress to the poet Propertius, 

7—- 8. Nor thee whose bright eyes^ ^c] Meamng Lesbia, mis- 
tress to Catullus, who wrote an elegy on de death of her sparrow^ 
The poet mentions these ladles in contrast with the simpficity of life 
and manners in ancient times. 

9. Her great children,] According to Hesiod, in the Golden A^e, 
men were accounted infants, and under the care of their mother, till 
near an hundred years old. Potanda well suifai this idea^ for si&<:k 
Slight rather be Md to AMk> Hum to sttck 

Digitized by 




(Marion to persuade his friend Ursidtus Postkumus ffvm tnOT" 
riagej ai ike expense of the whole sex. See Mr. Dhyden^s 

I BELIEVE that chastity, in the reign of Saturn, dwelt 

Upon earth, and was seen long : when a cold den afforded 

Small habitations, and fire, and the household-god. 

And inclosed the cattle, and their masters, in one common shelter : 

When the mountain-wife would make her rural bed 

With leaves and straw, and with the skins of the neighbourii^ 5 

Wild beasts : not like thee, Cynthia, nor thee, whose bright 

Eyes a dead sparrow made foul (with weeping :) 

But carrying her dugs to be drunk by her great children, 

And often more rough than her husband belching the acora. 10 

For then, in the new orb of earth, and recent heaven. 

Men lived qtherwise — ^who, bom from a bursten oak, 

And composed out of cUy, had no parents. 

Perhaps many traces of chastity remained, r 

10. Belching the adorn.'] The first race of men were supposed to [/ 
kaTe fed on acorns ; a windy kind of food. 

So D&TDXir : 

" And £it with acorns bdch'd their windy food." 

11. Recent heaven.'] Ccelum liere means the air, firmament, or 
: atmosphere. ' 

12. From a bursten oak.] Antiquity beliered men to hare come 
forth from trees. So Virg. JEn. viii. 315. 

Gensqoe vir^ tmncis et dnro robore nata. 

The notion came from their inhabiting the trunks of large trees, and 
thence they were said to be bom of them. 

13. And composed out of clagf.] Or mud— by Prometheus, tiie 
>n of Japetns, one of the Titans. See Ainsw. Frometheiu. 
So this poet, sat. xiv. 35. 

£t meUoie luto finxit proeotdia Titsn' 

I sat iy. 133, and note. 

TOL. I. 

Digitized by 



Aut aliqua extiterant, et sub JoVe, sed Jove nondum 15 

Barbato, nondum Gnecis jurare paratis 
Per caput alterius : cum nirem nemo timeret 
Caulibus, aut pomis^ sed aperto vrveret horto. 
Paulatim deinde ad superos Astraea recessit 
H^c cotnite . atque duaa pariter lug^re sorores. 20 

/Antiquumet vetus est alienum^ Posthume, lectum 
/Concuterey atque sacri Genium contSnnere fulcri. 
(Onme aliud crimen mox ferrea protnlit astas : 
Viderunt primos argentea saecula moechos. 
Conventum tamen, et pactum, et sponsalia, nostri £6 

Tempestate paras ; Jamque a tonsore magtstro 
Pecteris^ et digito pigmis fortasde dedisti. 
Certe sanus eras : uxorem, Posthum'e, ducb ? 
Dicy qua Tisiphpne, quibus exagitare colubris-? 
Ferre potes dominam salvis tot restibus lillam ? 30 

\ Cum pateant altse, caligantesque fenestrse f 
Cum tibi vicinum se piSbeat iGmilius pons I 

15. .Under Jupiter ^ ^c] When Jove had driyen his father &itam 
into banishment, the SiWer Age began,* according to' the poets. 
JbYe Was the supposed son of Saturn and Ops. 

16. Bearded.^ The most innocent part of the Silver Age was be- 
fore Jove had. a beard ; for when* bnce down grew upon his chin, 
what pranks he played with the fenlale sex are w6il known : iron 
bars and locks could not hold against his golden kej^. See Hok. 
lib. ill. ode xvi. 1 — 8. 

17. By the head of another.'] The Greeks introduced forms of 
swearing, not only by Jupiter, who was therefok« cdlled O^xto;, hot 
by other gods, and by men, by themselves, their own heads, &(V 
Like Ascanius, ^n. ix. 300. 

Per caput hoc juro, per quod pater ante solebat. 

18. Lived with an open garden,'] They had no need of indosures 
to secure theii' fruits from thieves. 

10. Astrcea.] The goddess ofju&di^, who, with many other dei- 
ties, lived on earth in' the Golden' Age, but, being ofiended with 
men's vices, she retired to the skies, and was translated into the sign 
Tirgo, next to Libra, who hold^ her balance. SeeOv.-%et. lib. i. 
. 1. 150. ...... ... 1 .-. . r. > 

%• The two sisters,] jjutice and Chastity. 

32. Genius.] Signifies a good or evil^ daemon, attending each 
man or woman, at every time and place ; hence, \o watcft over the 
marriage bed, and to preserve it, or punish the violation of ft. 

-« Of the sacred prop.] Fulcrum not oiiiy dentbtcs tfee prop 

which supports a bed, (i. e. the bedstead, as we call it,) but,' by sy« 
nee. the couch or bed itself. i- • . 

^ The poet is here describing the anti^uitj of the sin of adult^, or 
vioUtion of the marriage bed* 

Digitized by 



Or some, even under Jupiter, but Jupiter not as yet 15 

Bearded ; the Greeks not as yet prepared to swear 
By the head of another : when nobody feared a thief 
For hb herbs, or apples, but lived with an open garden. 
Then, by little and little, Astraea retired to the gods, 
With this her companion, and the two sisters iled away toge- 
ther. 20 
It b an old ancient practice, O Posthumus, to violate the bed 
Of another, and to despise the genius of the sacred prop. 
Every other crime the Iron Age presently brought m. 
The Silver Age saw the first adulterers. 

Yet a meeting, and a contract, and espousals, in our 25 

Time you prepare : and already by a master barber 
You are combed :. and perhaps have given the pledge to the filler. 
You certainly was once sound (of mind.) Do you, Posthumus, 

marry ? 
Say, by what Tlsiphone, by what snakes are you agitated ? 
Can you bear any mistress, when so many halters are safe ? 90 
When so many high and dizzening windows are open ? 
When the ^milian bridge presents itself near you i 

2S— 4. The Iron Age — the Silver AgeS] Of these, see Ovid. Met. 
lib. i. fab. iV. and v. 

^. Yet^ Sfc,'] Here Juvenal begins to expostulate with his friend 
Ursidios Posthumus on his intention to marry. You, says he, in 
these oar days of profligacy, are preparing a meeting of friends,, a 
marriage-contract, and espousals. The word sponsalia sometimes 
denotes presents to the bride. 

26. By a master barber.'] You have your hair dressed in the 
sprucest manner, to make yourself agreeable to your sweetheart 

27. Pledge to the finger J\ The wedding-ring — ^this custom is very 
ancient. — See Chambers — ^Tit. Ring. 

28. Once sound (off mind).'\ You were once in your senses, be- 
fore you took marriage into your head. 

29. What TisifhoneJ] She was supposed to be one of the fa. 
ries, with snakes upon her head instead of hair, and to urge and ir- 
ritate men to furious actions. 

30. Any mistress,'] A wife to domineer and govern. 

r- So many halters are sf^e^] Are left unused, and therefore 

readily to be come at, and you might so easily hang yourself out of 
the way. 

31. Dizzening roindtyws,] Altae, caligantesque--^'. e. so high as to 
make one's head dizzy by looking down from them. Caligo-inis 
signifies sometimes dizziness. See Ainsw. 

The poet insinuates, that his friend might dispatch himself by 
throwing himself out at window. 

32. JEmi^an bridge.]. Built over the Tiber by Emilias Scau- 
ms, about a mile from Rome. ' 


Digitized by 



^Aut si de multis nuUus placet exitus ; illud 
t , Nonne putas melius, quod tecum pusib dormit ? 
^ '«^^- , Pusio qui noctu non litigat : exigit a te 35 

i Nulla jacens illic munuscula, nee queritur quod 
i^t lateri parcas, nee, quantum jussit, anheles, 

ded placet Ursidio lex Julia : tollere dulcem 

Cogitat hsredem, cariturus tufture magno, 

Mullorumque jul^is, et captatore macello. ^40 

Quid fieri non posse putes, si jungitur ulla 

Ursidio ? si moechorum notissimus olim 

Stulta maritali jam porrigit ora capi8ti;o^ 
^Quem toties texit periturum cista Cajini i 

Quid, quod et anti^uis uxor de moribus ilti 46 

Quseritur ? O medici mediam pertundite venam : 

Delicias hominis ! Targg}um limen adora 

Promts, et auratam Junoni caede juvencam. 

Si tibi contigerit capitis matrona pudici. 
jPaucae adeo Cereris'vittas contingere dignaej 50 

Quarum nod timeat pater oscula. Necte coronam 

Postibus, et densos per limioa tende corymbos. 

Ursidius might throw himself orer this, and drown himself in the 

34 — 7» In these foar lines oar poet is carried, by his rage against 
the Ticious females of his daj, into an argument which ill suits with 
his rectitude of thought, and which had better be obscured by de- 
cent paraphrase, than explained by literal translation. See sat ii. 
I. 12, note. 

38. The Julian law.'] Against adultery. Yid. sat. ii. 37. 
Ursidios delights himself to think that, if he marries, theJf ulian law 

will protect the chastity of his wife. 

39. An heir.'] To his fortune and estate. 

About to want, Sfc] Now, at a time of life to be courted, 

as a single man, he'll have no presents of fish, and other dainties, 
from people who wish to ingratiate themselves with him, in hopes 
of being his hdrs. (Comp. sat. y. 1. 136 — 140.) This was very usual, 
and the people who did it were called captatores. See sat. x. 
1. 202.— AiNsw. Turtur. 

40. Inveigling market-plaee.] Macellum-*the market-place for 
fish and other provisions, which were purchased by these flatterers 
to make presents of to those they wished to inveigle ; and this seems 
to be the reason of the word captatore being placed as an epithet to 
macdlo in this line. 

42. Onoe the most noted of adulterers^.] From this it appears that 
Juvenal's friend, Ursidius, had been a man of very profligate cluu 
racter, a thorough debauchee, as we ssty^ 

43. Now reach, S(c.] A metaphor, taken from beasts'" of bur- 
den, who quietly reach forth their heads to the bridle or halter. 

Digitized by 



Or ify of so mstnyy no ^e death pleases yoU;, do not you 
Think it hetter to live as you now dof 

With those who have no nightly quarrels with you, 35 

Who exact no presents^ nor complain that 
You don't comply with all their unreasonable desires f 
But the Julian law pleases Ursidius^ he thinks 
To bring up a sweet heir, about to want a lai^e turtle fish. 
And the crests of mullets, and the inveigling market-place. 40 
What think you mi^. not come to pass, if any woman 
Be joined to Ursidius ? If he, once the most noted of adulterers. 
Now reach his foolish head to the marriage headstall, 
^ Whom, so often, ready to perish, the chest of Latinus has con- 
cealed ? 
What (shall we say beside ?) — ^that a wife of ancient morals too 45 
Is sought by him-^O physicians, open the middle vein ! 
Delightful man ! adore the Tarpeian threshold 
Prone, and slay for Juno a gilded heifer. 
If a matron of chaste life fall to your share. 
There are so few worthy to touch the fillets of Ceres, 50 

Whose kisses a father would not fear. Weave a crown 
For your gates, and spread thick ivy over your threshold. 

44. Chest of Laiinus,'] The comcdiau Latinus played upon th% 
stage the gallant to an adulteress, who, being in the utmost danger, 
upon the unexpected return of her husband, she locked him up in a 
chest ; a part, it seems, that had been often realized by Ursidius ia 
bis younger days. 

45. What.'] Sat. iu. 1. 147, note. 

Tliai a wife, Sfc.'] q. d. This we may say, that, moreover, 

he is mad enough to expect a chaste wife. 

46. The middle vein.'] It was usual to bleed mad people in what 
was called the vena media-— or middle vein of the arm. PertunditQ 
— ^Iit.'bore through. 

Juvenal is for having Ursidius treated like a madman, not only 
for intending to marry, but especially for thinking that he could find 
any woman of ancient and chaste morals. 

47- The Tarpeian threshold.] The Capitoline hill, where there 
was a temple of Jupiter, was also called the Tarpeian hill, on account 
of Tarpeia, a vestsd virgin, who was there killed, and buried by the 

48. For Juno a gilded heifer.] Juno was esteeihed the patroness 
of marriage, and the avenger of adultery. Farnab. See ^n. iv. 59. 
To her was sacrificed an heifer with gilded horns. 

60. To touchHhe fillets of Ceres.] The priestesses of Ceres wera 
only to be of chaste matrons ; their heads were bound with fillets, 
and none but chaste women were to assist at her feasts. 

51. fVhose kisses, Sfc] So lewd and debauched were the Roman 
women, that it was hardly safe for their own fathers to kiss them. 

*- — fVeave a crowny Sfc] Upon wedding-days the common peo« 

o 3 . 

Digitized by 


108 JUVENALIS SATIRiE. sat.ti. 

Unus Iberinae vir sufficit ? ocyus illud 

E&torquebisy ut haec oculo contenta sit uno. 

Magna tamen fama est cujusdam rure pateroo 55 

Viventis : vivat Gabiis, ut vixit in agro ; 

Vivat Fidenis^ et s^llo cedo patemo. 

Quis tamen aifirmarnil actum in montibus, aut in 

Speluncis ? adeo senu,^nt Jupiter et Mars ? 

Porticibusne dbi monstratur foemina voto 60 

Pigna tub ? cuneis an habent spectacula totis 
^Quod securus imies^ quodque inde excerpere possis i 
fChironoinon Ledam moUi saltante BatjUo, 

Tuccia vesicas non imperat : Appula gannit 
. Sicut in amplexu : subitum et miserabile; Iq ngum 65 

Attendit Thymele ; '1 tiymele tunc rustica discitr 

ATsf atiaiPltr^deTaulsea recondita cessant^ 

Et vacuo clausoque^sonant fora sola theatro^ 

Atque a plebeis longe Megalesia; tristes 
4^ Personam^ thyrsumv^ tenent^'^et subligar Acct. 70 

pie crowned their doors and door-po^ts with ivy-boughs ; but persons 
of fortune made use of laurel, and built scaffolds in the streets for peo- 
ple to see the nuptial solemnity. See L 78. 

53. Does one man suffice for Iberina .*] i . e. For the woman you 
are going to marry. 

56. Gabii,'] A town of the Volscians, about ten miles from 

67. Fidenm.l A city of Italy. 

The poet means — ^< Let this innocent girl, who has such a reputa* 
tion for living chastly in the country, be carried to some town, as 
Gabii, where there is a c<Tncdurse of people, or to Fidense, which is 
still more populous, and if she withstands the temptations which she 
meets with there, then, says he, agello cedo paterno-«->I grant what 
you say about her chastity, while at her father's house in the coun- 

59. Are Jupiter and Mars^ ^c] Juvenal alludes io the amours 
of these gods, as Jupiter with Leda, &c. Mars with Venus, the wife 
of Vulcan, «&c. and hereby insinuates that, even in the most remote si^ 
tuatidns, and by the most extraordinary and unlikely means, women 
might be unchaste. 

60. In the Porticos."] These were a sort of piazza, covered over 
to defend people 'from the weather, in some of whidi the ladies of 
Rome used to meet for walking'-*as ours in the Park, or in other 
public walks. 

61. T7ie spectitdes.J Spectacula — ^the theatres, and o&er public 
places for shews and games* 

63. When the soft Bathyllus^ ^c] This was some famous dancer, 
'Who represented the character and story of Leda embraced by Ju« 
piter in the shape of a swan — ^in this Bathyllus exhibited such la« 

Digitized by 



Does one man soffice for Iberina ? you will sooner that 

Extort, that she should be content with one eye. 

But there is great fame of a certain (girl) living at her father's 55 

Country house : let her live at Gabii as she lived in the country; 

Let her live at Fidenae, and I yield the father's country seat. 

But who affirms that nothing is done in mountains, or in 

Dens ? Are Jupiter and Mars grown so old ? 

Is there a woman shewn to you in the Poiticos worthy 60 

Your wish ? have the spectacles, in all the benches, 

That which you might love securely, and what you might pick 

out from thence ? 
When the soft Bathyllus dances the nimble Leda, 
Tuccia can't contain herself: Appula whines 
As if embraced : the quick, the languishing, Thymele 65 

Long abends ; then the rustic Thymele learns. 
!But others, as soon as the lock'd-up curtsuns cease, 
And the courts alone sound, the theatre being empty andshutpp> 
And the Megalesian games, long from the Plebeian, sad 
They possess the mask, or thyrsus, and sash of Accius. 70 

sdvioos gestures as were very pleasing to the country ladies her« 
mentioned. Chironomon — see sat. v. 121^ and note. 

65 — 6. Thymele long attends.'] Thymele pays the utmost and un. 
wearied attention to the dances, as well to the quicker motions, as 
to the languishing expressions of distress. 

66. LearnsJ\ Becomes acquainted with all this, and practises 

67. The lock'd^p curtains, Sfc.'] Auteum— a piece of hanging, 
or curtain, as in the theatre. It may stand here for all the oma. 
ments of the theatre, which were taken down and laid aside when 
the season came for the theatres to be shut up. 

68. T%e courts alone sound,'] The courts of justice with the plead- 
ings of the lawyers. 

69. The Megalesian games^ 8fc.'] The M^alesian games were 
instituted by Junius Brutus, in honour of Cybele, tjie mother of 
the gods.. The Plebeian games were instituted either in remembrance 
of the people's liberty, upon the expulsion of their kings, or for the 
reconciliation of the people after secession to mount Aventine. Se^ 
sat iii. 163, and note. The Megalesian were celebrated in April, 
the Plebeian at the latter end of November : so that there was a long 
disUnce of time between them. 

70. Possess the mask, Sfc] During this long vication from pub- 
lic entertainments, these ladies divert themselves with acting plays, 
dressing themselves in the garb of the actors. See Pryden. . 

The thyrsus.] A spear twisted about with ivy, and proper to 

Bacchus, used by actors when they personated him. 

The sash.] Subligar— a sort of clothing which the actors 

used to cover the lower parts of the body. 

— Acdus,] The name of some famous tragedian. 


Digitized by 



I Urbicus exodio risum movet At^anae 

i Gestibus Autonoes ; hunc diligit £lia pauper. 

I Solvitur his magno comoedi fibula. Sunt, quae 

I Chrysogonum cantare vetent. Hispulla tragoedo 

iGaudet : an expectas^ ut Quintilianus ametiu ? 75 

Accipis us^oreniy de qu^ cithanBdus Echion 

Aut Glagjiyrus fiat pater^ Ambrosiusve choraules* 

Longa per ai^stos figamus pulpita vicos ; ^ 

Omentur postes, et grandi janua laoro, 

Ut te9tudineo tibi^ Lentule, conopeo 80 

71. Urbicus.^ Some famous comedian or buffoon. 

Excites laughter,^ i. e. While he represents, in a ridiculous 

manner, the part of Autonoe, in some interlude written on the sub- 
ject of her story, in the Atelian style ; the drift of which was to turn 
serious matters into jest, in order to make the spectators laugh. — 
Something like what we call burlesque. 

Inierlude.l Exodio. See sat. iii. 1. 174, and note. 

72. Atelian.'} This species of interlude was called Atelian, from 
Atella, a city of the Osci, where it was first invented. It was a kind 
of liatin drama, full of jokes, bsmters, and merriments, (see Ainsw.) 
the origin whereof may be seen in Lit. lib. tU. c. % See also Ant. 
Univ. Hist, toI. xii. p. 34, note /. 

AutonQe*'] Autonoe was the daughter of Cadmus, and mo^. 

ther of Actaeon, who was turned into a stag, and eaten by his own 
hounds. There was an exordium, or farce, on this subject, in which, 
it may be supposed, that Autonoe was a principal character, proba* 
bly the chief subject of the piece. 

Poor JtUa^ 8fcJ] Some woman of the ^Han family which 

had fallen into decay and poverty. 

73. The button of the comedian.'] The fibula here denotes a cir. 
cle of brass, put on the young singers, so as to prevent commerce 
with women, which was reckoned to spoil their voice. The lewd 
women, here spoken of, were at a great expense to get this impedi- 
ment taken off, that they might be intimate widi these youths. See 
1. 378, note. 

74. fVill forbid Chrysogonus.'] This was a famous singer, of 
whom the ladies were so fond, as to spoil hi^ voice with their cares« 
ses, so that they hindered his singing. 

Hispulia.'] Some great lady, famous for her lewdness with 

players, of which she was very fond. 

75. Quintilian,'] A grave rhetorician, bom at Calignris, in 
Spain ; he taught rhetoric at Rome, and was tutor to Juvenal, The 
meaning is— can it be expected, that any Virtuous, grave, and sober 
man^ can be admired, when the women are so fond of singers, play- 
ers, and such low and profligate people ? 

76. Vou take a wife^ ^fc] The drift of this satire is to prejudice 
Ursidius, Juvenal's friend, so much against the women, as to make 
him afraid to renture on marriage. Here the poet intimates, that, 

Digitized by 



Urbicus excites laughter in an interlude by the gestures 

Of Atellan Autonoe ; poor JElia loves him. 

The button of the comedian is loosen'd for these at a great price. 

TTiere are, who 
Will forbid Chrysogontis to sing. HispuUa rejoices 
In a tragedian : do you expect that Quintilian can be loved? 75 
You take a wife, by whom the harper Echion, 
Or Glaphyrus, will become a father ; or Ambrosius the piper. 
Let us fix long stages thro' the narrow streets, 
Let the posts be adorned, and the gate with the grand laurel, 
That to thee, O Lentulua, in his vaulted canopy, 8Q 

if Ursidias should take a wife, she will probably be gotten with 
child by some of the mnsidans. 

78. Lei usjixy S^c,'] See before, 1. 52, and note. 

SO. VauUed canopy J] Testudineo conopeo. Testudineus — ^from 
testudo, signifies-— of, belonging to, or like a tortoise, vaulted : for 
snch is the form of tiie upper shell. 

Conopeum, from xAm»|/, a gnat. A canopy, or curtain, that hangs 
about beds, and is made of net-work, to keep away iiies and gnats 
— an umbrella, a pavilion, a tester over a bed; which, from the 
epithet testudineo, we must suppose to be in a vaulted form. 

But, probably, here we are to understand by conopeo the whole 
bed, synec. which, as the manner was among great people, such as 
Ursidius appears to have been, had the posts and props inlaid with 
ivory and tortoise-shell; so that, by testudineo, we are rather tp 
uqderstand the ornaments, than the form. 

That the Romans inlaid their beds, or couches, with tortoise-shell, 
appears — sat. xL I. 94, 5. 

Qualis in oceani iloctu testudo natarat, 
Clamm TVojugenis factura ac nobUe fuicrom. 

This more immediately refers to the beds, or couches, on which 
they lay at meals ; but, if these were so ornamented, it is reasonable 
to suppose, by testudineo conopeo, we are to understand, that they 
extended their expense and luxury to the beds on which they slept ; 
therefore, that this noble infant was laid in a magnificent bed — this 
heightens the irony of the nford nobilis, as it the more strongly 
marks the difference between the apparent and real quality of the 
child ; which, bv the sumptuous bed, would seem the offspring of 
the noble Ursidius, whereas, in fact, it would be the bastard of a 
gladiator. Comp. 1. 89. which shews, that the beds, or cradles, iu 
which they laid their children, were richly 6mament^. 

To theey O Lentulus.'] The sense is — ^thkt if Ursidias should 

marry, and have a son, which is laid in a magnificent cradle, as the 
heir of a great family, after all, it will turn out to be begotten by 
some gladiator, such as Euryalus, and bear his likeness. — ^He calls 
Ursidius by the name of Lentulus, who was a famous fencer, inti- 
mating that, like the children of Lentulus, Uraidius's children 

Digitized by 


«)2 JUVENALIS SATIRE. «at. w. 

Nobilis Eurjalum mirmHionem exprimat infans. 

Nupta senator! comitata est Hippia ludium 
Ad Pharon et Nilum, famosaque moenia I&gi, 
Prodigia et mores urbis damnante. Canopoi 
Immemor ilia domiisy et conjugis^ atque sororis^ Sd 

Nil patriae indulsit ; plorantesque improba gnatos, 
Utque magis stupeas, ludos^ Paridemque reliquit. 
Sed quanquam' in magnis opibus, plum^que patemi, 
£t segmentatis dormisset parvula cunis, 

Contempsit pelagus ; famam contenopserat olim, 90 

Cujus apud molles minima est jactura cathedras : 
Tyrrhenos igitur fluctus, lateque sonantem^ 
Pertulit Ionium^ constant! pectore, quamvis 
Mutandum toties esset mare. Justa pericli 
Si ratio est^ et honesta^ timent ; pavidoque gelantiir 9^ 

Pectore^ nee tremulis possunt insistere plantis : 
Fortem animum praestant rebus, quas tnrpiter audent. 
Si jubeat conjux, diffiim est conscendere. navem ; 
Tunc sentina gravis ; tunc summus vertitur aer. 

would hare a gladiator for their father. Exprimat — pourtray — re- 

Y'SS. Hippia,'] Was the wife of Fabricius Veiento, a man of se* 
natorial dignity in the time of Domitian. See sat. iii. 1 85. sat* It. 
113. — ^She left her husband, and went away with Sergius, the gla- 
diator, into .£gypt. 

83. Pharos.'] A small island at the month of the Nile, wheri 
there was a lighthouse to guide the ships in the night. 

Famtnis.] Famosa, infamous, as we speak, for^all manner 

of luxury and debauchery. 

— ^ — Lagus,] t. e. Alexandria ; so called from Ptolemy, the son 
of Lagus, who succeeded Alexandria, from which son of Lagus 
came die kingdom of Lagidae, which was overthrown, after many 
years, on the death of Cleopatra. 

84. Canopus condemning,] Even the city of Canopus, bad as it 
was, condemned, as prodigious and unusual, the manners of the ci- 
tizens at Rome* 

87. The games^ and Paris.] As if leaving her husbahd, children, 
&c. were not so extraordinary as leaving the theatres, and Paris, a 
handsome young actor, who was probably no small favourite of • 
hers. This is a fine stroke of the poet, and exhibits a strong idea 
of the profligacy of such a woman's mind. 

88. In great riches.] In the midst of a profusion of wealth. 
Paternal down.] FInma signifies a small or soft feather — so, 

what we call down. — ^The poet is here describing the tender, as well 
as costly manner, in which Hippia was brought up from a child; 
and, among other particulars, he here alludes tojhe soft and downy 
bed on which she used to lie at her father's house. Notwithstanding 
which, when the gratification of her lust was in question, she could 

Digitized by 



The noble Jnfant may express the sword-player Bur^alus. 
Hippia, married to a senator, accompany*d a gladiator 
To Pharos and the Nile, and the famous walls of Lagus^ 
Canopus condemnmg the prodigies and manners of the city. 
She, unmindful of her &mily, of her husband, of her sister, 85 
Indulged not (a thought) to her country, and, wicked, her weep^ 

ing children 
Left, and, to astonish you the more, the games, and Paris. 
But tho' in great riches, and paternal down. 
And, when a little one, she had slept in an embroider'd cradle, 
She despised the sea : she had long ago contemnM her cha- 
racter, 90 
The loss of which, is the least of all things, among fine ladies : 
The Tyrrhene waves therefore, and the widely-sounding 
Ionian she bore, with a constant mind, altho' 
The sea was so often to be changed. If there be a just 
And honest cause of danger, they fear ; and are frozen with ti- 
morous 95 
Breast, nor can they stand on their trembling feet : [venture. 
They shew a dauntless mind in things that th^ shamefully ad- 
If the husband command, it is hard to go aboard a Bliip ; 
Then the sink of the ship is burthensome — then the top air is 
turned round. 

not only forget all this, but bid defiance to the boisterous sea, and 
contemn ail its dangers and inconveDiences. 

91. Among fine lodiesT^ MoUes cathedras — ^literally soft or easy 
chairs, in which the fine ladies used to be carried — a sort of covered 
sedan. Here used xnetonymically, for the ladies themselves. See 
sat. i. ^b. — Or by cathedras, here, may be meant the stratae cathe- 
drae, or soft chairs, or couches, on which the fine ladies reposed 
themselves. Meton. for the ladies. See sat. ix. 52, and note. 

92. Th& Tyrrhene wa/oesy ^c.] The mare Tyrrhenum means that 
part of the Mediterranean sea which washes the southern part of 

Tke Ionian."] Ionia was a country of Asi^ the Lesser, so 

called along the coast of the Archipelago ; the sea which washed 
thb coast was called Ionium mare — the Ionian sea. 

93. fViih a constant mind.'] Was quite firm in the midst of all 
the dangers which she underwent, and unmoved at the raging of the 

94. The sea was so often to be changed.] i. e. She was to sail 
over so many different seas between Rome and JEgy^t 

9T. hi things thaty Sfc] Juvenal here lashes the sex very se- 
verely : he represents women as bold and daring in the pursuits of 
their vic«k^timorotts and fearful of every thing where duty calls 
them. See sat. viii. 165. 

99. 7%e sink, Sfc] Sentina-— the hold or part of the ship where 

Digitized by 


504 JUVENALIS SATIRE. iat. ri. 

Quae moechum sequitur^ stomacho valet : ilia maritum 100 

Convomit : haec inter nautas et prandet^ et errat 

Per puppim^ et duros gaudet tractare rudentes.. 

Qu^ tamen exarsit form^ ? qu& capta juvent^ 

Hippia ? Quid vidit, propter quod ludia dici 

Sustinuit? nam Sergjolus jam radere |uttur 105 

Coeperat, et secto requiem sperare lacerto. 

Praeterea multa in facie deformia ; sicut 

Attritus gaiety raediisque in naribus ingens 

Gibbus, et acre malum semper stillantis ocelli. 

Sed gladiator erat ; facit hoc illos Hyacinthos : 1 10 

Hoc puerisy patriaeque^ hoc praetulit illa sorori, 

Atque viro : ferrum est, quod am^nt : hie Sergiu9 idem 

■ Accep t^ rude coepisset Veiento videri. 
i (cjuid privata domus, quid fecerit Hippia^curas i 
I Respice ri vales Divorun^ : Clai^dius audi 113 

I Quse tulerit ; dormire virum cum senserat uxor^ 

the pump is fij^ed^ and where the bulge*water gathers together and 

99. The top mr, Sfc.'] Summus aer — ^the sky seems to run round 
over her head, and makes her giddy. All this can be complained 
of, as well as sea-sickness, and its effects, if with her hnsband : birt 
if with a gallant, nothing of this is thought of. 

103. She onjfire, 4'c.] But let us consider a little the object of 
this lady's amorous, fl^e — ^what sort of person it was that she was 
60 violently fond of. 

104. To be called an actress,'] Ludia — ^properly signifies an ac^ 
tress, or woman wh^ dances, or the like, upon the stage : it seems 
the feminine of ludins, wh?ch signifies a stage*player, or dancer, 
sword-player, Sec. — Ludia, here, is used by Juvenal, as denoting a 
stage-player's wife — which, Hippia, by going away with Sergias the 
gladiator, subjected herself to be taken for. 

105. Sergy,"] Sergiolns — ^the diminutiTe of Sergius, is used here 
in derision and contempt, as satirizing her fondness for such a fel- 
low, whom probably she might wantonly call her little Sergius, when 
in an amorous mood. 

To shave his throat,] i. e. Under hb chin. The young 

men used to keep their beards till the age of twenty-one; then they 
were shaved. Here the poet means, that Sergius was an old fellow ; 
and when he says — " he had already begun to shave" — ^he is to be 
understood ironically, not as meaning Hterally that Sergius now first 
begun this, but as having done it a great many years before. 

106. Jlest to Jus cut arm,] He had been crippled in one of his 
arms, by cuts received in prize-fighting, which could not add much 
to the beauty of his figure. 

107. Deformities in his face.'] The poet in this, and the two folw 
lowing lines, sets forth the paramour of this lady in a roost for*, 
bidding light, as to his person, the better to satirize the taste of the 

Digitized by 


ti.f.Yi. JUVENAL^S SATIRES- '205 

She that follows an adulterer, is well at her stomach : she be- 
spews 1CX> 

Her husband : this dines among the sailors^ and m anderd 
About the ship, and delights to handle the hard cables. 
But with what a form was she on fire ? with what youth was 
Hippia taken ? — ^What did she see, for the sake of which to be 

called an actress 
She endured ? for Sergy to shave his throat already had 105 
Begun, and to hope for rest to his cut arm. 
Beside many deformities in his face ; as, galled 
With his helmet, and in the midst of his nostrils a great 
Wen, and the sharp evil of his ever-dropping eye. 
But he was a gladiator, this makes them Hyacinths. 1 10^ 

This she preferr'd to her children, her country, her sister, [gius. 
And her husband : it is the sword they love : but this very Ser- 
The wand accepted, had begun to seem Veiento. 
Care you what a private family, what Hippia has done ? 
Consider the rivals of the gods: hear what things 115 

Claudius has suffered : the wife, when she had perceived her 
husband asleep, 

women towards stage performers ; ba if their being on the stage was 
a sufficient recommendation to the favoar of the sex, however for. 
bidding their appearance might otherwise be. 

107 — S. Galled with his helmet,"] Which, by often rubbing and 
wearing the skin off his forehead, had left a scarred and disagreeable 

108. Midst of his nostrils^ Sfc,"] Some large tumour, from re- 
peated blows on the part. 

109. TJie sharp evily Sfe,"] A sharp humour, which was conti. 
nuaUj distilling from his eyes — ^blear-eyed, as we call it — which 
frett^ and disfigured the skin of the face. 

110. Hyacinths,'] Hyacinthus was a beautiful boy, beloved by 
Apollo and Zephyrus : he was killed by a quoit, and changed into 
a flower. — See Aixsw. 

113. The wand accepted,'] The rudis was a rod, or wand, given 
to -sword-players, in token of their release, or (]tischaigQ, from that 

Had begun to seem Veiento,] But this very Sergius, for 

whom thb lady sacrificed so much, had he received his dismission, 
and ceased to be a sword-player, and left the stage, she would have 
cared no more for, than she did f6r her husband Veiento. — Sergius 
would have seemed just as indifferent in her eyes. 

114. A private family,] What happens in private families, oris 
done by private individuals, such as Hippia, is, comparatively, 

' hardly worth notice, when we look higher. 

115« ne rtoals of the gods,] The very emperors themselves are 
served as ill as private husbands are. 

116. Qaudius,] Caesar^^tha successor of Caligula, 

Digitized by 


906 JUVfiNALlS SAtlRiE. 

(Ausa Palatino tegetem prseferre cubili, 

Sumere nocturnos meretrix Augusta cucullos^) 

Liiiquebat, coraite ancilli non amplius nnk ; 

£t nigrum flavo crinem abscondente galero, 120 

Intravit calidum veteri <;eiitone lupanar,* 

Et cellam vacuaniy atque suam : tunc nuda papillw 

Constitit auratis, titulum mentita Ljciscae^ 

Ostenditque tuum, generose Britannice^ ventrem* 

Excepit blanda intrantes, atque aera poposcit : 125 

Mox lenone suas jam dimittente puellas, 

Tristis abit ; sed, quod potidt^ tamen ultima cellam 

Clausity adhuc ardens rigidae tentigine vulvae^ 

Et lassata viris^ noudum satiata recessit : 

Obscurisque genis turpis, fumoque lucernes 130 

Foeda, lupanaris tulit ad pulvinar odorem. 

Hippomanesy carmenque loquar, coctumque venenum, 

116. The wife J Sfc."] Messalina, who, as here related, took the 
opportunity, when her hu&lmnd was asleep, to go to the common 
stews, like a prostitute. 

117. The august harlot."] Augustus was an imperial title, which 
.the poet sarcastically applies to this lewd empress^-hodce it may be 
rendered, the imperial harlot. 

A coarse rug.] See note on L 121. 

US. The bed of state.] Palatino cubili— literally thePalatiBon 
bed — t. e. the bed of her husband in the royal palace, which was op 
Mount Palatine. • 

Nocturnal hoods^] Nocturnos cucuDos— a sort of hood, 

with which the women used to coTcr their heads when It rained* 
Messalina made use of something of this kind to disguise herself, 
when on her nightly expeditions. 

120. A 1/ellow peruke,] What the galerus was, is not very easy^ 
to define ; but it seems (on this occasion at least) to have been some- 

, thing of the peruke kind, and made with hair of a different colour 
from the empress's, the better to disguise her. 

121. Warm with an old patched quHtJ] It is probable, that the 
only piece of furniture in the cell was an old patched quilt, or rug, 
on. which she laid herself down. — Or this may be understood to 
mean, that the stew was warm from the frequent concourse of lewd 
people there ; and that Messalina carried with her some old tattered 
and patched garment, in which she had disguised herself, that she 
might not be known in her way thither. See Ainsw. Cento. 

122. Which was her*s.] As hired and occupied by her, for her 
lewd purposes. 

123. l^fdsca.] The most famous courtezan of those times, whose 
name was chalked over the chamber-door j where Messalina enter* 
tained her gallants. ., .- . 

124. Thy bellyy ^-c] t. e. The belly which bare thee.— Britanni- 
gtts was the son of Claudius and Messalina. 

Digitized by 



(The august harlot daring to prefer a coarse rug to the 

jBed of state, to take nocturnal hoods^) 

Left him, attended by not more than one maid-servant, 

And a yellow peruke hiding her black hair, 120 

She enter'd the brothel warm with an old patched quilt. 

And the empty cell which was hers ; then she stood naked 

With her breasts adorned with gold, shamming the name of 

And shews thy belly, O noble Britannicus. 
Kind she received the comers in^ and asked for money : 125 
Presently, the bawd now dismissing his girls, 
She went away sad : but (which she could) she nevertheless 
Last shut up her cell, still burning with desire, 
And she retired, weary, but not satiated with men : [130 

And filthy with soiled cheeks, and with the smoke of the lamp 
Dirty, she carried to the pillow the stench of the brothel. 
Shall I speak of philtres and charms, and poison boiled, 

131. To the piHow.'] To the royal bed. Thus returning to her 
husband's bed, defiled with the reek and stench of the brothel. 

132. Philtres and charms, "] Hippomanes, (from iTwoj, equus — 
and fjuuvofMu, insanio,) according to Yirgil, signifies something wbich^ 
comes from mares^ supposed to be of a poisonous nature, and used 
as an mgredient in ren^c potions, mixed with certain herbs, and at- 
tended with spdls, or words of incantation. 

Hinc demum hippotnanes vero quod nomine dicunt 

Pastores, lentam distillat ab inguine virus : 

Hipponnmeft quod saspe malae legere novercap, 

Miscueruntque herbas> et non innozia verba. Georg. iU. 1. <80"— S. 

By the account of this, in the third line of the above quotation, 
we may understand it, in this passage of Juvenal, to denote a part 
of a poisonous mixture which step-mothers administered to destroy 
their husband's sons, that thetr own might inherit. 

But the hij^omanes seems to be of two sorts, for another is men* 
tionled, Mn. iv. 1. 515, 15. 

Quaeritur et naacentis equi de fronte revulsus* 
Et aaatii prereptos amor n 

This w^ supposed to be a lump of flesh that grows in the forehead 
of a foal newly dropped, which the mare presently devours, else she 
loses all affection for her offspring, and denies it suck. — See Ainsw. 
Hippomanes, No. 3. — ^Hence Virgil calls' it matris amor. This no. 
tion gave rise to the vulgar opinion of its efficacy in love-potions, or 
philtres, to procure love. In this view of the word, it may denote 
some love-potions, which the women administered to provoke un« 
lawful love. . The word carmen denotes a spell, or charm, which' 
they made use of for the same purpose. Carmen, sing, for canning 
plur. — synecdoche. 
-~- Foison boiled.'] This sonifies the most deadly and quickest 

Digitized by 



Pri^gnoqUe datum ? faciunt graviora coactas 

Imperio sexfis, miniinuinque libidine peccant. 

]} Optima sed quare Cesepnia teste marito i 155 

Bis quingenta dedit, tanti vocat ille pudicam : 

Nee Veneris pharetris macer est^ aut lampade fervet r 

Inde faces ardent; veniunt a dote sagittae* 

libertas emitur : coram licet inqj^^at, atqtte 

Rescribat vidua est, locuples quae nupsit avaro« 140 

Cur desiderio Bibulae Sertorius ardet i 
Si verum excutias, facies, non uxor amatur. 
Tres rugae suEeant^ et se cutis arida laxet^ 
Fiant obscuri dentes, oculique minores ; 

" Collige sarcinidas/' dicet libertus, " et exi ; 145 

*' Jam gfavis es nobis, et saepe emungeris ; exi 
'* Ocyus, et propera ; sicco venit altera naso." 
Interea calet, et regnat, poscitque maritum 

poison, as boiling extracts the strengtii of the ingredients, much more 
than a cold infusion. 

133. A son-inJawJ] To put him out of the way, in order to 
make room for a son of their own. See 1. 638. 

134. The empire of the sex, SfcJ] i, e. That which governs, has 
the dominion over it. See imperium used in a like sense. Virg. 
^n. 1. 1. 143. q, dn What they do from lust is less mischievous than 
what they do from anger, hatred, malice, and other evil principles 
that govern their actions, and may be said to rule the sex in general. 

135. Cesennia,'] The poet is here shewing the power which wo- 
men got over their husbands, by bringing them large fortunes ; in- 
somuch that, let the conduct of such women be what it might, the 
husbands would gloss it over in the best manner iliey could ; not 
from any gopd opinion, or from any real love which th^. bare them^ 
but the largeness of their fortunes, which they retained in thdr own 
disposal, purchased this. 

136. She gave twice five hundred.'] i, e. She brought a large for- 
tune of one tiiousand sestertia, which was suffident to bribe the hus« 
band into a commendation of her chastity, though she had it not* 
See sat. i. 1. 106, and note ; and sat. ii. 1. 117, and note. ^ 

137. Lean, Sfc] fle never pined for love. Pharetris — ^lit. qui- 

?%e lamp,'] Or torch of Cupid, or of Hymen. 

138. From thence the torches burn, Sfc,] He glows with no other 
flame than what is lighted up from the love of her money — ^nor is h« 
wounded with any other arrows than those with which her large for- 
tune has struck him. 

139. Liberty is bought J] The wife buys with her large fortune 
the privilege of doing as she pleases, while the husband sells his li- 
berty, so as not to dare to restrain her, ev^i in her amours. 

Tho* she nodT] Innuat — ^give a hint by some motion or nod 

Digitized by 



And given to a 8on-in«law f they do worse things^ compelled 
By the empire of the sex, they sia least of all from lust. 

But why is Cesennia the best (of wives) her husband being 
witness? 135 . 

She gave twice five hundred, for so much he calls her chaste. 
Nor is he lean from the shafts of Venus, nor does he glow with 

the lamp ; 
From thence torches bum ; arrows come from her dowry. 
Liberty is bought : tho' she nod before (her husband) and [140 
Write an answer, she is a widow, who, rich, hath^ married a miser* 
. Why doth Sertorius burn with the desire of Bibula ; 
If you examine the truth, the face, not the wife, is beloved. 
Let three wrinkles come on, and her dry skin relax itself. 
Let her teeth become black, and her eyes less — 
'^ Collect together your bundles, the freedman will say, and go 
« forth : 145 

^' You are now troublesome to us, and often wipe your nose, go 

« forth 
*' Quickly — and make haste — ^another is coming with a dry nose.'' 
In the mean time she is hot, and reigns, and demands of her hus- 

of her head, or make signs to a lover, even before her husband's 

140. fVriie an answer j SfC,"] Pen an answer to a billet-doux ia 
the very presence of her hushed. Comp. sat. i. 55-— 7. 

She is a mdow.'] She is to be considered as such, and as re* 

sponsible to nobody but to herself. 

A miser.'] For he is too anxious about her money to ven« 

"tare disobliging Jier by contradiction. 

142. The fad, not the wife, Sfc.'] The poet is still satiriziug the 
female sex. Having shewn that some women were only attended to 
for the sake of their money, he here lets us see that others had no 
other inducement than exterior beauty. While this lasted, they 
were admired and favoured, as well as indulged in a kind of sove* 
reignty over the husband; but when their beauty decayed, they 
were repudiated, turned out of doors, and others taken in their 

145. The freedman, Sfc] ^^ Pack up your alls," says the hus- 
band, now emancipated from his bondage to her beauty, by her loss 
of it. 

146^ You often ZDtpe tfournose.'] From the rheum which distilli 
from it-— one sytiiptom of old age. 

147. Another is coming, Sfc] Toung and handsome, to supply 
jonir place, who has not your infirmities. 

148. In the mean time, Sfc] i. e. In the days of her youth and 

She is hot*"] She glows, as it were, with the rage of domi* 

nion over her husband, which she exercises—rregnat. 

VOL. I. P 

Digitized by 


«10 JUVBNAI^IS SATIU;^. ; 9kfr,ru 

Pastores } et oveni Cani^naniy ulmosque Fi^nuid* 

Quantul um in hoc i pueros omiles, ergMtula tota, 150 

QUOdlllUi domi ioon est^ et bubet vicinusfeoiatur* 

Mense quideni brumae, cum jam mercator lason 

Clau8U9y et armatis obstat casa Candida nautig, 

Grandia tollmitur cryst^in^, niaxima rursiis 

Myrrhina^ deinde adamas notissimus^ et BereniceB 155 

In digito factus pretiosior : bunc dedit olim 

Barbarus incestis ; dedit hunc Agrippa sorori^ 

Observant ubi festa mero pede sabbata reges^ 

148. J)eman4s of her husbandy Sfc.'] In short, her husband must 
supply her with e^ery thing she chooses to fancy. 

149. Canusian sheep.'] Canusium, a town of Apulia, upon the 
titer Aufidus ; .it afforded the best sheep, and the finest wool in Ita- 
ly, which nature had tinged with a cast of red. 

"^ — Faleman elms."] The vines of Falemum used to grow round 
the elms, therefore elms here denote the Tines, and so the wine itself 
^— metonym. See Vino. Georg. i. 1. %^ 

15Q. AH bo^s."] All sorts of beautiful boys must be purchased to 
wait upon her. 

Whole workhouses.] Ergastula were places where slaves 

were set to work— here the woi^ seems to denote the slaves them* 
selves, numbers of which (whole workhouses'-full) must be purchased 
%o pictfise the lady's fancy. See Ainsw. Ergastulum, No. 2. 

151, And herneighbour has.] Whatsoever she has not, and he? 
neighbour has, must be purchased* 

<l52. T%e month of winter.] Bruma — qu. brevissima — the shortest 
day in the year, mid-winter-^the winter solstice ; — ^this happens on 
the twenty-first of December — so that mensis brumae means Decern* 
ber* By synecdoche— winter. 

-n — -Tkfi merchant J €Lson.] This is a fictitious nameforamer* 
isbant who goes through the dangers of the seas in all climates, for 
^e sake of gain. Alluding to Jason's dangeirous enterprise after the 
golden fieece. 

153. Is shut up.] At his own home, it not being a season of the 
year to venture to sea. So clausum mare is a phrase to denote the 
winter-time. Cic. See Ainsw. — Clausus. 

<— The wkU^ house.] All the houses covei^ with frost and 


— ' — Hinders.] Prevents their going to sea, from the inclemency 
of the season. 

— — Armed saUors.] Armatis have meaAS prepare for sea^-^. e« 
as soon #8 the weather will permit. 

So ViRG. Mm. iv. 1. 286, 90. 

Oassem aptent tacitiy socioMjue ad litora oogant, 
Arma parent. 

Where we may suppose ansa io signify the sails, masts^^ and otker 
tackling of the skip« Arma nautica* 

Digitized by 



Shepherds, and Canusun sheep, and Falernan elms. 

How litde (is ihete) m this ? sdl boys, whole workhouses> 150 

And what is not at home, and her neighbour has, must be bought. 

Indeed, in the month of f?tnter, when now the merchant Jason 

Is shut up, and the white house hinders the armed sailors. 

Great crystals are taken up, and again lai^e (vessels) [155 

Of myrrh, then a famous adamant, and on the finger of Berenice 

Made more precious : this formerly a Barbarian gave. 

This Agrippa gave to his incestuous sister. 

Where kings observe their festival-sabbaths barefoot, 

154. Great crystals.'] Crysfallifia — ^large vessels of crystal, which 
were very expensive. 

Are taken tip.] Tolluntur.— -How, from this word, many 

translators and commentators have inferred, that this extravagant 
and termagant woman sent her husband over the seas, to fetch these 
things, at a time of year when they have just been told (1. 152, 3.) 
that the merchants and sailors ^d not venture to sea, I cannot say 
--'but by tolluntur, I am inclined to understand, with Mr. Dryden, 
that these things were taken up, as we say, on the credit of the hus- 
band, who was to pay for them. 

When winter shuts the seas, and fleecy snows 

Make houses white, she to the merchant goes : 

Bich crystals of the rock she takes up there, 
&c. &G. Dbtdik. 

This is what is called in French-^-enleteir de chez le marchand. 
Some have observed, that duiing the Saturnalia, a feast which was 
observed at Rome, with great festivity, for seven days in the month 
of December, there was a sort of fair held in the porches of some of 
ihe public baths, where the merchants made up shops, or bootiis, and 
sold toys and baables. Vet. Schol. See Sigcllaria. Ainsw. 

^^ ToUuntur crystaUinaJ] «. e. £x mercatoris officina elevantar a 
^^ Bibula, solvente eo marito Sertorio." Grang. 

154 — 5. Vessels of myrrh*'\ Bowls to drink out of, made of 
myrrh, which was supposed to give a fine taste to the wine.*— So 
Ma^tiai., lib. 3UV. ep. cxiii. 

Si calidum potas, ardenti myrrha Falemo > 

Gonvenit, et melior fit sapor inde mero. 

155. Berenice^ ^c] Eldest daughter of Herod Agrippa, king of 
Jndaea, a woman of infamous lewdness. She was first married to 
Herod, king of Chalcis, her uncle, and afterwards suspected of in- 
cest With her brother Agrippa. See Ant. Un. Hist. vol. x. p. 6, 
note e* 

156. Made more predotM^ The circumstance of Berenice's being 
supposed to have received this diamond ring from her brother, and 
having worn it on her finger, is here hinted at, as increasing its 
value in the estimation of this lewd and extravagant woman. 

A barbarian.] The Romans, as well as the Greeks, were 

aecustomed to call all people, but themselves, barbarians. 

1&8. Their festivai-sabbaths barefoot.] Meaning in Judaea, and 

F 2 

Digitized by 



£t vetus indulget senibus dementia porcis. 

Nullane de tantis gregibus tibi digna videtur i IGO 

Sit formosa, decens, dives, foecunda, vetustos 
Porticibus disponat avos, intactior omni 
Crinibus effusis bellum dirimetite Sabini : 
(Rara avis in terris, nigroque simillima cjgno :) 
Quis feret uxorem, cui constant omnia i malo^ l65 

Malo Venusinam, quam te, Cornelia, mater 
Gracchorum, si cum magnis virtutibus affers 
Grande supercilium, et numeras in dote triumphos* 
Tolle tuum, precor, Hannibalem, victumque Syphacem 
In castris, et cum tot& Carthagine migra. 170 

Parce^ precor, Psean ; et tu, Dea^ pone sagittas ; 

alluding to Agrippa and his sister's performiag tbe sacred rites fA 
sacrificing at Jerusalem without any covering on their feet. This 
ivas customary, in some parts of the Jewish ritual, to all the Jews — 
in imitation of Moses at the bush (see Enod. ili. 5, et seq.) — and is 
practised, on particular days, in the Jewish synagogues to this very 
time. Joseph. Bel. Jud. lib. ii. says of Berenice— ^^ Queen Bere- 
^^ nice, that she might pay her vows for the recovery of her health, 
^^ came to Jerusalem, and, when the victims were slain according to 
^' custom, with her hair shaved, she stood barefooted before the 
^* sanctuary." 

159. Clemency is indulgent to old 9wme.'] The swine in Judaea, 
says Tacitus, lived to be very old, as, by the law of Moses, they 
were forbidden to be eaten, and consequently they were not killed 
for that purpose. 

160. Herds.'] Numbers of such ladies as I have mentioned, and 
of which so many are to be found, 

161—4. Inporticos-^-^spose^ dfC."] It was usual for persons of no- 
ble families to place images of their ancestors in galleries, or port!- 
cos, about their houses — so that the poet means here^-^et her be of 
h^h rank, as well as handsome, decent, &c. 

163. Than every Sabine^ ^c] The Sabines were a people of 
Italy, between the Umbrians and the Latins, famous for their gra- 
vity, sobriety, and chastity. Of the rape of the Sabine women, 
see Amt. Univ. Hist. vol. xi. p. 283. This occasioned a war be- 
tween them and the Romans, which was put an etid to by the inter- 
vention of the Sabine women, who, having laid aside their orna- 
ments, and put on mourning, one token of which was dishevelling 
the hair, obtained a truce, after which a peace succeeded, and the 
Romans and Sabines became one people. lb. p. 287. 

164. A rare bird, Sfc] A proverbial expression. See Pers. i. 
46, alluding to the phoenix* 

166. A Venusian girL] Some poor plain country wench, from 
Venusium, in Apulia. 

Cornelia.'] The mother of those two mutinous tribunes, 

-Caius and Tiberius Gracchus^ daughter to Scipio Africanus, that 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


And an ancient clemency is indulgent to old swine. 

Does none from so great herds seem to you worthy ? l60 
Let her be handsome^ decent, rich, fruitful : in porticos 
L<et her dbpose her old ancestors, more chaste 
Than every Sabine, with dishevelled hair, who put an end to 

the war : 
(A rare bird in the earth, and very like a black swan) — 
Who could bear a wife that has all these i I'd rather, l65 

Rather have a Venusian (girl) than you, Cornelia, mother 
Of the Gracchi, if, with great virtues, you bring 
Great haughtiness, and you number triumphs as part of your 

Take away, I pray, your Hannibal, and Syphax conquer'd 
III bis camp, and depart with the whole of Carthage. 170 

'< Spare, I pray, O Paean ; and thou, goddess, lay down thine 

conquered Hanidbal, and Syphax, king of Numidia, whose camp ha 
burned, and subjected Carthage to the power of Rome, to which 
it first became tributary, and then was destroyed and rased to the 
ground by Sdpio ^milianus. 

168. threat haughtiness.'] The poet having before satirized the 
women, as not eudowed with virtues sufficient to make a man happy 
In marriage, here allows that it might be possible for a large assem. 
blage of vii^tues to meet together ; but yet all these might be spoilea 
and counteracted by ihe pride which might attend the person pps* 
sessed of them. 

169 — ^70^ Vour Hannibal-^yjphax-^'^ikrthage.'] See note on 
1. 166. — f. e. If, as part of her merit, she is to be for ever boasting 
of the victories and triumphs of her sons, assuming a very high re- 
spect on those accounts, her pride would make her troublesome and 
intolerable : a poor country girl, who had none of these things to 
puff her up, would be far more eligible than even Cornelia herself, 
under such circumstances. In short, Juvenal is not for allowing any 
such thing as a woman without some bad fault or other. 

171. Piteait.] Apollo— -either from vaun, Gr. to strike, because 
he struck and slew the Python with his arrows — or from voum, a 
physician — medicus. Apollo was the fabled god of physic. 

Thou^ goddess r\ Diana, who slew tiie seven daughters of 

Niobe, as Apollo slew the seven sons. Niobe was the wife of 
Amphion, king of Thebes, by whom she had seven sons, (accord. 
. Ing to some, fourteen sons,) and seven daughters ; of wUch, toge«' 
ther with her high birth, she grew so proud, as to slight the sacrifices 
which the Theban women offered to Diana, comparing herself with 
Latona, and, because she had borne more children, even setting her* 
self above her, which the children of Latona, Apollo, and Diana, re- 
* sentiog, he slew the males, together with the father, and she the fe- 
males ; on which Niobe was struck dumb withgrief^ and is feigned 
I lo have been turned into marble^ 


Digitized by 



Nil pueri faciimt, ipsam configite matrem ; 

Amphionclamat: sed Paean contrahit arcum. 

Extulit ergo gregem natonmiy ipsumque paroitem^ 

Diun sibi nobilior Latonse gente* videtur, 175 

Atque eadem scrofi Niobe fbecundior albli. 

Quae tanti gravitSs ? quae forma, ut se tibi semper 

Imputet i bujus enim rari, summique voluptas 

Nulla boni, quoties animo corrupta superbo 

Plus aloes, quam mellis, habet^ Quis dedkus autem 180 

Usque adeo est, ut non illam, quam laudibus effert, 

Horreat, inque diem septenis odmt horis ? "^ 

Quaedam parva quidem ; 'ed non toleranda maritis : 

Nam quid rancidius, quam quod se non putat ulia 

Formosam> nisi quae de Tusca Graecub facta est f 185 

De Sulmooepsi mera Cecropis ? omnia Graece.; 

Cum sit turpe minus nostris nescire Latine* 

Hoc sermone pavent ; hoc iram, gaudia, curas, 

Hoc cuncta effundunt animi secreta. Quid ultra i 

Concumbunt Graece~~dones tamen ista puellis : 190 

Tune etiam, quam sextus et octogesimus annus 

Pulsat, adhuc Graece ? non est hie sermo pudicus 

172. The children do nothing, Sfc.'] To provoke thee.*^Th9 poet 
15 here shewing, in this allusion to the fable of Niobe and her chil^ 
dren, that the pride of woman Is such, as not only to harass man. 
kind, but even to be levelled at, and provoke, the gods themselves^ 
80 as to bring ruin on whole families. 

175. More noble."] On account of her birth, as the daughter of 
Tantalus, king of Corinth, or> according to some,.of Phrygia, and aa 
wife of Amphion. 

176. Than the white sow."] Found by ^neas near Laviaium, 
which brought thirty pigs at a litter, and which was to be his direc* 
tlon where to build the city of Alba. Virg. Mn. iii. 390 — 3. 
JEn. vui. 43 — 8. 

177. What graoity,'] Gravitas may here signify sedateness, sobrie- 
ty of behaviour. 

178. Impuie.'] t. e. That she should be always reckoning qp her 
good qualities to you, and setting them to your accpunt, as if 
you were so much her debtor, on account of her personal accom- 
plishments, that you have no right to find fault wdtJi h0r pride and 
ill-humoor. A metaphorical expression, alluding tQ the perscm's 
imputing, or charging something to the account of anoAesr, for 
which the latter is made his debtor. 

180. More ofaloesy than ofhone^,'] More bitter than sweet in ber 
temper and behaviour. 

r Given up, Sfcl To his wife, so uxorious^ 

181. Ji not to abnor, 4*c.] Thongh he may be lnviA hi ber 
praises, ia some respects^ yet no man can be sa bliod to her padeandl 

Digitized by 



** The children do nothing, pierce the mother herself;" 

Cries Amphion : hut Apollo draws his how, 

And took off the herd of children, and the parent himself, [na, 1 75 

While Niobe seems to herself more noble than the race of Lato- 

And more fruitful than the white sow. 

What gravity — ^what beauty is of such value, as that she should 

always herself to you 
Impute ? for of this rare and highest good there is 
No comfort, as often as, corrupted with a proud mind. 
She has more of aloes, than of honey. But who is given up 180 
To such a degree, as not to abhor her whom he extols 
With praises, and hate her for seven hours every day i 
Some things indeed are small ; but not to be borne by husbands : 
For what can be more fulsome, than that none should think 

herself [185 

Handsome, unless she who from a Tuscan becomes a Grecian i 
Prom a Sulmonian, a mere Athenian ? every thing in Greek ; 
Since it is less disgraceful to our ladies to be ignorant of spc^dc- 

ing Latin. [cares^ 

In this dialect they fear, in this they pour forth their anger, joy. 
In this all the secrets of their minds. What beside i 
They prostitute themselves in Greek. Yet you may indulge 

those things to girls : igO 

But do you too, whose eightjr-sixth year 
Beats, speak Greek still? This is not a decent dialect 

ill temper, as not to hare frequent occasion to detest her many hours 
in the day. 

185. From a Thscan, Sfc."] The poet here attacks the affectation 
of the women, and their folJy, in speaking Greek instead of their 
own language. Something like our ladies affectation of introducing 
French phrases on all ^occasions. The Greek language was much 
affected in Rome, especially by the higher ranks of people ; and the 
ladies, however ignorant of tiieir own language, were mighty fond 
of cultivating Greek, and affected to mix Greek phrases in tiieir con* 

186. A Sulmonian.'] Salmo, a town of Peligni, in Italy, aboat 
ninety miles from Rome-— it was the birth-place of Ovid. 

Jthenian.'] Cecropis.^-Athens was called Gecropia, from 

Cecrops, who reigned in Attica, and was the first king of Athens. 
It may be supposed that the poet here means to ridicule some awk- 
ward country ladies, who, when ihey came to Rome, affected to 
speak Greek with elegance* 

188. 77^ fear, ^-c] Express their fears, joys, anger, and, in 
short, all their passions. 

190. To girls.] This may be sdlowable perhaps in giddy girls— in 
them such affectation may be forgiven. 

W2. Beats.] Pulsat— knocks at the door, as we say, or beats ki 
the pulse* 


Digitized by 



I In vetul& ; quoties lascivum intervenit illud 

ZOH KAI rrXH, modo sub lodice relictis 

Utem in turb&: quod enim nou excitat higuen 193 

Vox blanda et nequam i digitos habet. — ^Ut tamen omnes 
[ Subsidant pennae (dicas haec mollius JEmo 
'^uan^uam, eTCaq>op^or^) ^ci^ tua computat annos. 
Si tibi legitimis (Jactam junctamque tabellis 

Non ea amaturus, ducendi nulla videtur §00 

Causa ; nee est quare coenam et mustacea perdaa, 

Labente offic io, crudis donanda : nee illud, 

4^uod pnma pro noete datur ; cum lance beat^ 

Dacieus, et scripto radiat Germanicus auro. 

Si tibi simplicitas uxor^a, deditus uni 20o 

Est animus : submitte caput cervice parat^ 

Ferre jugum : nullam iuvenies, quae parcat amanti. 

Ardeat ipsa licet, tormentis gaudet amantis,- 

193 — 4. Utat wanton Zm, SfcJ] This was a wanton expression — 
my life ! my soul ! — which the women aflfected to express in Greel^. 
See Mart. lib. x. epigr. Ixviii. 1. 5 — 8. 

194. Just now lefty S^c,'] The poet reproves the old women for ex- 
pressing themselves in public, or in a crowd of company (turba), in 
phrases, which are made use of in the more private and retired scenes 
of lasciviousness, from which these old women, if judged by their 
conversation, may be suspected to have newly arrived* 

196. // hasjingers,'] Is as provocative as the touch. 

196 — 7. Jll desires^ ^c.] Pennse^r-^lit. feathers. Metaph.— aU 
luding to birds, such as peacocks, &c. which set up their feathers 
when pleased, and have a gay appearance ; but they presently sub- 
side on approach of danger, or of any dislike. Thus, however lasci* 
Tious words may tend to raise the passions, when uttered by the 
young and handsome; yet, from such an old hag, they will have a 
contrary effect — all will subside into calmness, 

197. Though you may say^ S^cJ] q, d. However you may excel 
in softness of pronunciation, when you use such phrases, even 
iEmus and Carpopborus, the two Grecian comedians, whose fame is 
so great for their soft and tender manner of uttering lascivious 
speeches on the stage, (see note on sat. iii. 1. 98.) yet fourscore an4 
six stands written on your face, which has at least as many wrinkles 
as yon are yesu*s old — a sure antidote. 

199. Lawful deeds.'] Tabellis legitimis — by such writings and 
contracts as were by law required — q. d If, for the above reasons, 
you are not likely to love any woman you marry — ^I. 200. 
. 301. Lose,'] u e. Throw away the expense of a marriagerei^ter- 

TT-r— Bride-4Uikes.'] Mustacea^r-.were a sort of ca]ces made of 
meal, anise seed, cummin, and other ingredients, moistened with mus- 
tum, new wine: — ^whence probably their name;-r- they were of a 
carminative lund.-*They were used at weddings. AiKs^r* 

Digitized by 



In an old woman : as oft^n as intervenes that wanton 
Ztun KM ^vxn, words just now left under the coyerlet [195 

You use in public : for what passion does not a soft and lewd 
Word excite f It has fingers.— Nevertheless, that all 
Desires may subside (though you may say these things softer 
Than j£mus, and Carpophorus) your face computes your years. 

If one, contracted, and joined to you by lawful deeds. 
You are not about to love, of marrying there appears no 200 
Cause, nor why you should lose a supper, and bride-cakes, 
To be given to weak stomachs, their office ceasing; nor that 
Which is giyen for the first night, when the Dacic in the happy dish, 
i\«d the Germanic shines with the inscribed gold. 
If you have uxorious simplicity, your mind is devoted £05 

To her alone : submit your head, with, a neck prepared 
To bear the yoke : you'll find none who can spare a lover. 
Tbo' she should bum, she rejoices in the torments 

202. To w€i$k stomachs.'] To the guests who have raw and 
queasy stomachs, in order to remoTe the flatulency and indigestion 
occasioned by eating too copiously at the entertainment. 

Their office ceasing,'] Liabente officio. — It was so much 

reckoned a matter of duty to attend the marriage-entertainments of 
friends, that those, who were guests on the occasion, were said ad 
officinm venire. Labente officio here means |he Utter end of the 
feast, when the company was going to break up, their duty then al. 
most being ended — it was at tiiis period that the bride-cakes were 
carried about and distributed to the company. See sat ii. 1. 132 — 5. 

203. The Dacic] Dacicus — ^a gold coin, having the Image of 
Domitian, called Dacicus, from his conquest of the D^ians. 

7%e happi/ dish.] Alluding to the occasion of its being put 

to this use. 

204. Germanic] This was also a gold coin with the image of 
Domitian, called Germaniciis, from his conquest of the Germans. 
A considerable sum of these pieces was put into a broad plate, or 
dish, and presented by the husband to the bride on the wedding 
night, as a sort of price for her person. This usage obtained among 
the Greeks, as among the Jews, and is found among many eastern 
nations. — See Pa^kh. Heb. Lex. ino, No. 3. — Something of this 
kind was customary in m^y parts of England, and perhaps is so 
still, under the name of dow-parse. 

Inscribed gold.] i. e. Having the name and titles of. the 

emperor stamped/on it. 

205. Uxorious simpliciiy.] So simply uxorious — so very simple 
^ to be governed by your wife. 

206. Submit your heady Sfc] Metaph. from oxen who quietly 
submit to the yoke. See 1. 43, and note. 

307. Who can spare a lover.] Who will not take the advantage 
of a man's affection for her to use him ill. 

208. 2%o' she should bum, ^c] Though she love to distrac- 

Digitized by 


218 ^UYENALIS SATIR^^ uat.tu 

Et spoliis : igitur longe minus utilis illi 

Uxor, quisquis erit bonus, optandusque maritus. , 210 

Nil unquam invito donabis conjuge : vendes 

H&c obstante nihil : nihil, ha^c si nolit, emetur. 

Hsc dabit affectus : ille exchidetar amicus 

Jam senior, cujus barbam tua janua vidit. 

Testandi cum sit lenonibus, atque lanistis US 

Libertas, et jnris idem contii^t are&, 

Non unus tibi rivalis dictabitur hasres. 

" Pone cruccm servo :" " meruit quo crimine servas 
*' Supplicium f quis testis adest ? quis detulit f audi, 
<' Nulla unquam de morte hominis cunctatio longa est.** 220 
<' O demens, ita servus homo est? nil fecerit, esto : 
" Hoc volo, sic jubeo, sit pro ratione voluntas." 
Imperat ergo viro : sed mox hcec regna reliuquit, 
Permutatque domos, et ilammea conterit : inde 
Avolat, et spreti repetit vestigia lecti. 225 

tion, she takes delight in plaguing and plundermg the man who lovet 


209 — 10. Less useful to kim^ Sfc.'] The better husband a man is, 
the more will she tyrannize over him; therefore an honest man, 
who would make a^ood husband, will find that, of all men, he has. 
the least reason to marry, and that a wife will be of less use to hua 
than to a man of a diiilmnt character. 

%iS, She,'] Haec«— this wife of yours. 

fVUl give uffeciiens^'} Direct your affectiQns--dictate to 

you in what manner yoa shall respect, or ill-treat, your friends-^ 
whom you are to like? and whom to dislike. 

214. Whose beard if our gate hath seen."] An old friend, who 
used always to be welcome to your house, ever since the time he had 
£rst a beard on his chin. 

215. To mmke a wiU^ 4*^0 7* ^* Panders, prize-fighters, and 
gladiators, hare liberty to make their wills a» Uiey please,, but your 
wife will dictate yours, and name not a few of her paramours, your 
rivais, to enjoy your estate. — N. B. All tiie Romans^ even the most 
inferior and most infamous sort of them, had die power of making 
wills. Dryd. 

216. The amphitheatre.'] Arenas — ^metonym. the gladiators be^ 
longing to it. 

218. ^^ Set upj ^c."] Crucifixion was the usuail way of putting 
slaves to death, and of this the masters had the power-*-here tho 
wife bids her husband do it, only out of caprice. 

, " For Khai crime, Sfc.*^] The words of the husband re» 

monstrating against this piece of wanton barbarity. 

219. " Hear.''] Attend— mark what I say. 

220. « No delay, <Jirc.»] Surely where the death of a fellow-crea- 
ture is dependli^ the matter should be well considered, and not 

Digitized by 


»«.▼!. JtJVENAL'S SATIRES. 919 

And spoils of a lover : therefore a wife is by far less QBefiil 
To him, whoever will be a good and desirable husband. dlO 
You will never bestow any thing i^ainst your wife's will : you 

will sell [bought: 

Nothing if she opposes : nothing, if she be unwillii^, will be 
She will give affections : that friend will be riiut out. 
Now grown old, whose beard your gate hath seen. 
When there is liberty to pimps and fencers to make a will, 215 
And the same right happens to the amphitheatre, 
Hot one rival only wHl be dictated as your heir. 

" Set up a cross for your slave :" — ^ fiwr what crime has the 

*' slave deserved 
'* Punishment? what witness is there? who accused.^ — hear*— 
'^ No delay is ever loqg concerning the death of a man." fi£0 
** O madman ! — so, a ^ave is a man ! be it so — he has done 

" nothing, 
'' This I will — ^thus I command — ^let my will stand as a reason.** 
Therefore she governs her husband : but presently leaves these 

And changes houses, and wears out her bridal veils : from dience 
She flies away, and seeks i^ain the footsteps of her despised 

bed. 2M 

hastily transacted— -no delay, for delibmition, should be thought 

321. << O madmanj ^c."] The words of the imperious Mife, 
who insists upon her own humour to he the sole reason of her ac. 
tiens. She even styles her husband a fool, or madman, for calling 
a slave a man. She seems to deny the poor slave human naturi 
and human feeMngs, such is her pride and savage cruelty ! 

223. She govemsy S^c."^ Therefore, in this instance, as In all 
eljiers, it is plain that she exercises a tyranny over her husband. 

' <^ Leaves these re9h^,'\ t. e. Her husband's territories 
over which she ruled^ in order to seek new conquests, and new do- 
minion over other men.^ 

224. Changes howesJ] She elopes from Ker husband to others— 
and so from house to house, as often as she chose to change from 
man to man. 

Wears cut her bridal ve&sJ] The flameum was a bridal veil, 

wi4ii which the bride's face was covered', during the marriage cere<» 
mpn J : it was of a yellow, or flame-colour — ^whence its name. 

She divorced Wself so oftra, and was so often married, that she 
even wo^ out, as it were, her veil, with the fVequent use of it. 

225. j$Ae yUes away^ SfcJ\ The inconstancy and lewdness of this 
woman was such, that, s^ter running -ail the lengths which the law 
allowed, by being divorced eight times, she leaves her paramours, 
and even comes l^k again to die man whom she first left 

*— -^ 4nd seeks again.'] Traces back the footsteps which dnceled 
her from his bed. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

«20 JUVENALIS SATIRiE, sat. ti. 

Ornatas paulo ante fdres^ pendentia linqutt 

Vela domfttf, et adhuc virides in limine r^nos. 

Sic crescit numerus ; sic fiunt octo mariti 

Quinque per autumnos : titulo res digna sepulchri. r 

Desperanda tibi salv^ concordia aocm : ^ ^30 

lUa docet spoliis nudi gaudere mariti : ^ 
lUa docet, mbsis a corruptore tabellis. 
Nil rude, nil simplex rescribere : decipit ilia 
CustodeSy aut sere domat : tunc corpora sano 
Advocat Archisenem, onerosaque pallia jactat* 235 

Abditus interea latet accersitus adulter, 
Irapatiensque moras silet, et praeputia ducit. 
Scilicet expectasy ut tradat mater honestos, 
Aut alios mores, quam quos habet ? utile porro 
Filiolam tvirpi vetulae producers turpem. S40 

Nulla fere causa est, in qu^ non foemina litem . 
Moverit. Apcusat Mapilia, si rea non est. 
Componunt ipsce per s^, formantque libellosji 

^6. Tkedoon — adorned^ &;c.'\ See before, 1. 52, and note^-^'. e. 
She Htcs but a Tery short time with each of her husbands, quitiog 
them, as it were, while the marriage garlands, yells, &c. were hango 
Ing about the doors. 

228. IStighi husbands — in Jive autumns.'] The Roman law aU 
lowed eight diTorces-r— beyond that was reckoned adultery* 

Of these divoroes Seneca 8ays*«-De Beneijciis, c. xtL ^^ Does 
^^ any body now blush at a divorce, since certain illustrious and 
^' noble women compute their years, not by the jKumber of consuls, 
'^ but by the number of husbands they have had ?*' 

Tertulli9.n says, Apol, c, vi. '^ DiTorce was now looked upon aa( 
** one fruit of marriage. 

When Martial is satirizing Thelesina as an adulteress, he repre^enti 
ber as having exceeded the number of divorces allowed by law. 

Aut minasy ant certenon plus tricesima lux est;. 
£t nubit decimo jam Thelesina viro. 
• Quae nubit tQtieSt Qon aubit> adultera lege est. Lib. ▼. ep. vii. 

929. The title of a sepulchre,'] Such actions as these, like other 
great and illustrious deeds, are well worthy to be recorded by n 
monumental inscription, Iron.-^It was usual, on the sepulchres 
of women, to mention the number of husbands to which i^^y had 
been married. 

230. Mother-in^aw.] The poet seems wiHing to set forth the 
female s^x, as bad, in every point of view.T-^Here he introduces on^^ 
as a mother-in-law, disturbing the peace of the family, carrying oa 
her daughter's infidelity tq iier husband, and playmg tricl^ for this 

231. She teaches^'} Instructs her daughter* 

lb plunder, ^-cQ Till the poor husband is stripped of all 

he has. 

Digitized by 


tjor. yt. J imENAL'S SATIRES, m 

The doorsy a little bdbre adorned, the pendent veils 
Of the house she leaves, and the boughs yet green at the threshold. 
Thus the number increases, thus eight husbands are made 
In five autumns — a matter worthy the title of a sepulchre. 

You must despair of concord while a mother-in-law lives : £30 
She teaches to rejoice in the plunder of the stripped husband : 
She teaches, to letters sent by a corrupter, 
To write back nothing ill bred or simple : she deceives . 
Keepers, or quiets them with money. Then, while in health, 
She sends for Archigenes, and throws away the heavy clothes. 235 
Mean while the sent-for adulterer lies hidden. 
Is silent, impatient of delay, and prepares for the attempt. 
But do you expect that a mother should infuse honest [fitable 
Morals, or other than what she has herself? moreover, it is pro- 
For a base old woman to bring up a base daughter. 240 

There is almost no cause in which a woman has not stiiT^d up 
The suit. Manilia accuses, if she be not the accused. 
They by themselves compose, and form libels, 

332. A comipler.] A gallant who writes billets-doux^ in order 
to corrupt her daughter's chastity. 

233. Nothing ill bred or simple,'} To send no answeni thai can 
discourage the man from his purpose, either in point of courtesy or 

233 — 4.JSlhe deceivei keepers^ SfcJ] She helps on the amour with 
her daughter, by dther deceiving, or bribing, any spies which the 
husband might set to watch her. 

235. Archigenes,'] The name of a physician. — ^The old woman 
shams sick, and, to carry on the trick, pretends to send for a phy- 
sician, whom the gallant is to personate. 

Jlirows away the heavy clothes,'] Pretending to be in a vio- 
lent fever, and not able to bear the weight and heat of so many 

239i Mean whUe^ S^c] The old woman takes this opportunity 
Ui secrete the adulterer in her apartment, that, when the dai^ter 
comes, under a pretence of visiting her sick mother, he may ac* 
complish his design. 

238. A mother should infuse^ Sfc] It b not very likely that such 
a mother should bring up her daughter in any better principles than 
her own. • ^ 

239. It is profitable^ ^^c] Since, by having a daughter' as base 
as herself, she has opportunities of getting gain, and profit, by as. 
sisting in her prostitution, being well fee'd by her gallants.— ^He next 
attacks the litigiousness of women. 

241. Almost no cause,'] No action at law, which a woman has 
not fomented. If she be not defendant, she wiU be plaintiff, 1. 242. 

242. ManiUay S^c] An harlot, whom Hostilius Maiicinus, the 
Curule iCdile, prosecuted for hitting him with a stone. 

$43. Compose^ andforr$ libels,] The libelli in the courts of law 

Digitized by 


^» . JUYENALIS SATIHiB. wax. vi. 

Principjjim atque locos Ceko dicUre pwratae. 

Endroinkkis TyruiB, et fSemiiieum cer<Hna 245 

Quis aescit i vel quia son vidit vutaera f^. 
Quern cavat aMiduU sudibiis, iicutoque laces^t ? 
Atque om nes imjJet num^.ca3 ; dignissima prorsuar 
Flbyili matroiia tut>iSL ; nisi si quid in illo ^: 

Pectore plus agitet, veneque paratur arense. 250 

Quern prsestare potest mulier galeata pudorem. 
Quae fugit a sexu^ et vires amat i h«c tamen ipsa 
Vir nollet fieri : nam quantula nostra voluptas ! 
Ciuale diecus rerum, si conjij^is auctio fiat, 
BalteusVet innxAc&, et cristacy crurisque sinistri 9i55 

Dimidium tegf&en : vel 81 diversa movebit 

at Rome, seem to answer to those pleadings among us, which are 
drawn np in writing by skilful lawyers on the part of the com- 
plainant. In our civil law-courts the term libellus is still in use, 
and answers to a declaration at common law, which contains the 

244. Cel$u9y SfeJ\ He was a noble orator and eminent Hwjeri 
he left behind him seven books of institutes, all written by himself. 
The women had the impudence to think that they could direct hun 
in the management of a cause ; ou» 

The beginning.'] t. e. How to open it — ^the exoidium. 

TAe j^Kes,"] The sedes argumenti, or parte of the Hbel 

from which the arguments were taken, and on which they were 
grounded, were called loci — so that they not only dictated to Celsns 
how to open a cause, but how to argue and manage it. 

246. The T^an rugs, Sfc.'] Women had the impudence to 
practise fencing, and to anoint themselves with the ceroma, or wrest- 
lers' ml — like them they put on the endromidae, or rugs, after their 
exercise, to keep than from catdihig cold ; but, to shew tiieir pride, 
they were dyed in Tyrian purple. 

246. ne wounds of the stake*] This was the exercise of the pa- 
laria, used by the soldiers at thdr camp, but now practised by im- 
pudent women. The pains was a stake fixed in the ground, abont 
six feet high, at which they went throagh all the fencer's art, as with 
an enemy, by way of preparation to a real fight 

247. She hoUaws^ ifc] By fencing at this post they wore boU 
low places in it, by the continual thrusts of their weapons agaiast 
it, which were swords made of wood, with which the soldiers aad 
prize-fighters practised the art of fencmig, (as we do now with foils,) 
—these were used by these masculine Mies. 

And provokes with the shidd.] Presenting their shields to 

the post as to a real enemy, and as if provoking an attack. 

^8. FiUs up M her parts.'] Omnes iraplet nttmero6.-^Thls 
phrase may be nnderstood--*^^ goes through all the motions incident 
•^ to the exercise." 

94^. The FloraUan trumpet.] The Floral gamaS; which were 

Digitized by 



Prepared to dictate to Celsw, the beginnings and the places. 

llie Tyrian rugs, and the female ceroma, 245 

Who knows not ? or who does not see the wounds of the stake. 
Which she hollows with continual wooden-swords^ and provokes 

with the shield i 
' And fills up all her parts ; altogether a matron most worthy 
The Floralian trumpet ; unless she may agitate something more 
In that breast of hers ; and be prepared for the real theatre. 2o0 
What modesty can an helmeted woman shew. 
Who deserts her sex, and loves feats of strength ? yet she herself 
Would not become a man : for how little is our pleasure ! 
What a fine shew of things, if there should be an auction of 

your \vife's. 
Her belt, her gauntlets, and crests, and the half covering 255 
Of her left leg? or, if she will stir up different battles, 

celebrated in honour of the goddess Flora, were exhibited bj 
harlots with naked impudence, who danced through the streets to 
the sound of a trumpet. 

250. In that breast of hers.'] Unless she carry her Impudence 
into another channel, and, by these preparations, mean seriously 
to engage upon the theatre ; otherwise one should think that she 
was preparing to enter the lists with the naked harlots in the feasts 
of Flora. 

~^l. An helmeted woman,"] Who can so far depart from the de* 
cency and modesty of her sex as to wear an helmet. 

25% Feats of strength.] Masculine exercises. 

253. How little is our pleasure.] In intrigues, comparatively 
with that of the women — therefore, though such women desert their 
sex, yet they would not change it. 

254. fVhat a fine shew of things^ ^c] Decus rerum — ^how credit- 
able — ^what an honour to her husband and family, to have a sale of 
the wife's military accoutrements, and the whole inventory to con- 
sist of nothing but warlike attire ! 

^bb. Her belt.] Balteus signifies the sword-belt worn by soldiers 
and prize-fighters. 

^- — Her gauntlets.] A sort of armed glove to defend the hand. 

■■ ■ ' ■ ■ Crests.] The crests which were worn on the helmets, made 
of tufts of horse-hair, or plumes of feathers. 

— The half covering^ Sfc] The buskin, with which the lower 
part of the left leg was covered, as most exposed ; as in those days 
the combatants put forth the left leg when they engaged an enemy^ 
and therefore armed it half-way with a stout buskin to ward off the 
blows to which it was liable — ^the upper part was covered by the 
shield. So Famaby, and Jo. Britannicus. But this seems contrary 
to what VxBoiL says, Ma. vii. 1. 689, 90, of the Hernicians : 

I ■ ■ Vertigia nnda simstxi 
Instito^ pedis ; cnidus tegit altera pero. " 

356. ][fshe will stir up, 4t.] If, instead of the exercises above de« 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Prseliay tu felix, ocreas vendente pueM* 
Hae sunt, quae tenuTsudant in cyclade, quarum 
Deliciafi et panniculus bombycinus urit. 

Aspice, quo fremitu monstratos perferat ictus, 260 

£t quanto galeae curvetur pondere ; quanta 
Poplitibus sedeat; quam denso^ gcia Jibro j 
Et ride, scaphium tiositis ^uni'sui^tur armis^ 
Dicite vdS iMj^^ Lepidi, caecive Metelli, 
Gurgitis aut rabii, quae ludia sumpserit unquam ^65 

Hos habitus ? quando ad palum gemat uxor Asylli I 
Semper habet lites, altemaque jurgia lectus, 

scribed, she chooses other kinds of engagements, as those of the Re- 
tiarii or Mirmillones, itho wore a sort of boots on their legs, it 
irould. In such a case, make you Tery happy to see your wife's 
boots set to sale. 

^7. These are the women, Sfc,^ He here satirizes the women^ as 
complaining under the pressure of their light women^s attire, and 
yet, when loaded with military arms, were very contented. In 
short, when they were doing wrong, nothing was too hard for them ; 
but when they were doing right, erery thing was a burden. See 
before, 1. 94 — 102. 

259. Burns.'] Juvenal, in the preceding line, says that they 
iBweatin a thin mantle, cyclade (made perhaps of light linen) — but 
here, that they complain they are quite on fire if they have a little 
isilk on. Delicias means, lit. delights — by which we may understand 
their persons, in which they delighted, and which were also the de- 
lights of men — q. d, their charms. 

260. With what a noise.] By this it should seem probable, that 
the custom of making their thrusts at the adversary, with a smart 
stamp of the foot, and a loud — ** Hah^' — ^was usual, as among us. 
These seem allud^ to here, as instances of the indelicacy of tiiese 
female fencers. 

She can convey.] Per fero— signifies to carry, or convey to 

a designed person or place — Whence, perferre ictus may be a techoi* 
cal expression for a fencer's making his thrust, by which he conveys 
the hit or stroke to his adversary. 

The shevDn hits.] Monstratos ictus — f . e. the artificial hits 

which have been shewn her by the fencing-master who taught hef. 

261. How great.] How firmly — ^how dexterously — ^with what an 

262. On her hams.] She squats upon her hams, to avoid the blow 
which is made at her. 

Her swathe, 8;c.] Fascia — ^signifies a swathe, band, or roller, 

which the men used on their thighs and legs, instead of breeches^ 
AiNSw. Such, on these occasions, were worn by these women. 

-A fold.] Libro— quasi vol amine. They could * complain 

when dressed like women, though in the thinnest attire ; but when 
they engaged in these indecent and -improper exercises, nothing was 
thought cumbersome. 

Digitized by 



Happy you, your wenefa selling her boots. 
These are the women who sweat in a thin gown, whose 
elicate bodies even a little piece of silk bums, 
eholdy with what a noise she can convey the shewn hite, 9!60 
Lnd with what a weight of helmet she can be bent ; how great 
FShe can sit on her hams ; her swathe with how thick a fold : 
[ And laugh, when, her arms laid down; a female head-dress is taken; 
I Say, ye grand-daughters of Lepidus, or of blind Metellus, 
I Or Fabius Gurges, what actress ever took €65 

pPhese habits ? when would tlie wife of Asyllus groan at a postf 
The bed has always strifes, and alternate quarrels, 

263. Female headrdr€ssJ] Scaphium. — From this seems derived 
the Fr. escoffion, which Boyer explains by coiffure de tcte pour 
des femmes — hence, perhaps, Engl. coif. See Ainsw. Scaphium*— • 
and Marshal in loc. 

Is takenJ] Sumitar. — L e. When the lady puts off her heavy 

hehliet, (1. 361.) and takes, r. e, puts on, her coif, or female head« 
dress, thus changing' from the appearance of a fierce gladiator to 
that of a delicate female, the sight must be highly ridiculous ^^^ride^ 
laugh — q> tL aspice et ride. — Comp. 1. 260. 

264. ¥e grantUdaughterf of Lepidus.'] The poet here intimafet 
how much worse the women were grown, since the days of the great 
neu here mentioned, who brought up their daughters to imitato 
thek'own severe and grave manners ; not to expose themselves, lik# 
the women in more modem times ; and, doubtless, it may be sup^ 
posed, that the daughters of these respectable persons brought up 
theirs as tibey had b^ educated themselves. 

By Lepidus is here meant — ^m. Lepidus, who was chosen lay 
Ae censors chief of the senate — ^he was twice consul, p<mt, maxi* 
mus, and colleague with Fulvius Flaccus, as censor. 

— r- Blind MeteUusS\ Who, when the temple of Vesta was on 
fire, lost his eyes in savmg the palladium from tiie flames. Setf 
sat. iii.. 1. 139, and note. 

260. Fabius Gurges,"] The son of Q. Fabius the censor ; he fined 
some matrons for die crime of adultery, and with the money buillr 
a temple to Venus. — ^He was very extravagant when young, and his 
expenses almost swallowed up his fortune — Whence be was namect 
Gurges ; but he afterwards grew sober, frugal, and an example of 

— T^ What adress^ i^c] Ever had so much impudence ad to ha« 
bit and exercise herself in the manner these matrons do I See 1. 104, 
sod note. 

266. The wife cf Asifllus.] Asyllus was a famous gladiator and' 
prize-fighter ; but when did his wife ever behave as these ladies do^ 
fencing at a post, habited like men, and -pushing at the mark with^ 
the same noise as the men make ? ^ ' 

267. The bed^ Sfc] Ha)'^ the poet touches on what we call a 
, SMrtain-lecture. 

I V03L. I. S 

Digitized by 



In quo nupta jacet : minimum dormiturin illo. 

Tunc gravis ilia viro, tunc orbi tigride pejor. 

Cum simulat gemitus occulti conscia {acii^ . t70 

iVut odit puerosy aut fict& pellice plorat 

Uberibus semper lachrymis, semperque parati» 

In statione sua, atqbe expectantibus illam, 

Quo jubeat manarie modo : tu credis amoren a; 

Tu tibi tunc, curjruca, places, fletuisque laBelh* S7.5 

Exsorbes; que scripta, et quas lecture tabellas. 

Si tibi zdotypa? retegantur scrinia &€ech» ! ^ 

Sed jacet in servi compjexibus, aut equitis : die. 

Die aliqiiem, sodes hie, Quintiiiane, colorein. 

Haeremus: die Ipsa: olim convenerat, inquit, tSO 

Ut faceres tu quod velles ; necnon ego possem 

Indulgere mihi : elames licet, et mare ccelo 

Confundas, homo sum. Nihil «st audacius illis 

Deprensis : Tram atque animos a crimine sumunt. ^ 

Unde haec moustra tamen, vel quo de fonte requiris ? %Zi 

369. A bereaved tigress,'] A tigress robbed of her wlidps, tluui 
which nothing can be supposed more fierce, and terrible. Coinp* 
Prot. xvih 13. lies. xiii. 8« 

270. Of an hfddenfactS] Some secret adultery of her own — ia 
this case she pretends some charge against her husband of the lik» 

271. Hates the servants.^ Paeros— pretends to be angry at tbem^ 
as having misbehaved towards her, or perhaps as privy to their mas- 
ter's amours. 

— T—A mistress being pretended."] Pretends that her husband 
keeps some other woman, 

^73. In their station^ ^-cJ] A metaphor taken from the order in 
which soldiers sbind ready to obey the commands of their officers — 
^o her tears wait upon her will, and flow as^ and when, she pleases. 

Waiting for her^ 4'c?] Entirely attending her pleasure — 

' waiting her direction. 

.274. You think it love^ That it is all out of pure fondness 
and concern for yon. 

275. Jledge-^parrow,'] The poor cuckold, Juvenal calls cnrruca, 
or hedge-sparrow, becanse that bird feeds the young cuekows.that 
are laid in its nest. So the cuckold must bring up other people's 

— —-Sack up the tears."] Kiss them off her cheeks, and pleass 
yourself with thinking that all this is from her passion for you. 

276. What tcritingSy ^c] What a fine discovery of biUets-doux 
and love-letters would be made, if the cabinet of this strumpet were 
to be opened, who all this while is endeavouring to persuade you 
tb^t she is jealous of you, and that she grieves as an innoceut 
injiurttd woman. 

Digitized by 



In ¥^hich a wife lies : .there is little sleep there. 

Tben she is grievous to her husband, then worse than a bereaved 

When, conscious of an hidden fact, she feigns groans, $70 

Or hates the servantS|^r, a mistress being pretended, she weeps 

With ever fruitful tears, and always ready 

In their stalion, and waiting for her. 

In what manner she may command them to flow : you think (it) 

love — 
Ycu dien, O hedge-sparrow, please yourself, and suck up the 

teara ' 9il& 

With your lips : what writings and ^hat letters would you read 
If the desks of the jealous strumpet were opened ! — 
But she lies in the embraces of a slave, or of a knight ; '^ Tell, 
** Tell us, I pray, here, Quintilian, some colour."- — 
" We stick fast :** — ^^ say yoursdf :" " fomjerly it was. agreed,** 

says she, 280 

** That you should do what you would ; and I also might 
** Indulge myself: though you should clamopr, and confound 
^ The sea with heaven, I am a woman." Nothing is more bold 
Than they are when discovered; they assume anger and courage 

from their crime. 
Do you ask — ^whence these monstrous things, or from what 

source? * 285 

278. She lies in the embraces^ Sfc/} Suppose her actually caught 
In the Tcry act. 

279. TeU us^ Quintilian^ same colour J] O tfaoa great master of 
language and oratory, tell us, if you can, some colour of an excuse 
for such behaviour. See sat. vii. 165. 

280. We stick fast.'} Eren Qaihtilian himself b at a loss. 
<< We orators (Quintilian is suppposed to answer) have nothing to saj 
*' in excuse for such a fact." 

Say yourself J\ Though none other could attempt to 

excuse or palliate such actions, yet women have impudence and 

presence^ of mind enough to find some .method of answering—* 

^So pray, madaim, let us hear what you can say for yourself.** 

283. lam a woman^l Homo sum. — Homo is a name com* 

' mon to us both, and so are the ifraiities of human nature ; 
hence, having agreed mutually to do as we liked, you have no 
right to' complain.-— Though you should bawl your heart out, and 

I turn the world topsy-turvy, I can say no more. Comp. sat*, ii^ 

I 25^ and note. 

t . 284. Anger,"] To' resent reproofs. 

' . Courage J] To defend what they have done* 

' So that, though, while undiscovered, they may affect a decent 

'\ ap|)earance, yet, when once discovered, they keep no measures 

^ with decency, either as to temper or behaviour. 

I 285. Do jfou ask whencey Sfc] The poet is now about tQ tnm 

Digitized by 



Prasstabat castas huniilis fortuna Latuum 

Quondam^ nee vitiis CQHtiogi parva sinebat 

Tecta labor, somnique breves, et vellere Tusco 

Vexatae, duraeque manus, ac prozimus urbi 

{{arniiluJ, et stantes Collkii in tune m^rijbu ' ^^90 

Kline patimur longve pacis mala : sasvior armif 

Luxuria incubuit, victumque ulciscttur orbem. 

$)fiillam crimen abe^t, facmusque libicbnis, ex quo 

Paupertas Romana perit : hinc fluxit ad istos 

{It Sybaiis coUea^ hmc et Rhodos, atque Miletoa, 90S 

Atque coronatum, et petulans, madidumque Tarentum. 

Prima peregrtnos obscoena pecuoia mores 

IntiiHt, et turpi fregerunt secula luxu 

Divitias molles. Quid enim Venus ebria curat? 

Inguinis et capitis quae sint ctiscrimma, nescit ; 900^ 

Grandia qua^ n)L^dii3 jam noctibus ostrea mor-det^ 

Che Tice and profligacy of the Roiaan women to their tsne source 
-*^nr. the banishment of poverty, labour, and industry^ and tfa# 
introduction of riches, idleness, and luxury. So the prophet 
£zek. xtI. 49, concerning the profligacy of the Jewish voojien. 
* 288. Short of sleep,^ Up early and down late, as. we say. 

—. — The Tuscan fleece,^ The wool which came from Tuscan j^ 
which was manufactured at Rome by the women. 

289. Hannibal very near the dty^ S^cJ^ This great Carthaginian 
general marched his army so nigh4;o Rome, that h^ encamped it witiun 
three miles of the city, which obliged the citizens to keep constant 

290. The Colline tower.'] One of the gates of Rome was on an 
hill, and therefore called Porta Collina — here was probably soma 
tower, or other fortification, which, when an enemy was i^ear, was 
garrisoned by the Roman people, some of which were constantly on 
duty. This made them sober and dilig^. 

292. Bath invaded us.'] IncubuLt. So Hob. lib. i. od. iii. ]. 30, I. 

Nova febrium terris ineubuit cohors. 

Avenges the conquered uorld.'\ Luxury, by destroying d&a 

manners of the Romans, plunged them into miseries, which might be 
truly said to rerenge the triumphs of the Roman arms orer the rest of 
the world. 

293. No crime is absent^ Sfc.'] The banishment of poverty oc* 
lasioned also the banishment of that hardiness, plainness, and sim- 
plicity of living, for which the anient Romans were remarkaUe ; 
and this was the occasion of their introducing the yices. of many of 
those countries which they had conquered, till erery species of profli* 
gacy and lewdness overspread the city. Sat, ix. 13l-^3. As it foU 

294—5. Hence Jhwedto these hiils, S^c] I e. The seren hills of 
Rome, on which the city was.bttiltr--tera put for the city itvelf^ or 
rather for the people 

Digitized by 



An humble fortune fendeHed the Latin iVomen cha§t^ 

Formerly, nor did labour suffer their Small houses 

To be touched with vices ; short of sleep, and with the Tuscan 

Their hands chafed and hard, ahd Hannibal very near the city, 
And their husbands standing iti the Colline towV. 290 

Now we suffer the etils of a long peace : more cruel than arms^ 
Luxury hath invaded us, and avenges the conquer'd world. 
No crime is absent, or foul deed of lust, since 
Roman poverty was lost. Hence flow'd to th^se 
Hills, Sybaris, hence Rhodes too, and hence Miletus, 295 

And the crowned, and petulant, and drutiken Tarentum. 
Filthy money foreign manners first 
Brought in, and soft riches weakened the ages with 
Base luxury. For what does a drunken woman regard ? 
She knows not the difference between her top and bottom. SOiX 
She who eotfi large oysters at midnights. 

995. Sifbiiris,'] A city of Calabria, so addicted to pleasure and 
effeminacy, as to beco^ proverbial.' 

" ■ Rhodes — Miletus (or Malta)."] Were equally famous for 
lewdness and debauchery. See sat. iii. 60 — ^71 ; and sat. viii. 1. 113. 

296. TarentumJ] A city of Calabria. 

CrozonedJ] AUudmg to the garlands and chaplets of flowerf 

which they put on at their feasts* 

Petulant,'] The poet here alludes, not only to the insolence 

TTith which they refused to restore some goods of the Romans, which 
they- had seized in their port, but also to their haying sprinkled 
urine on one of the embassadors which the Romans sent to demand 

Drunken,] This may either allude to their excessive drinkw 

ing, for sometimes madidus signifies drunk ; or to their wetting or 
moistening their hair with costly ointments. See Hor. od^ iii. lib. ii^ 
1. 1 3, et ah This piece of luxury, Jtivenal here seems to insinuate, 
was adopted by the Romans from the people of Tarentum, and waa 
one of tiife delicacies of the Romans at tiidr feasts and «onTivial meet. 

297. Filthy monei/,] Obsccena pecunia — so called, because of itI 
defilement of the minds of the people, by innting them to luxury, 
and of the obscene and Tile purposes to which it is applied. 

298. Soft riches,] Molles divitiie — because the introducers of soft. 
iimgs and effeminacy of all kinds. 

ir 29P. A drunken woman,] lit. a drunken Venus — q, d, a wo'. 
\fian adding drunkenness to lewdness. 

500. Sheknwsts not^ Sfc*] Whether she stands on her head or her 
heels, as the saying is. . 

301. Who eats large ousters.] Which were reckoned incentir^ 
to lewd practiGes. 


Digitized by 



Cum perfusa mero spumant unguedta Falerno, 

Cum bibitur conch&, cum jam vertigine tectum 

Ambulaty et geminis exurgit mensa lucemis^ 

I nunci et dubita qusL sorbeat aera sanni ^ 305 

Tullia ; quid dicat noj^ag CoUacia Matirs ; 

Maura Pudicitise veterem cum praeterit aram. 

Noctibus hie ponunt le^ticas, micturiunt hie ; 

Efiigiemque Deae lougis siphonibus impient; 

Inque vices equitantj ac luna teste moventur : 510 

Inde domos abeunt. Tu calcas^ luce reversd^ 

Conjugis urinam, magnos visurus amicos. 

Nota Bouae secreta Deae, cum tibia lumbos 
Incitat ; et cornu pariter, vinoque feruntur 
Attouitae^ crinemque rotant, ululantque Priapi 515 

Maenades : 6 quantus tunc illis mentibus ardor 
Concubitiis ! quae vox saltante libidine ! quantus 
lUe men veteris per crura madentia torrens ! 
^'^ lienonum ancillas posit^ Laufella coron& 

Provocate et tollit pendentis praemia coxas : 520 

302. fVhenointmenismixedySfcJ] To such a pitch of luxury were 
4faey grown, that they mixed these ointments with their wine, to girt 
it a perfume.. See 1. 155, and 1. 418. 

— JPo«»i.] From the fermentation caused by the mixtare. 
•303. Drinks bid of a shellJ] The shell in which the perfume was 

kept. So concha is sometimes to be nnderst0od. — See Hob. lib. ih 
ode vii. 1. 22, 3. 

Or it may mean, here, some large shell, of which was made (or 
which was used as) a drinking-cup : but the first sense seems to agree 
best with the preceding line. 

304. Walks roundj ^c] When a person b drunk, the house^ and 
every thiiig in it, seems to turn round. 

— With double candles,'] The table seiems to move upward, and 
each candle appears double. 

305. Go now.'] After what you have heard, go and doubt, if yea 
call, of the truth of what follows. 

fVith vhai a scoffs Sfc] With what an impudent scoff she 

turns up her nose, in contempt of the goddess, mentioned I. 307 — 9. 

306. What CoUacia may say^ ^c] What a filthy dialogue passes 
between the impudent CoUacia and her confidant Maura. These two, 
and TuIIia above mentioned, were probably weil.known strumpets in 
that day. 

307. Tlie^ old altar, Sfc] Chastity had ah aUar, and was long 
worshipped as a goddess, but now despised and affronted by the 
beastly discourses and actions of these women. 

30S. Here they put their sedans, Sfc] When they went on these 
nightly expeditions, they ordered, their chairs to be set down here 
for the purpose. See sat. i. 1. 32, and note ; and this sat. 1. 91, note. 

310. The moon being wifn€ss.] Diana, the goddess of chastity, in 

Digitized by 



When ointments, mixed with Falernan wine, foam, 
When she drinks out of a sheH, when now, with a whirl, the house 
Walks round, s(nd the table rises up with double candles. 
Go now, and doubt with what a scoff Tullia sups up 30jr 

The air ; what Collacia may say to her acquaintance Maura, 
When Maura passes by the old ahar of CbiEistity. 
Here they put down their sedans o' nights, here they stain 
And defile the ima^e of the goddess, and each other. 
With their impurities, the moon being witness. 310 

Thence they go away home. You tread, when the light returns, 
In the urine of your wife, as you go to see your great friends. 
The secrets of the good goddess are known, when the pipe 

the loins 
Incites ; and also wi^ the horn, and with wine, the Msenads of 

Are driven, astonished, and toss their hair and howl. 315 

O what unchaste desires in their minds are raised ! 
What a voice do they utter forth ! how great 
A torrent of filthiness flows all about them. 
Laufella proposes a prize among the most impudent strumpets, 
Apd, in the impure contention, obtains the victory : 320 . 

heaven was called Pbcebe, the moon, the sister of Phoebus, or the sun. 
So that this circumstance greatly heightens and aggravates their 
crimes, and shews their utter contempt olf all modesty and chastity. 

312. Of your wife.'] This is argumentum ad hominem, tomakft 
Ursidius the less eager to marry. 

— — To see your greatfriendsJ] People went early in the morn* 
ing to the levees of their patrons. See sat iii. 127 — 30, and sat. v. 

3^3. The secrets of the good goddess J] Secreta — the secret rites* 
— -t. e» the profanation and abuse of them by these women ; these 
are now notorious. See before, sat. ii. I. S6, and note. 

313 — 14. Tke pipe-'-Jiorn — ] These rites were observed with 
music and dancing, which, among thfese abandoned women, served 
to excite the horrid lewdness mentioned afterwards. See sat ii« 
!. Cto. 

314. Monads of Priapus^'] Maenades Priapi. — ^The Maenades 
were women sacrificcrs to Bacchus; called Maenades, from the 
Gr. fAcuvofJLOi, to be mad — for so they appeared by their gestarea 
^nd' actions. Thus, these women, from their horrid acts of lewd- 
ness, might well be c^^d the Masnades, or mad votaries of the 
obscene Priapus. 

— — With wine^ Sfc."] All these circumstances were observable 
in the Maenades, in their frantic worship of Bacchus. 

316. O what unchaste desires, Sfc.'] This, an4 the following lines, 
down to 1. 333, exhibit a scene of lewdness, over which 1 have 
drawn the veil of paraphrase, in the words principaily of a later 
ingenious translator. 


Digitized by 



tipsa Medullinae frictum crksiintis adorat. 
Palmam inter dominas virtue natalibus aequat, 
; Nil tibi.per ludum simulabitur, omiii^ fieut 
' Ad verum, quibus incendi jam frigidus sevo 

Laoine^gptiadeSy et Nestoris hernia possk. ^ 325 

' Tunc p rurig o moras impatiens : tunc fcemioa simplex ; 

£t pariter toto repetitus clamor ab antro : 
Vi Jam fas est^ admitte viros : jam dormit adulter ? 
0^' I lUaJubet sumpto juvenem properare cucuUo: 

I ^i, mhil est, servis incurritur : abstuleris spem - 35b 

i Servprum, veniet conductus aquarius : hie si 

i Quseritur^et desunt homines ; mora nulla per ipsam, 

i^C^uo minus imposito cluuem submittat asello. 

Atque utinam ritus veteres, et publica saltern 

His intacta malis agerentur sacra : sed omnes 335 

NoTerunt Mauri, atque Indi, qws psakria penei% 

Majorem, quam sint duo Caesaris Anticatoues, 

lUuCy testiculi' sibi conscius unde fugit mus, 

Intulerit ; ubi velari pictura jubetur, 

Quscunque imitata figuram est. ' 340 

£t quis tunc hominum contemptor numinis ? aut qub 

Sympuvium ridere Numae, nigrumque catinum, 

£t Va^!kno fragites de monte patellas 

Attsus erat ? sed nunc ad quas non Clodius aras .^ 

325. PriamJi The last king of Troy ; he Hred to a great age^ 
and was slain by Pyrrhus at the siege of that city. Priam was 
the stm of Laomedon ; hence he is called Laomedontiades. 

Nestor."] King of Pylos ; he is said to have lived three 

ages, and to have had an hernia, or rnptiirOb 
. 327. ne den.'] Antrum is a den, or cave, or piiyy larking* 

Slace. — ^Such, no doubt^ was clf?^'^ by these abant- » i«» 

» meet in, ^ A. - 

329. Hood,] -—1. 118, note, to disguise hun, 

336. What singing-wencky Sfc] This, as plainly appears trorik 
Ivhat follows, alludes to P. Clodius, who, under the disguise of 
a nnging-girly in order to get at "Pompeia, Csesar's wife, went 
into die house of Cassar, where' the women were celebrating the 
rites of the Bona Dea. See a full account of this. Ant. Univ. 
Hist. vol. xiil. p. 145— -7, and note b. 

^ — T The Moors and Indians^] The inhabitants of the western 
and eastern parts of the world — q* d. This transaction qf Clodius 
was pnblic enough to be known all the world over. 

337* Anticaios of Casar.] J. CsesaT) to reflect on the inenidr;^ 
llf Cato Major, nf rote two books, which he called Anti-Catos ; and 
when they wer^ rolled up in the form of a cylinder, as all books 
then were, they made, a considerable bulk. 

341. fVho of men was then^ ^c] While H^ rites of the Bona Dtt^ 

iDi'gitized by Google 


She is all in rapture when MeduUkw acts her part. 

The more vile, the more honour they obtain. 

Nothing is feigned, all things are done 

To the trudi, by which might be fired^ now cold with age^ 

Priam, and the hernia of Nestor. 325 

Then their situation makes them impatient : then the woman i» 

And a clamour is repeated together thro' all the den : [*' dy T-* 
** Now 'tis right, admit the men : is the adulterer asleep alrea* 
She bids a youtli hasten, with an assumed hood: 
If there be none, she rushes on slaves : if you take away th^ 

hope 530 

Of having slaves, let an hired water-bearer come z if he 
Be spi^ht, and men are wanting, there's no delay thro* her^ 
That she can not prostitute herself to an asa« 
I could wish tlie ancient rites, and the public worship, 
Might at least be observed untouched by these evils : but all 3^35 
The Moors, and Indians, know what singing-wench brought 
A stock of impudence, more full than the two Anticatos of Csssar, 
Thither, from whence a mouse flieth, conscious that he is a male ; 
Where every picture is commanded to be cover'd, 
Which imitates the figure of the other sex. 340 

And who of men was then a despiser of the deity ? or who 
Dared to deride the wooden bowl of Numa, and the black dish^ 
And ^ .brittle ware from the Vatican mount? 
But uow at what altars is there not a Clodius i 

were observed with such decency and purity as are hinted at in th« 
preceding lines, inhere was there a man to be found hardy enough 
to act in contempt of the goddess ? 

349 Th/>'^-^f}{ien bowl of ^^ ] Numa was the second king of 
the , "'Vn&e instituted *. religious orders, and among the 

rest that of the vestals, who were the appointed priestesses of the 
Bojna Dea : these were obliged, by vow, to chastity, which, if they 
violated, they were buried aliye. The sympuyium was a wooden^ 
or, according to some, an earthen bowl, used in their sacrifices by 
the institution of Numa. See an account of the vestals, Kennett^ 
Ant. book ii. part ii. chap. 6. 

^e black dish.'] Some other of the sacrificial implements. 

343. From the Vatican mount,'] Vessels made from the clay of 
this hill, which were also used in the sacrifices, and held formerly 
in the highest veneration. 

344. At what altars, Sfc] However these rites were venerated in 
times past, so that no man, but the debauched and impudent Clo. 
dins, would have violated them by his presence, yet, so depraved are 
mankind grown, just snch as he was are now e?ery day to be found^ 
and who shew ibeir impieties at ejcry altar. 

Digitized by 



Audio quid Teteres olixn moneatis amici : 345 

Pone seraniy cohibe. Sed quis custodiet ipsoi 
Custodes ? cauta est, et ab illis incipit uxon 
. Jamque eadem summis pariter minimisque libido ; 
Nee melior, silicem pedibus quae content atrum, 
Quaoi qu% longorum vehitur cervice Syrorum. 350 

Ut spectet ludos, conducit Ogulnia vestem, 
Conducit comites^ sellam, cervical, arnicas, 
Nutricem, et flavam, cui det^andata, puellam. 
Haec tamen, argenti superest quodcunque patemi;^ 
Jjaevibus aditetis, ac vasa novissima donat. 351 

Multis res ahgusta domi est : sed nulla pudorem 
Paupertatis habet ; nee se metitur ad ilium, 
Quern dedit hsec, posuitque modum. ^Tamen utile quid sit, 
. Prospiciunt aliquando viri ; frigusque^ famemque, 

345. / kear^ ^o.] q. d, I know what the friends of a man that 
had such a wife would have adyised in old times, when they m^ght, 
perhaps, haye found somebody that they might have trusted; they 
would have said — " Lock her up — confine her— don^t let her go 
<* abroad — set somebody to watch — appoint a keeper to guard her." 
I answer, this mig^ have succeeded then, but, in our more modem 
times, who will ensure the fidelity of the people that are to guard 
her ? Now all are bad alike — therefore, whom shall we find to watch 
the keepers themselyes 2 

347. /* *fy, 8^0*1 And will watch her opportunity to tamper with 
the very people you set to watch her ; she will bribe them over to 
her designs — these she will begin with first. 

ZAS. And nozD,'] Now-a-days all are corrupt alike, frmn tht 
highest to the lowest of them. 

349. Wears out the black Jlinty 6sc7\ Who tramps the streets on 

350. Who is carried^ S^c.'] In her chair on the shoulders of twi 
Syrian slaves, the tallest and stoutest of which were always selected 
for this purpose. Cervix signifies the hinder part of the neck, and 
sometimes the shoulders. Ainsw. This is the most naturaJ In. 
terpretation of the word in this place. See sat. i. 64 ; sat. iii. 240^ 
and note. 

351. May see plays, 1 May go to the public theatres. 

Hires a garment,^ Something finer than sh« has of her 


352. AtlendantsJ] Waiting-women to attend her. 

A chairJ] Sellam. — ^'Fhis may mean a seat at the theatre^ 

as well as a chair to be carried thither. 

A pillow.'] Or cushion to lean upon, like other fine ladies. 

Female friends.'] Who may appear tfs her clients and depen* 


353. A mtrse."] The rich and noble had always, among their fe- 
male servants^ a woman whose business it was to look after theit 

Digitized by 


fljlT.n. JUVENAL'S SATIRES. iii 


I hear what ancient friends would formerly advise. 345 

Put a lock — ^restrain her. But who will keep her very 
Keepers ? your wife is sly^ and begins from diese. 
And, now-41-days, there is the same lust in the highest and is 

jhe lowest. 
Nor is she better who wears out the black flbt with her foot, 
Than she who is carried on the shoulders of tall Syrians. 350 

That she may see plays, Oguhiia hires a garment, 
She hires attendants, a chair, a pillow, female friends, 
A nurse, and a yellow-haired girl to whom she may give her 

' commands. 
Yet she, whatever remains of her paternal money. 
And her last plate, gives to smooth wrestlers. 359 

Many are in narrow circumstances : but none has the shame 
Of poverty, nor measures herself at that measure 
Which this has given, and laid down. Yet what may be useful 
Sometimes men foresee ; and cold and hunger, at length 

children^ Ogulnia, io exhibit this piece of expense, had such a one 
in her saite when she went into public, and was foolish enough to 
hire some woman for the purpose. 

353. A ffellov^Jiaired girlS] Shining yellow hair was reckoned i| 
great beauty, insomuch that iava puella b equal to pulchra pueila.-— 
So Hon. lib. ii. ode iv. 1. 14. 

' PbyHidiiT ilaTSB decoient pftrentet. - - ' 
And agaiU) lib. iii. ode ix. 1. 10. 

Si flava excutitur Chloe. 

To whom she may give her commands.'] As to her confi* 

dante, impartiog some message, perhaps, to her gallant. 

355. Gives to smooth wrestlers,"] The end of all is, that, 
after her vanity and folly are gratified, by an expensive appearance 
which she can't afford, she spends the very last shilling, to gratifjr 
her passion for young and handsome wrestlers. By the epithet 
lasves, smooth — ^we may understand that the wrestlers, in order to 
engage the affections of the women by their appearance, plucked 
off the hairs of their beards to make their faces smooth, and to give 
them an appearance of youth. It was the fashion for the ladies t0 
be very fond of performers on the stage, such as actors, wrestlers, 
&c. See the story of Hippia, in this satire, 1. 82-^113. 

356. None has the shame^ ^fc.] No woman dreads the disgrace 
of reducing herself to poverty by her extravagance, or is possessed 
of that modest frugality which should attend narrow circumstances. 

357. Measures herself i^ &;€.] Metaph. from ascertaining the 
quantity of tlungs by measure. 

358. Which this has given^ S^c] However poor a woman may 
be, yai she never thinks of proportioning her expenses to her cir» 
cumstances, by measuring what she can spend by what she ha*. 

Digitized by 



Fonnici tandem quidam expsvim magistri!^ SGO 

Prodiga non sentit pereuntem foefmina censum : 
At velut exhaust^ redivivus pullulet arc& 
Numinusy et e pieno sanper tollatur acervo^ 
Kon unquam reputat, quainti sibi gaudia constent* 

f Suot quas eunuchi imbelies, ac mollia semper S6S 

\ Osciila delectent, et desperado barbe^ 

, £t quod abortivo non est opus. lUa voluptas 

j Summa tamen^ quod jam calidi matura juveQt& 

I Inguhia traduntur medicis^ jam pectiae nigro. 

I Ergo expectatosy ac jussos crescere primum 370 

1 Testiculos, postquam coeperunt esse iHlibres^ 

' Tonsoris daimio tantum rapit Helipdorua. 

- Conspicuus loi^e^ cunctisque m>tabilis intrat 

! Balnea^ nee dubie custodem vitis et horti 

\ Provocat, a dominie factus spado : dormiat ille 375 

f Cum domini: sed tu jam durum^ Posdumie^ jamqn^ 

^ Tondendum eunucho Bromium committere noli. 
Si gaudet cantu, nullius fibula durat 
Vocem vendentis Praetoribus. Organa semper 
In manibus : densi radiant testudine tot& 380 

Sardonyches : crapo numerantur pectine cbords. 
Quo tei^r IJedymeles operam dedit : hunc tenet^ hoc se 

360. Taught it by the imt,'] Which is said to prdTide, and f o lay 
lip in summer, against the hanger and cold of the winter. See Hot. 
fiat. i. lib. i. 1. 33 — 8. 

365. There are someJ] The poet, here, is inveighing against the 
abominable lewdness of the women, in their lore for eunuchs— *but, 
for decency's sake, let us not enter into the paragraph abore trans« 
lated, any farther than ihe translation, or rather paraphrase, in 
which it is left, must necessarily lead us. 

375. Keeper of the vines and gardens,'] u e, Priapus* 

378. No publw performer, Sfc.'] Literally — the button at nt>n# 
Celling his voice to the praetors. The praetors gave entertainments 
to the people at their own expense, and, among others, concerts of 
music ; the vocal parts of which were performed by youths, who 
hired themselves out on these occasions^ and who, to preserve their 
voices, had clasps or rings put through the prepuce, in order to pre* 
vent their intercourse with women, which was reckoned injurious to 
their voice— these rings were called fibulas — but the musical ladies 
wets so fond of these people, that they made them sing so much as 
to hurt their voices, insomuch that they received no benefit from the 
use of the fibulae. 

We read supr. 1. 73, of some lewd- women who loosed this but« 
ton, or ring, from the dingers, for another purpose, for which thej 
jrere at great expense. See 1. 73, and note. 

379f The musical instrumentsy Sfc,'] Organiim«-Hieems a general 

Digitized by 



Some have fear'dy being ttiigfit it by the ant. 360 

A prodigal woman does not perceive a perishing Income : 
Buty as if money reviving virould increase in the exhausted chest. 
And would always be taken from a full heap, 
She never considers how much her pleasures cost her. 
f There are some weak eunuchs, and their soft kisses 365 

Will always cblight, and the despair of a beard, 
Also that there is no need of an abortive. But that 
Pleasure is the chief, that adults, now in warm youth. 
Are delivered to the surgeons, now bearing signs of puberty. 
Heiiodorus, the siTrgeon, performs the operation 379 

When all is full grown, &11 but the beard, 
W bich is the barber's loss only. 
Afar off conspicuous, and observable by all, he enters 
The baths, nor does this eunuch, made so by his mistress. 
Doubtfully vie with the keeper of the vines and gardens : 375 
Let him sleep with his mistress : but do you, Posthumus, 
Take care how you put your boy Bromius in his power*. 

If she delights in singing : no public performer 
Can keep himself safe. The musical instruments are always 
{n her hands : thick, on tfa^ whole lute, sparkle 380 

Sardonyxes : the ch<»rds are run over in order with the trembling 

With which the tender Hedymeles performed : this she keeps, 

name for musical in8traments.-r^. d. If she be a performer herself, 
she observes vu9 mo<feratiQ9. j she does nothing ebe but play from 
QK>rniiig till night. 

381. Th^ sardof^i9e$.'] The sardonyx is a^ precious stone, partly 
the colour of a m^a's nail, and partly of a corndian-colbur. By 
this passi^^ it seen^ that these ladies were so extiavagant, as to or. 
nament their musical instruments with costly stones and jewels* 
Oyid describes ApoUo's lyre as adorned with gems and ivory. Met. 
liJiK ii. 1. 167, 

r- The iremUing gut//.] Th^ struck the strmgs sometime* 

. with the fingers^ sonietimes with a piece of ivory made in form of » 
quiil^ which was cidtod pecten. So Vibg. ^n. vi. L G46, 7. 

Obloqoitur numeris septem discrimina Tocuro^ 
Jaaique eadem digitis, jam pectiae pulsat eburno. 

Grispus here may like crbpans, signify quivering, trembling^ 
from its effect upon the strings, to which it gives, and from them, im 
a measure, receives, a vibratory motion. 

382. Iledi/meies.'] Son^ie famous harper^, who was called so from 
Gr. ^v?, sweet, and /4f^o(> a song. The pecten, or quill, that he 
made use of,, was very highly valued, no doubt, by these fantastical 

^ — ^t^rfovml'd.l QperamdecUt-^madtuseofinplajing^ ^ 

Digitized by 



Solatur, gratoque indulget basia plectro. 

Quaedam de numero Lamianimy ac nominis alti, 

Cum farre et vino Janum, Vestatnque rogabat, 385 

An Capitplinam deberet Pollio quercum 

Sperare, et fidibus promittere. Quid faceret plus 

iBgrotante viro ? medicis quid tristibus erga 

Filiolum f stetit ante aram, nee turpe putavit * 

Pro cithar& velare caput ; dictataque verba 390 

Protulit7 (ut mos est^) et apert& palluit agnft. 

Die mihi nunc, quaeso, die, antiquissime Divikm, 

Respondes his^ Jane pater? magna otia cceii :* 

Non est, (ut video,) non est, quid agatur apud voft« 

Haec de comoedis te consulit : ilia tragoedum 395 

Commendare volet ; varicosus fiet haruspex. 

Sed cantet potius, quam totam pervolet urbeni 

Audax, et coetus possit quam ferre virorum ; 

Cumque paludatis dueibus, praesente marito. 

Ipsa loqui rect& facie, strictisque mamillis. '' 400 

383. The grateful quUL'] Grato here signifies acceptable— 
agreeable. — ^See sat. iii. 1. 4. — ^Plectro, plectrum, as well as pecten, 
signifies the quill, or other thing with which the strings were stricken^ 
(from Gr. vXrKnru, to strike.) The poet is setting forth the folly 
and absurdity of these musical ladles, who preseryed as sacred re. 
lies, and consoled themscWes in the possession of, and even bestowed 
kisses on, any instruments that had belonged to some admired and 
fayourite performer. 

384. Of the numbi^.'] i, e. Of the Laniian name or family. 
Of the Lamue.j A noble family whose origin was from 

Lamus, the king and founder of the city of Formiae, in Campania. 

385. With meal and mne^ The usual offering. 

Janus and VestaJ] The most ancient and first deities of the 

. 386. PoUioJ\ Some favourite and eminent mnsldan. 

The Capitolinian oakr\ Domitian instituted sports in h<lnonr 

of Jupiter Gapitolinus, which were celebrated every fifth year ; he 
that came off conqueror was rewarded with an oaken crown. . 

387. Promise it to his instruments^ t. e» That he shoald so per« 
form, as to excel all his competitors. 

InstrumerUJ\ Fidibus.^— -Fides signifies any stringed instru- 
ment — Whence our word fiddle. 

388. The physicians being sad,"] Shaking their heads, and giving 
4>ver their patient. 

389. Her son,"] Filiolumi — ^her little only son. 

390. To veil her head.'] As suppliants did. 
For a harp.] i. e. An harper. Metonym. 

Words dictated.] Some form of prayer prescribed for such 


t91> Wh€n (h§ lamb was opened.] She trembled and grew paU 

Digitized by 



With this she solaces herselfi and indulges kisses to the gratefiti 

A certain lady, of the number of the Lamias, and of high name, 
With meal and wine ask'd Janus and Vesta, 385 

Whether Pollio ou^ht for the Capitolinian oak [more 

To hope, and promise it to his instrument. What could she do 
If her husband were sick ? what, the physicians being sad, to* 

Her little son i she stood before the altar, nor thought it shameful 
To veil her head for a harp : and she uttered words dictated, SQO 
(As the custom is,) and grew pale when the lamb was opened. 
*^ Tell me now, I pray, tell me, O thou most ancient of gods, 
** Father Janus, do you answer these? the leisure of heaven is 

" great ; ['* among you, 

<' There is not, (as I see,) there is not any thing that is done 
** This (lady) consults you about comedians: another would re- 

^ commend $95 

** A tragedian : the soothsayer will have swelled legs.'' [whole 
But rather let her sing, than audacious she should fly over the 
Town, and than she should endure assemblies of men ; [band. 
And with captains in military attire, in the presence of her hns 
Converse, with an unembarrassed countenance, and with bare 

breasts. 400 

irith anxiety for the event; for, from the appearance and state of 
the bowels of the sacrifices, the soothsayers foretold future things. 

392. Most ancient of gods,l See note above, I. 385. 

393. Do you answer these.] Such requests of such votaries. 

— ^ The leisure of heaven is gretU^ ^c] The gods must s.arely 
have very little to do if they can attend to such prayers, and to such 
subjects as fiddlers and actors. Juf cnal here, as in other passages^ 
ridicules the Roman mythology. 

396. The soothsayer.] Who is forced to stand so (^ten, and for 
80 long together, while they are offering their prayers. 

^ WiU have szoelled legs.] With standing at the altar. Vari- 

cosus signifies having large veins from the swelling of the dropsy-— 
or from standing long — ^the blood settling a good deal In the lower 
parts, and swelling the veins of the legs. 

397. Audacious.] In an impudent, bold manner, like a prosti* 

398. Assemblies of m0n.] Suffer herself to be in their company^ 
wad join in free conversation with them. 

399. In military attire.] Paludatis — ^having on the paludamen. 
tnm, which was a general's white or purple robe, in which he 
marched out of Rome on an expedition — officers in their r^[imentals 
« — red coats, as we should say. 

400. An unembarrassed countenance.] Recta facie— wi^ her face 
straight and uprigTit, not turned aslde^^.or held down, at any thing 
like saw or heard* 

Digitized by 



Hec eadem novit^ quid loto fiat in ofbe i 
Quid Seres, q|uid Thraces agant : secreta novercse, 
£t pueri : quis amet : quis decipiatur adulter. 
Dicety quis viduam praegnantem fecerit, et quo 
Mense ; quibus verbis coDcumbat quaeque, modis qiiot. 40S 
Instant^n regi Arnienio, Parthoque Cometem 
Prima videt: finnamy rumoresque itla recentes 
Excipit ad portas ; quosdam facit : isse Niphatem 
In populos, magnoque iUic cimcta arva teneri 
IHluvio : nutare urbes, subsidere terras, -410 

Quocunque in trivio, cuicunque est obvia, narrat. 

Nee tamen id vitium magis intolerabile, quam quod 
Vicinos humilea rapere, et concidere lom 
Exoratia solet : nam si latratibus alti 

Rumpuntur somni ; fiistes hue ocyus, inquit, 415 

Afferte, atque ilUs doinuium jubet ante fenri, 
Deinde canem : gravis occursu, teterrima vultu. 
Balnea nocte subit : conchas^ et castra moveri 
Nocte jubet ; magno gaudet sudare^tumultu : 
Cum lassata gravi cecKterunt brachia mass^l^ 420 

401. Bare breast^.'] Strictis-^literallj, drawn otiir— metaph. from 
a sword drawn for an attack. 

Knows what may be doing, ^c] The poet now Inveighs 

against the sex as gossips and tale-bearers, eqnallj dispersing about 
public news and private scandal. 

402. The Seres.^ The Seres were a people of ScTthia, who, by 
the help of water, got a sort of down from the leaves of trees, and 
therewith made a khid of silk. 

Thrackms,'] Were a people of the most eastern part of 

Europe — these were enemies to the Romans, but at length subdued 
by theiQ' 

J%e gecrets of a stepmfnother, ^c.} Some scandalous story 

of an intrigue between a step-mother and her son-in-law. 

403. Who may love, ^c] i. e. Be in love. — ^This, and the two 
following lines, describe the nature of female tittle-tattle, and scan- 
dal, very humourously* 

406. Comet threatening^ ^c] Instantem — standing over, as it 
were,' and threatening, as the vulgar notion was, destruction to tha 
Armenians and Parthians, who were enemies to the Romans. 

407. She Jarst 9eesJ] The poet here ridicules her pretensions to 
wisdom and foresight. 

Report,"] Famam — ^rumour — common talk — scaindal. 

40d. At the doors.'] Where she stands listening — to have it all* 
ttt first hand. 

She makes,] Invents out of her own head. 

The Nqthates,] A river of Armenia. 

406 — 9." Had gone over the people ^ Sfc] Drowned tha inhabi«* 
tants, and overflowed the country. 

Digitized by 



This same knows vfhfk nyiy be iloing «}I ^ W^Vi^ 4>^^ • 
What the Seres a«d ThrackDs nu^ tie ipwt ^ ^ ^Wffl^ ^ 9. 

And her boy : who may love : what «iulter^r m9 b^ fl^p^y^d; 
She will tell who jude a widow pre^iMil, mi m wbfiA 
Month : with what langiiagp eiKei^' wotmi iotrigU^j mi ^ ^o^ 

many ways. .^fip 

The comet threatening ^die Armenian imA Parlbi^W kiQgp 
She first sees : refMrt, and^rncent f umQwra^ [f^ i^d g<wie 

She catches up at the doors ; aone aha mmm ^ that |iiie N jj^« 
Over the people, and that ithesB all the jftdda Wf^t(9 ocQiifiied 
By a great delug« : dipt cities tatter, tand kmU mif^9 4)9 

She tells in e\(ery ptihiic atoart, to s^omsoeK^ ,9l^ .9?^>^/ 

Nor yet is that fault more intoilerahfe^ ih»i) ithftt 
To seize, and sla^ wiidi sdiips her humble om^ibwr^^ 
Entreated she is wont : for if iby barkings )her 90Vi^ . 
Sleep is broken ; ^* dbibs/^ says she, <* hidi^r fi^i^ 4}<^ 

^< Bring" — ^and witli them .^omn^inds iba lOMt^r &x%t to %e 

beaten, . £t€»^flQe, 

Then the dog. Terrible to be met, and most frightful in coun- 
She goes by night to die baths: her 4:ofichs \sA baggage she 

^To be moved by ni^: $he rejoices to sweat with great tumult; 
"When her arms have fs^len, tired with the heavy mass, 4^ 

410. Cities totter— ^ands sink.'] By eartii^«ake8< 

411. Public street.] TriYhtm — ^signifies a place wNro t|ime wtf s 
.meet — ^a place of cpmmon resort. 

412. T^^ryet is that faulty ^c] TThe poet here «ii6ws the pride, 
impatience, and cruelty of these ^ne ladies, wko, because diey happ^ 
to be disturbed by the barking of a 4og, send out their sarrants 
with whips and dilbs, ordering them to beat their poor neighbours 
mosti)arbarotisly,tfaou^ they entreat forgiveness, aad thea /all on 
the dog, 

417. Terrihie to he mety Sfc] Beartag the signs pf anger and 
cruelty ipher countenance and aspect 

418. Btf nighf.] M a late and unseasonable hoar, ^aenoie on 
sat. i. 49 ; and on sat. .xi.^4. Paas. sat. iii. 4. 

Her condhs.] Conchas — may signify boxes, ^r shells, far 

ointments, which were used at the baths. 4Sec before, 1. «03. 

-i — ■- Baggage.] Things of various sorts whioh. were ased at tlie 
bath?^ which the poet humourously calls castra, from their.wariety 
aud number — ^like camp equipage. Metaph. 

419. To be moved:] To be carried after har. The word^sipveri 
is metaphorical, and allttdes to the castra. 

4^0. When her ^ired arms, iSfc] They that sweated btfore they 
bathed, Swung two leaden masses, or balls, to piioiBota p^cSfMca- 

VOL. I. R 

Digitized by 



Calliduil et cristae digitos impressit aliptes, 

Ac surnmum dominae femur exclamare coegit^ 

(Convivae miseri interea somnoque fameque , 

VrgeDtur,) tandem ilia venit rubiomdula, totuih 

CEnophorum sitiens, plen& quod tenditur uni& 425 

Admotum pedibus> de quo sextarius alter 

Ducitur ante cibum, rabidam iacturus oreximi 

Dum redit, et loto terram ferit intestino. ^ 

Marmoribu& rivi properant, aut lata Falemum 

Pelvis olet : nam sic tanquam aha in dolia Iougu9 43Q 

Deciderit serpens, bibit, et vomit. Ergo maritus 

Nauseaty atque oculis bilem substringit opertis. 

Ilia tamen gravior, quas cum discumbere coepit^ 
Laudat Virgilium, periturae ignoscit Elisas ; 
Committit vates, et comparat ; inde Maronem, 435 

Atque ali& parte in trutin& suspendit Homerum. 
Cedunt grammatici, vincuntur rhetores, omnis 
Turba tacet; nee causidicus, nee praeco loquatur^ 
Altera nee mulier : verborum taota cadit vis ; 

421. The anotnter.'] Aliptes — so called from aXu^or, to anoint. 
This was some person who attended to anoint the bathers. 

423. Her miserable guest s^ Sfc.'] The people who were invited 
to supper at her house were half starred with hunger, and tired ak 
most to death with expecting her return from the bath^ where she 
staid, as if nobody was waiting for her. 

424. Somewhai ruddy, '\ Flushed in the face with her exercise at 
the bath, or, perhaps, from a consciousness of what had happened 
between her and the alipt^. 

425. A whole Jlagon^ Sfc."] (Enophornm — ^from wvo^, wine, and 
^1(0), to bear or carry. This seems to have been a name for any 
vessel in which they brought wine, and was probably of a large size. 

426. Another sextaryS] i. e. A second — implying that she had 
drunk off one before. The sextarius held about a pint and an 
half. AiNsw. 

427. To provoke an eager appetiie.'] Orexim — from o^e|i;^ an 
eager desire, quod ab o^tyo^xM, appeto, to desire earnestly. 

It was usual for the Roman epicures to drink a sort of thin and 
sharp Falernan wine, (sat. xiii. 1. 216.) to make them vomit, before 
meals, that the stmnach, being cleared and empty, might be more 
sensibly affected with hunger, and thus the party enabled to eat the 
more. See sat. iv. 67. This wine was called tropes, from r^ovn^ 

Bibit ergo tropeiii ut Tomati Mart. Ikh. xii. ep. B3. 

428. Till it returns.'] Is brought up again. 

With her washed inside.'] The washing of her stomach. 

4^9. Rivers^ Sfc] The wine brought up from her stomach gushes 
on. the marble pavement like a river — or she vomits into a basoa^ 
which smeUs of the wine vomited up from her stomach. 

Digitized by 



-And the sly anoioter has played her an unlucky* trick, 

By taking mk^e- liberties with her person, [Iiunger,) 

(Her miserable gUests in the mean time are urged with sleep and 

At last she conies somewhat ruddy, thirsting after 

A whole flagon, which, in a full pitcher^ is presented, 425 

Placed at her feet ; of. which another sextary 

Is drunk up before meat, to provoke an eager a{^tite> 

Till it returns,t and strikes the ground with her washed inside^ 

Rivers hasten on the pavement, or of Faleman the wide 

Bason smells : for thus, as if into a deep cask a long 430 

Serpent had £sillen, she drinks and vomits. Therefore her 

Turns sick, and restrains his choler with his eyes covered. 

Yet she is more irksome, who, when she begins to sit at table. 
Praises Vii^il, and forgives Elisa about to die : 
She matches the poets,,and compares them ; then Virgil, 435 
And, on the other part. Homer, she suspends in a scale. 
The grammarians yield, the rhetoricians are overcome^. 
All the crowd is silent ; neither lawyer, nor crier, can speak, 
.Nor an^' other woman : there falls so great a force of words : 

430 — 1. As if a long serpent^ ^c] PLimr, lib. x. c. 72. testi- 
fies that serpents are very greedy of wine. His words are— ^Sdi*. 
pentes, cum occasio est, vinam praecipue appetunt, dam alioque elU 
guo Indigeant potu. But this one should suppose a mere notiod, a 
sort of vulgar error, which, probably, Juvenal means to laugh at. 

43d. Restrains his choler,'] The husband, finding himself gfow 
sick at the sight, hides his eyes, that he may not any longer behold 
what he finds likely to raise hn choler and resentment, which ho 
dares not vent. — Or perhaps — ^by bilem substringet, we may udder- 
stand that he keeps himself from vomiting up tlie bile frdm his sto- 
mach, by no longer beholding his wife in so filthy a situation, and 
therefore puts his hands before his eyes to cover them. 

433. Vet she is more irksome.] The poet now tnveighsdgainst 
such of the sex- as were pretenders to learning aUd criticism, and 
who affected wisdom and eloquence. 

434. ForgtT>es Elisa^ Sfc] Finds excuses, and endeavours to jus- 
tify queen Dido, &c. (called also Elisa, Mu. iv. 1. 335.) when she 
was going to destroy herself for love« 

435. Matches,] Sec sat. i. 163, note. 

436. She ^spends Honter^ Sfc] Runs d parallel between Homec 
and Virgil, and weighs in her opinion, as in a balance, their several 
merits* . 

439. So great a force of wotds^ S^c] The poet humourously re- 
presents orators add grammarians as quite outdone by this learned 
lady ; and that her vociferation is such, that neither a Common crier, 
nor a bawling lawyer, nor the Company (turba) that surrounds her, 
can -have an opportunity to put in a syllable — such a torrent of 
-words comes frojn her, that it bears down all before it. 

Digitized by. 


f44 JUTfiNALIS SATIRcfi. «wr.% 

Tot pariter pAfCB, tot ^b^mbula tiioas ^i>M 

Puimri. Jam nemo ImbttSy neno «ra fatigel^ 

Una labonirid ^teiit fuociirrere Luntfc. 

Imponit finem Mpiens ^ rebus hone^^si 

N«n quae docta nums tntpit et ftfcunAl Tideri^ 

Crure tenus medio tuatow succingehre debH, 44S 

Csedere SyiVaae porcmn^ ^nadrante iavari. 

Ntm liabeat mairOl]l^ (ibi fme juaete recambkir 
Dicendi gemis^ aitt ciutum vennoiie rotnto 
Torqueat enthymetnay nee faislorias sckt cmtneec 
Sed qiuedam ei^libm, et non tntelligit. Odt 4fi# 

Hanc ego, qus repetit, volvitque Palinmonis artenv 
Servati aemper 1^ et ititione lo^enA^ 
Ignotoaqiie mihi toilet tntiqiSmria versw^ 
!Nec curanda viris Opicae oai^tigat arnica? 
¥wba. Sdheciteum iioett feoisse ifeiaritew "45^ 

441. WiM»y fftmptfi^^ i^'c] iVlien 'the moon %tt '^dllpsed, the 
RomaiM stipiftsfltioosly <liottght that ^e Svas under seme i^ba«*ms or 
incantstioift, agniiiBt wliieli MtlHng wo«ld {ifOfatl but 4fae ^mxA df I 
b^ass, from trumpets, basons, kettles, &c. 

445. Imposes ^he ^nd^ SfcJ] Sraws -the Ihie, is it were^ vkely 
distingubhing, after 4he manner of the .phtkMsoplieTS, on ^e subject 
oif ethics, defining the honestnm, the iiti}e> the .ptdohFttm^ abd frhew 
each begins and ends. 

446. To Ifind her coats up, ^Sf-c.'] A Mj whe -affects ^o mndi 
Jeaming, should, doubtless, imitate the philosophers, as w^l in ^ress 
<as in discourse, that she may completely resemble them. — ^Tbe Peiv 
patetic phOosophexs wore a ooat which came <io }o¥^€Sr than the 

446. An hog of S^'oanus.'] As the philosophers sought groves 
and retired places, in order to have 'more leisure {or stud^ and co»> 
templation, th^ «acnficed an hog to S^ lfann s, -the god. of the 
woods. ' 

Women were not to be ipresmit at the soleauiiily. T^ poet hv^ 
mouYousIy tells these philosophical ladies, 4hat they ought tmdoubl* ' 
edly to haTetl]efpriYilege4>f «io»ific&^, as they t^uoked With philo-. 

To wash for a farthingJ^ The nsnal small fee which ^ba 

poor philosophers paid for bathing. I 

447. Let not the matron,^ The poet now satirioesanothei^^ort 
of learned ladies, wh9 affect (o l)e skilled in lof^c and grammar^ 
insomuch that they are for ever finding fault with every little irm- 
gularity of speech in otiiers. 

448. A method of haranguing.'] Genas dieendi-^^ {wrticiilar 
kind of argumentation— t. e. the art of logic. 

— ^ — Tzsist, Sfc,'] Wind her argument into the small ooeafpasa of 
an enthyineme. — Rotate — f . ^. artfully ^med. 

44Q. Theshortfntlymejm.^ Ai»\xQH^k»d,<d'(gllloffs^ 

Digitized by 


You would say, t]mit so. man^ baspiia> «Q VMOy heUs were 
struck 440 

Together. Now let upbody weiiry trum|iiila» or brass kfitttei, 
She alone could jsuccoy^ 4be It^bouriQg nioon. 
Sh^y a wise wonian, imposes Uie e<id to tbiags hoQe^t- 
Now she who desires to sc^ni too leiarnetd apd eloquentf 
Ought to biud her coats v^ to th« middle of her 1^^ 444 

And slay an hog fo| Sylvamis, a«d wash loor a farthing, . 

Let not the matron* that joined to you lies by yoUy have 
A piethod of Jiar^pguingy nor let her twist, with turned diacour^ 
llie short entl^ii|i9il)e» Hor let her koow 9U histories : [450 

But some things from books, aivi not understand them. I bat^ 
Her who repeats, and turn9 Qver> th^ art of Pala^mon, 
.The law and manner pf spi^akiilg being always preserv^^ 
Ai)4, an antiquarian, holds forth to vie unloiowil versiss. 
And corrects the words 9f her clownish friend 
Not to be noticed by nueu. t^X it be allow^bte for hev bufbaiMl 
to have made ;| spIecisiQ. ^55 

ing only of two propositions, a third being retained in the mind-^ 
e d\f0», whence the nam^. 

44A. Jfnozfi qif hisfor^s.'] 4io» pc pretend to be ^ P^^^f^ct h\9tOr 

450k Some tkitngs from bookS'.'\ f . d. I allow her to ](a?e some 
taste for books, an4 to know a little abopt them. 

Trr^Noi uider$t{ififl themJ] 1. e. Eapsr too deppjy into them* 
She should np^ understanc} top much. 

4i^L J%e art qf Palt^mofi.'] He w^ ^ conceited gr^fnmariai^ 
ffthq sf4d that learning woul4 live and die with hiio. 

459. TV fl^ Wd mqmer of sjpeaiing^ ^p.] T^e poet i^^eans tf 
fay, H^ ^ hs^tes a woi^an who is always conning ^nd turning over 
her grammar-rules, like a pedsmt, ^nd placing her words exactly ii^ 

4|l^ 4n fii^uariqn^ ^-c.] One who is studious of obsolete 
words and phrases, an4 ^p quoting old-fashioned yerses, that nobodjf 
liuo.irs ^ny thing of. 

4^. Hpr cfo^>msh friend.'] Qpicusr—signifies rude, barbarous, 
€lowni8h--4t is derivcKl from the most ancient people of Italy, wjio 
irere ca]]/^<>pici, from ops, th/e e^th, from which they were s^d 
to spriQg. ^ sat. iii. 1- ^7. 

'nis ki^n^ i^dy is s^ipppsed to be so precise, as tp chastise her 
neighbours, if they did not converse in the most elegant modenji 
mani^r, anf} t9 $nd fault with any words which looked like barba- 
risms, such as men wmitd npt observe* 

456. To hgve m^de a solecism.'] So called from the people of 
polos or Sola, a city of Cilicia, who were famous for incongruity of 
speech against gratpmar* 

rl^t her not quarrel witj^ her husband for spiking a little falsa 

R 3 ' ' 

Digitized by 


246 JUVENALIS SATIRiE. iat. >r. 

Nil non permittit mulier sibi ; tutpe patat nil. 
Cum virides gemmas collo circumdedit, et cum 
Auribus* extensis magnos commisit elenchos. 
Intolerabilius nihil est quam foemina dives. 
Interea foeda aspectu, ridendaque multo ^ 460 

Pane tumet facies, aut pinguia Poppsana 
Spiraty et hinc miseri viscantur labr^mariti. 
Ad moechum veniet lot-^ cute : quando videri 
Vult formosa domi ? moecliis foljata parantur ; 
His emitur, quicquid graciles hue mittitis Indi. 465 

Tandem aperit vultum, et tectoria prima reponit : 
Incipit agnosci, atque illo lacte fovetur. 
Propter quod secum comites educit asellas, 
Exul Hyperboreumi si dimittatur ad axem. 
Sed quae mutatis ind\)citury atque fovetur 470 

Tot medicaminibus, coctaeque siliginis oflfas 
Accipit, et madidae ; facies dicetur, an ulcu3 ? 
Est operas pretium pfsnitus cognosc^re totq 

The Spli were a people of Attica, who, being transplanted to 
Cilicia, lost the purity of their ancient tongne, and became ridicn- 
Jous to the Athenians for their improprieties therein. Chambers. 

457. Placed green gems,'] Put pn'an emerald necklace. 

458. Committed^ <^c.] H^ put ear-irings, made of large oblong 
pcarfs, in her ears, which are stretched and extended downwards 
with the weight of them. See Ainsw. Elenchus, '^o. % 

459. Noihing is more intolerable^ ^c] The poet is here «atiriz. 
ing the pride, in dress and behaviour, of wives who have brought 
their husbands large fortunes ; which, by the laws of Rome, they 
Itaving a power of devising away by will to whom they pleased, mad^ 
them insufferably insolent. See 1.. 139, 40. 

461. Swells with much paste.^ Appears beyond its natural big. 
o ess, by a quantity of paste stuck upon it, by way of preserving or 
improving her complexion. See sat. ii. 1. 107. 

Fat Poppeean,^ Poppa^a, the wife of Nero, invented a sort 

of pomatum to preserve her beauty, which invention bore her 

462. Are glued together."] On kissing her — owing to the viscons 
quality of the pomatum with whicl^ she had daubed her face. 

463. To an adulterer , Sfc.] She will wash her face when she i^ 
-to tncet her gallant. 

464. HUndsome at home.] When will she take half these pains to 
appear handsome in the eyes of her husband ? 

— -^Perfumes.] Foliatum was a precious ointment niad« of 
spikenard. Comp. Mark xiv. 3. John xii. 3. Called in Gr, ^de^^wi 
nardns, Lat. The using of this ointment was very expensire. 

465. The slender Indians.] Thin and lean, from the- continual 
waste of their bodies by the heat of the climate. From India were 

Digitized by 



There is nothing a woman dbe» not allow herself in; she 

thinks nothing base. 
When she has placed green gems round her neck, and when 
She has committed large pearls to her extended ears : 
Nothing is more intolerable than a rich woman. 
Mean while, filthy to behold, and to be langh'd at, her face 460 
Swells with much paste, or breathes fat Poppaean, 
And hence the lips of her miserable husband are glued together. 
To an adulterer she will come with a washed skin : when is she 
Willing to seem handsome at home f perfumes ;ure prepared for 

her * [hidier. 465 

Gallants : for these is bought whatever the slender Indians send 
At length she opens her countenance, and lays by her first co-^ 

verings : 
She begins to be known, and is cherL^M with that milk, [dants. 
On account of which she leads forth with her she-asses her atten* 
If an €xHe she be sent to the Hyperborean axis, [changed 470 
But that which is cover*d over, and cherish'd with so many 
Medicaments, and receives cakes of baked and wet flour. 
Shall it be called a face, or an ulcer ? 
It is worth while, to know exactly, for a whole 

Imported varioas ^^weet essences and perfumes, as well as tiie nard^ 
which the ladies made use of. See Esther ii. 12. 

466. She opens her countenancey Sfc.'\ Takes off the paste, (see 
1. 461, note,) and washes off the other materials, only smoothing 
her skin .witii asses' milk. 

HerfirH cffoerwg9,'\ The plaster or paste. 

467. She begins to be knovm."] To lo(^ like herself. 

— - With thai mWc, ^c] The poet alludes here to Poppsea, the 
vife of Nero, above mentioned, (1. 461.) who, when she was ba- 
nished from Rome, had jifty she-asses along with her, for their milk 
to wash in, and to mix up her paste with. 

469. Hyperborean axis.'] The northern pole, (from vm^, supra, 
and ffo^icbi, the north,) hecause from thence die north wind was sup- 
posed to come. • 

470 — I. Changed medicaments.] Such a variety of cosmetics, or 
medicines for the complexion, which are for ever changing widi the 
fashions or humours of the ladies. 

471. Baked and wet flour.] Siliginls. — Siligo signifies a kind of 
grain, the jQour of which is whiter than that of wheat ; this they 
made a kind of poultice or paste of, by wetting it with asses' milk, 
and then applying it like a moist cake to the face. Offa denotes a 
pudding, or such like, or paste made with pulse. Also a cake, or 
any like composition. 

472. A face^ or an ulcer.] Because the look of it, when these 
cakes or poultices are upon it, is so like that of a sore, which is 
treated with poultices of bread and milk, in order to assuage and 
^eanse it, that it may as well be taken for.tbe pne a» the other. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 

949 JUVENILIS SATIRE. #ay. ti^ 

Qind fflbknt, agitmif^e doe. Si nocte maritut 

Aversus jacuit, periit libraria, ponunt 475 

Cosmeta ttraica^, tardv venisse libaraus 

Dicitur, et poenas diedi pendere aomni 

Cogitur : hie frangit ferulfts^ rtibet ilk QiagtSiof 

Hk sca^ft : stmt tfum Ifortoribtis auMm ,pta»taiit. . 

Verberat^ atque obiter fati^m Knil ; audit smiciis^ 460 

Avit hctQih jattx vet^ toniiderst aunim ; 

Et €»deii8 long! liel^git tramatita dkirnt. 

Ei caedit doaec laamxisdentibaS;! '' Exi," 

(Intonet hortendum,) "jam cogmtione peract&." 

Prsfectuta donite Sitmk mm niilidr avift : 4^ 

Nam fli cofistitint^ scditocpie deccn t hi g optst . 

Ornari ; et propemt, jamque expectatur in hortis. 

Ant iipud Isia<^ potins sacraria lense ^ 

475. Tamed nway."] T«rns fab back temtrds fter, and goei t* 
sleep. Sec belaw, I. 477- 

TAe housekeeper,'] Libritria-'Mfc weigker of wool e* flan^ 

(from libra, a balance,) a fiort of housekeeper, #1l066 eflke it tras 
to weigh out and deliver the tasks of wool to ike other seirants for 

SplBBlIII^. ' 

Is undone.'^ Ruined — turlked out of JJor^-^aftdf being 

trxtWy lashed* 

J^he iire-^woinen.'] Cdsmebfe^ from Gr« iKMr^«v» to adorn^ 

were persons who helped to dress their mistresses^ and who had the 
care of their ornameiits^ clothel^j &t;r^— sometlua^ Uko our talets. de 
chambre, or fadj's IvoiMeR. 

'476. Str^.'] Ponnnt tttaicas — put down tiieir clothes from their 
bcMiks to be fleg^. 

-« The LtbufntOhi Sft.] One of her slaves^ who carried her lit. 

ter. These chairmen, as we should call thetn^ were usually from Libur« 
Ida, and were remarkably tali and stout. See sat. ili. 1. ^0.— The 
lady, m her cage^ doesn't spare her own chalfmeR — ^these she taxes 
with coming after their time, and punishes. 

477. For another^s sieep,'] Because her ha^banl turned his back 
to her, and fell asleep. See above, 1. 475. 

478. Ferules.'] Rods, sticks, or' ferules made of a fat piece of 
Wood, wbe^dwith children and slaves w^e corrected. One poor 
feUowi has one of these broken over his shoulders. 

Reddens wUh ike whip,] Is wipped till his back is bloody* 

479. The thong.] Se^tiea — a terrible instroflient of punishment, 
tnadc of leathetn thongs, though not (aecordM^g to Hon. Sat. lib. i. 
sat. iiL 119.) so severe as the tiagellum. Horace also aieations the 
ferula (K 120.) as the mildest of the three* . 

— — Tormentors.] Hire people by the year, who, like execii.. 
tioners, put in execution the cruel orders of their employers. 

480. He bet^Sf Sfc] Oneof those torxBcntors^ hired for ^p.ur« 

Digitized by 



I>ayy what they do, and bgm they easjpioy thenselves. If atoighi 
Thtt husband h»di Uia tunaed awajij the housekeeper is undone 

the tire-women 475 

Strip, the Liburoan is salid to have come late* 
And to be ptfakb'd for anotfier's sleep 

Is compeird : one breaks ferules^ anotbev reddens with thewhipi 
Another with the liiottg : tbwe aie soni^ who pay toimeatort 

by the year. [firiends, 480 

He beats, and she, by the bye^ daubs lier face f. listens, to her 
Or contemplates the broad gold of a& embroider'd garment: 
And as he beats, she reads over the traasactioos of a long journal: 
And still he beats, till the beaters being tir*d^^< Go^*' 
(She horridly tkudders out^) ** now the examination is finished.'*-^ 
The government of the bouse is not milder than a Sicilian 

couit; 485 

For if she has made an assignation, and wishes more becomingly 

than usual [gardens, 

To be dressed, and is in a bnrry, and now w)ated for in the 
Or rather at Ae temple of the bawd Isis, 

pose, laslbes the poor slsrre^, while madam Is employed in her usntd 
course of adotnhig her person, or conversing with com|)any, or look* 
ing at some fine clothes. 

48d. And ns he heats^ S^J] The fellow still lays oa, while she, 
very unconcernedly, looks ovisf the family accounts. 

4S3. He beatSy ^c] Still the beating goes forward, fSl the beaters 
are qnite tired. 

<« Go,*' ^e.] Then she turns the poor snfferers out of doors, 

In the most faanghty manner.-**" Be gone, now," says she, '* the 
^* examination is over — all accounts are now setti^ between us."— ^ 
Cognitio signifies the ezaminatioB of thing3| in order to a discovery, 
as accounts, and the like. 

Cognitio also signifies trial, or bearingef a €ause.*--If we are to 
ufiderstand the word in ihis sense, then she may be supposed to say, 
•a a taaadag manner-^ Be g«ie— ^on have had yo^ triat^the 


cause is over. 

485. Than m SidHan court."] Where the most cruel tyrants pre- 
aided ; ra«h as Phalaris, Diou^sius, &c. See fioju lib. U epist. iL 
1. 4^8, 9. 

486. jhi Mgaif^rMOion,'] ConstituU — ^has appointed«^i. «. to meet a 
gatiant. See sat m. 1% and note. 

487. In the gard&ns.'] Of Lucullus-^na famous place for pleasant 
walks, and where assignations ^ere made. 

488. At the tempie,] Sacraria — places where things sacred to th^ 
^ddess were kept, which had been transferred from Mgypt to Rome. 

. The buwd /m.] Or the Islacan bawd^-for her temple was 

the scene of all manner of lewdness, and attended constantly by pimp% 
rh^wds. and the like* See^at. in. L %%. 

Digitized by 


450 JUVENALIS SATIRE. sit.ti. 

Componit crinem laceratis ipsa c'<)pillis 

Nnda humeros Psecas infelix, nudisque mamiUis. 490 

Altior hie quare cincinnus i taiuiea punit 

Continuo flexi crimen, facinusque capilli. 

Quid Psecas admisit ? quaenam est hie culpa puelbe^ 

Si tibi displicuit nasus tuus ? Altera lasvuttt 

Exteiidit, pectitque comas, et volvit in orbem. 495 

Est in consilio matrona, admotaque lanis . 

Emeriti quae cessat acu : sententia prima 

Hujus erit ; post hanc aetate, atque arte minores 

Censebunt: tanquam famae discrimen agatur 

Aut animae : tsmti est quaerendi cura decyrisi. '500 

Tot premit ordinibus, tot adhuc compagibus altum 

iEdificat caput, Andromachen a fronte videbis ; 

Post minor est : aliam credas. Cedo, si breve parvi 

489. Unhappy Psecas.^ Juvenal gires to Hie waiting-maid the 
name of one of chaste Diana's nymphs, who attended on the person 
of the goddess, and assisted at her toilet in the grotto of the vale 
Gargaphic. Ovid. Met. lib. iii. 1. 155 — 172. This is very hnmoor- 
ous, if we consider the character of the lady spoken of, who is at- 
tended at her toilet by her filles de chambre, who have each, like 
Diana's nymphs, a several office in adorning her person, while all 
these pains, to make herself look more handsome than usual, were be- 
cause she ivas going to meet a gallant. The sad condition of poor 
Psecas bespeaks the violence which she suffered, from her cruel 
mistress, on every the least offence. However, this circumstance of 
her torn and dishevelled locks seems a farther humourous parody 
af the account which Ovid gives of one of Diana's nymphs^ who 
dressed the goddess'6 hair : 

- Ooctior iflia 

Ismenis Crocale, sparsos per coUa capillos 
Coiligit in nodum, quamvb erat'ipsa solutis, 

Ov, ubi supr. 1, 168—70, 

4^1. " Whif h this carl higher P^l i. e. Than it ought to be— says 
the lady, peevishly, to pQor Psecas. 

The bulPs hide,"] Tanrear--a leather whip made of a bull's 

hide, with the strokes of which, on her bare shoulders, (Com p. 1. 490.) 
poor Psecas mu^t atone for her mistake about the height of the curl. 

4^. ne crimej SfcJ] The poet humourously satirizes the mon- 
strous absurdity of punishing servants severely for such trifles as set- 
f tng a curl either too high or too low, as if it were a serious crime— 
a foul deed (facinus) worthy stripes. 

494. If your nose J Sfcj If yon happen to have a deformity in 
your features — for instance, a long and ugly nose — is the poor girl, 
who waits on you, to blame for this ? are you to vent your displea- 
sure upon her ? 

495. The left side.^ Another maid-servant dresses a different side 

Digitized by 



Unhappy Psecas arranges her hair, herself with torn locks. 
Naked to the shoulders, and with naked breasts. — 490 

'< Why is this curl higher ?** — ^The bull's hide immediately 

The crime and fault of a curled lock. 

What has Psecas committed ? what is here the fault of the girl, 
If your nose has displeased you ? Another extends [495 

llie 7«^ft sidcy and combs the locks, and rolls them into a circle. 
A matron is in council, and who, put to the wool. 
Ceases from the dischai^ed crisping-pin : her opinion 
Shall be first ; after her, those who are inferior in age and art 
Shall judge : as if the hazard of her reputation, or of her life. 
Were in question ; of so great importance is the concern of get^ 

ting beauty. 500 

jShe presses with so many rows, and still builds with' so many 

Her -high head, that you will see Andromache in front : 
Behind she is less : you'd believe her another. Excuse her if 

of the lady's head, combs oat the locks^ and tarns tl^em into rings. 
Extendit expresses the action of drawing or stretching out the hair 
with one hand, while the other passes the comb along it. 

496. A matron^ Sfc.'] She then calls a council upon the subject 
of her dress — ^(irst, an old woman, who has been set to the wool, 
(L e. to spin,) being too old for her former occupation of handling 
dexterously the crispin-pin, and of dressing her mistress's hair — 
she, as the most experienced, is to give her opinion first — then the 
younger muds, according to their age and experience. Emerita 
here is metaphorical ; it is the term used for soldiers, who arc dis- • 
charged from the service — such were called milites emeriti. 

500. Of so great importance ^ Sfc*'] One would think that her re- 
putation, or even her life itself, was at stake, so anxious is she of 
appearing beautiful. 

501. She pressesy 4"^.] She crowds such a quantity of rows and 
stories of curls upon her towering head. 

503. Andromache,'] Wife of Hector, who is described by Ovid 
as rerj large and tall. 

pmnibus Andromache visa est spatiosior aequo, 

lJnu9, qui modicam diceret, Hector erat, De Art. ii. 

503. Another.] There is so much difference in the appearance of 
^fif stature, when viewed in front, and when viewed behind, that 
you would not imagine her to be the same woman — ^you would take 
her for another. 

Excuse her,"] Cedo-da — ^veniam understood— </. d. To be 

sure one should in some measure excuse her, if she happen to be a 
little woman, short-waisted, and, when she has not high shoes on, 
iseeming, in point of stature, shorter than a pigmy, insomuch that she 
is forced to spring up on tip-toe for a kiss — ^I say, if such be the casc^ 

Digitized by 



Sortitft est lateria siwtbvy lir^i4or(pie ^idetur 

Vkgine Pygq^, iwiUs adjuta cothurDis, SOi 

£t iem erects consurgit ad oeeula planti? 

Nulla viri cura interea^ nee mentio fiet 
Damnorum : vmt tanquam vicina mariti : 
Hue aolo propiort i|m>d anaicoft conjugia odit, 
£t servos. Gravis est ratiopibua. Ecce furentia 51(1 

BcUomiy asalrkquc Deftm chorus iatrat, et u^eiis 
Semivir^ obscgsDO facies revereuda minori, 
Mollia qui mpt^ sccuit genitalia testi : 
Jaaqiridem cui rauca cohars, cui tyaqpapa cedunt 
Pleiieia, ct Phrygift vestitUF bucca tiar& : S15 

Oiande sonal, metuiqiie jubet Septembris, at austn 
Adf entuixiy nisi se centum lustraverit ovis, 
£t xaranpebnas vcleies donavcrit ipsi i 

one ought to excnse her dressing her head so high, in order ko fjap\9 
the most of her person. — ^Thus be ridicnles Kttle women who meant 
to disguise t^eir stature, either by wearing high-heeled shoes^ or by 
curling thvir hair, and setting it a p as high «^ they covld. , ^ 

Cothurnus signifies a sort of bnskin, wdm by actors in tnig^esi 
with a high hacl to it, that they mght seem th^ taller- 
SOS. Pjfgmewh,'\ Sec sat. juii. I. 168. and n^te, 
$07 — 8, No menlion-^of damt^ges.} Ncrer takes any ^oiice rf 
the expenses she is putting her husband to, and the dama^ she i$ 
doing to his affairs by her eatravagance, and to hi^ comfort a(l4 rot 
putation, by her conduct, 

608. Js the neighbour^ ^c.^ Is upon no other fpotin^ with her 
husband, than if he were an ordAnary acquaintance* 

509. Jm this onfy nearer^ 4>c.] The only difference she v^^es be- 
twecn her husbwid and ftn ordinary neighbour, is9 that she hates hi^ 
friends, detests his servants, and rui^s his fpr^ne. Qra^is latiamr 
bus may mean — grievous in her expenses. 

510. Behold.'] The ^etnow ridicules the superstition of women, 
and the knavery of their priests ; and inUodw^es a propfiSsi^n of tiie 
priests of Bellona, and of Cybcle. 

511. BellonaJ] The sister of Mars — she had ^ lepgipJe 9i Rome, 
Her priests were called Bellonarii ; they cut their, arms ajad legs 
with swords, and ran about as if they were mad, for whidh jreason, 

Ssrhaps, the people thou^j^ht them inspired. Tjius the pri^ats of 
aal, 1 KiQgs xviii. 28. 

T!ie mother of the godsS] Cybele, whose priest$ were the 

Cory ban tes ; they also danced about the streets with drums^ labours^ 
and the like, in a wild and frantic m^ner.. 

A ckorus enters,'] A pack of these priests make ^^ ap- 
pearance, led on by fheir chief. 

512. Ilaif^man,] SemiTir— an eunuch ; the prij^^s of Cybela 
were such, and were ibercfore called semiviri. 

Digitized by 



She be allotted a $kt]iit space rtf-smJii wmsty ?ad seem shonber 

Ttian a Pygmean virgin, heiftVl -by no hi^^^ext sfaoeR, 505 

And arises to kisses k^bt ^idi an erect foot. 

In the mean while no concern !for heriiadbaiMl,nooieiitHm(made 

Of damages : she lives as Are ndc^bour ^t her ibiisbavd : 

In this only nearer, tiiat she lutes tbe fiicnds of hier faci9bttiill> 

Aiad his servants ; she i^ grievons to ifais orfTadns. 

^ -^BebciMofniad 6li) {great 

Bellona, and of the oiotber xaf the gods, a dioniv lenteni, mid ^ 
Half-man, a reverend face with tittle manhood, 
Who has cut his tender genitab Hvidi a bcoken dieB : [jbmm 

To whom, mm JoHg, an^hoarse troop-^^o wi4i<nn the filebenm ita- 
Yield, and Us iciieek is dothed -wkb % f%rygiaii turbont : ^15 
Loudly he sounds forth'— 4ind commands the comk^ of Se|>teia- 
ber, and of the {dvoda^, 

South-wind, to be dveaded, unless she purify henelfwifh an bim- 
ikti give to him old muisrey-colour'd i 

^ 6ia. Ahreken M^J7.] W<faioh hettwOeHsedf %y t^ay^^ akn^* 

-5i4. Jin hoarse trot^.J An assenbly of attoadkig >prie(stH9 'Wiui 
Jbad bawled themsekes^hoarsb with the ju^ea the^r mabde. 

J%e plebeian iabours.'] The tabours, or ^mtiftS) which 

^«fe 4>6at by the mfemor .plebe&an .p^este^--4fttor<^ by aietoti^yv 
!ftbe fmeste m^o plaj^ed «€(a tiiM& : all those he^Wed to hfaa, aad suii. 
mitteid to his authorjity. 

. 644^ fWiih « iP^n^aff </i/n&«ftf.] Wiueh«oTftt«l the head {iiid'iied 
•voder 4he chin : |)art.of the 'high 4)iie»t^ dMss, ttncL caUed Pbry- 
gian, because first bronght from Phrygia, one of the countrlfls m 
^YAqh CyMe ^sas fifst w<0ir8bipped. 

BIS. StfmUl^ he founds forih. ] Grande ^onat, OMff net •0nly craan 
that he bawled ^vi^ a l^ud voiee, f(CDB»p. 1. 484.datOIttt•rhot»m-> 
•daa[|,) bilt-tt ma^'also beni6a«t<to ^^pi^as tbe^etf«>lmportttice 'irf his 
>manner, beiiig^about to utter b sort of iproiphetic ^atmii^ JA -ftaa- 
tical and bombast -vei^es. 

— r;- The^eoming of Sepitemffer, l§fc.'\ At which ^me of y«ir the 
'^blasts of the ^onth wind were supposed to generate fevers, aad 
.H>ther dangerous sdiseoses, ^ctmp. sat. iv^ L 69* 

517. She, purify herself^ Sfc.'] Eggjs wcire used iti expiattoiQ, 
fbistratibBS, ^c. und ,pattio«ikirIy in the ^saeved rit^ of isis. T.hey 

i^emgivi^i to the high .priest, who, it may be aiip^osed, 'took case 
to bestow them chiefly ^upon himself, ^hile he pr^»bded to iatffar 
^them to the goddess. 

518. O^ mtmYep-eohur^d igmrmenis.^ XerampdisBas^a-um, ai(j. 
(Gr. fnfw/utwsXiw)?, from f»i^, diy, and ^fjur^a?, a <rtfie,) somowhat 
4Puddy., Ake *rkie leaves in ^aiTtuian. These garments wave vtotn by 
-dthe priests ^f Cybele and Isis, and wore presented to > th«m iQr 

superstitious and footi^ women, out of devotion, being .made to .be- 
jj^eve that all thair sins were tmnsferted f*om the votary to the vest- 
TViantS; .tiiad tbu^ taban ^aw^, 90 as to 4sacttre '4iie ^piu-tf fscm the 

Digitized by 



Ut quicquid subiti et maghi discriimnis iiistat. 

In tunicas eat, et totum semel expiet aiinunu . 690 

Hyberaum fract^ glacie descendet in amnem, 

Ter matutino Tiberi mergetur^ et ipsia 

Vorticibus .timidum caput abluet : mde Sup^bi 

Totum regis agrum« nuda ac tremebunda cruentis 

Erepet genibus. Si Candida jusserit lo^ . 525 

Ibit ad ^gypti finem, calid^ue petitas 

A Meroe portabit aquas, ut spargat in aede 

Isidisy antiquo quae proxima surgit ovj)i. 

Credit enim ipsius dominae se voce moneri. 

£n animam et mentem, cum qu^ D\ nocte loquantur ! 530 

Ergo hie pnecipuum, summumque meretur honorem. 

Qui grege linigero circumdatus, et grege calvo 

Plangentis populi, currit derisor Anubis. 

lUe petit i^eniam, quoties non abstinet uxor 

ConcttbitUy sacris observandisque diebus ; 5S5 

punishment of them for a whole year together ; insomuch that they 
should avoid impending dangers and judgments during that time. 
By veteres we may understand that this custom was very ancient 
Some read vestes. 

b%l. She Kill descend^ Sfc."] At the bidding of the priest, the$» 
women will even plunge into the river Tiber in the very depth of 
winter, when the ice mult be broken for them. 

522. The early Tiber.'] i. e. The Tiber early in a cold morning. 
They thought that the water of thtf Tiber could wash away theff 

523. WhirlpoolsJ] Her superstition subdued all her fears, so that 
she would venture into the most dangerous parts of the river attht 
bidding of the priest. See Persius, sat. ii. 1. 15, 16. 

524. Field of (he proud king.] i. e. The Campns Martins, which 
once belonged to Tarquin the Proud ; when he was driven out, k 
was given to the people, and consecrated to Mars. ""- — 

525. She will cratcl over, Sfc] If the priest impose this penance 
on her, persuading her it is the command of the goddess lo, (the sanw 
as Isis,) she will go naked on her bare knees all over the Campus 
Martins, till the blood comes, and trembling with cold. 

White /o.] lo was the daughter of the river Inachus, and 

changed by Jupiter into a white cow ; she afterwards recovered her 
shape, married Osiris, and became the goddess of Mgypty under the 
name of Isis. She had priests, and a temple at Rome, where she 
was worshipped after the ^yptian manner. See 1. 488. 

526. neendySfc] The utmost borders. 

627. From warm Meroe.] The Nile flows round many lai^e 
islands, the largest of which was called Meroe, and has, here, the 
epithet warm, from its being nearest the torrid zone. 

Sprinkle them, ^c] By way of lustrations. 

528. Next to the old sheepfold.] The temple of Isis stood near 

Digitized by 



That whatever of sudden and great danger imp^nds^ £520 

May go into the clothes^ and may expiate the whole year at once. 
She will descend (the ice being broken) into the wintry river, 
Three times be dipp'd in the early Tiber, and in the very 
Whirlpools wash her fearful head : then, the whole 
Field of the proud king, naked and trembling, witli bloody 
Knees she will crawl over. — If the white lo should conunand, 525 
She will go to the end of iEgypt, and will bring waters fetched 
From warm Meroe, that she may sprinkle them in the temple 
Of Isis, which rises next to the old sheepfold. [herself. 

For she thinks herself admonish'd by the voice of the mistress 
Lo ! the soul and mind, with which the gods can speak by 
night ! 530 

Therefore he gains the chief and highest honour. 
Who (surrounded with a linen-bearing flock, and a bald tribe 
Of lamenting people) runs the derider of Anubis. 
He seeks pardon, as often as tlie wife does not abstain 
From her husband, on sacred and observal>le days, 53^ 

that part of the Campus Martius, where the Tarqulns^ in their days, 
had numbers of sheep, and which, from thence, was cajled the 

529. Of the mistress herself] L e. Of the goddess herself.— 
Such a power had these priests over the minds of these weak wo* 
men, that they could make them believe and do what they pleased. 

530. Lo ! the sotU^ Sfc/] This apostrophe of the poet carriea a 
strong ironical reflection on these cunning and imposing priests. 
As if he had said — '' Behold what these fellows are ! with whom 
^' the gods are supposed to have nightly intercourse !" Lactantius 
says — ^Anima, qua vivimus ; mens, qua cogitamus. 

531. Therefore^ 4"<^0* Because these deluded women are per- 
suaded that tlds priest has a real intercourse with heaven, and that 
all he enjoins them comes from thence, therefore, &c. 

532. AUnen^bearingflock,'] A company of inferior priests, hav- 
ing on linen vestments. 

A bald tribcy Sfc,] They shaved their heads, and went howl- 
ing up smd down the streets, in imitation of the Egyptians, who 
did the same at certain periods in search of Osiris. 

533. jRi^n^.] Up and down in a frantic manner. 

The derider of Anubis.] At these fooleries the high priest 

carried «i image of Anubis, the son of Osiris, whom they wor- 
shipped under the form of a dog, the priest all the while laughing 
^in his sleeve, as we say) at such a deity, and jeering at the folly of 
the people, who could join in such a sen&eless business. 

The worship of Isis, Osiris, and Anubis, came from jEgypt. 

534. He seeks pardon^ S^cJ] Here the poet represents the priest 
as imploring pardon for a wife- who had used the marriage-bed on 
some forbidden days. By which he still is lashing the priests foC 
their impol^tion, and the people for their credulity. 

Digitized by 


«S JUVfiMALIS «ATIR& §mt. «& 

Magnaae fkbelar ^iofaio 

nt flKMriMe Ga|Mn vm esc tr^c 

lUiat lachryn 

Ut Tenim dOpm 

Scilicet, et temii fOftpm «iiwi p tei Osiiis. <5f0 

Cum 4edil tUe locan ; -cophinoy fenoqae fdictoy 

AfcaMBfli JiMbn tremens mcncbcftt m am^em, 

IntmyMS kgum Sohprnaram, €t laagmi meerdM - 

AAorisy ac nianiii Ma iaiimiiiBcia tsttk ; 

Imfplet et ilia mamniy ied farcius : ere fimmfxv ^^ 

^iwdiacmifue voles J^idaa «6fraiiia veBdunt. 

Spoadet aBMrtorem tenenm, vel -Avitis €h4m 

'TWtamentum ingensy calidse pulmone columbae 

Tractato, Armenius^^bl C oa m agewis anises : 

Paclora piillanim nmator, -et -exta <»teHi, 590 

536. For a vitrei cwerleL] t. e. For the bed wUch was si^ 
posed to be d^ed. 

537. The silver $erpeni^ 4*^^.] In the temple of Isis aod Osiris 
fChere uras an vsMgd-mttii three 'heads, the nnddlemost like a lion, "tiie 
vigM side l&e a^dog, fhe left a wtdf ; -afboot aH -which a direr ser. 
pent, i. e. made of siirer, seemed to wrap itself, bruigiqg ifs head 
trader Ihe right ;hand of Ae gad. The noddiiig of the serpent 
^Whidi by sonie spring xjnr other device it was preAiSbly madeio do) 

denoted Oiat the priest had his request granted. 

656. His Hears^ ^. prevnjf.l This kindttess tft the god, and 
xompliaace with ^e Teqoest made him, were whsfftj ascribed to ihe 
prcTalenoe of Ae priesfs tears and prayers. 

£80 — 40. ^ff o great goose^ Sfc. comiplfetf.] The pitcst took 
good care of himself aU this while, by recdring from -Qie bands ef 
-the derotee a good fttt goose and a cake, by ^rittne of which he pre- 
tended that 'O^ris was bronght OTer to comj^hmee; irat these, no 
doubt, the priest applied to his own use. 'Popannm Signifies a 
inroad, Tound, (bin cake, which they loffered in did ^times to the gods. 

64 1 . When he has given placeJ] When this Imartsh priest is done 
with. — ^The poet, still deriding the snpeiistitioQ tif *the women, How 
intraduees a.Jewt8h woman as a*fartnnet^iier. 

Her basket tmd A^.J This Jewess is si^ifpased tp come etit 

of the wood, near the gate c^ 'Capena, into Ihe city, to teH -for- 
tnnes, Aerefore won*t appear as a conmton Jew beggar — and she 
whispers secretly in the lady's ear,'not choosing to "be oTCibeardand 
detected, the emperor haTing banished the Jews from 'Rome* See 
*$at. iii. 1. 14, note. 

542. Trembiing.'] For fear of a rdfnsal, or perhaps shireriiig 
with cold, ortrembUng with old age, or-for fear of being overheard 
and charged with contempt of the gods of floaie, or of *the t^]^ 
TOT'8 order. 

-; i^egs, ^-c] Asks somethmg to tell the kdy*s fortune, whis- 
pering into her ear with a low voice. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

iiT. Tf. JUVENAL'S SATlJ&fiS. 9^7 

And a great punishment is due for a violated povprlet : 
And the silver serpent seems tp have moved its head. 
His tears and medtated murmurs prevail, 
That Osiris will not refuse pardon, by a great goose. 
That is to say, and a thin cake, corrupted, 540 

When he has given place, her basket and hay being left, 
. A trembling Jewess begs into the secret ear, 
Interpretess of the laws of Solyma, high priestess 
Of a tree, and a faithful messenger of high heaven. 
And she fills her hand, but very sparingly : for a small piece of 
money, 54$ 

The Jews sell whatever dreams you may choose. 
But an Armenian or Commagenian soothsayer promises 
A tender love, or a large will of a childless rich man, 
Having handled the lungs of a warm dove : 
He searches the lireasts of chickens, and the bowels of a 
whelp, 550 

643. L&wf of SofymaJ] The Jewish law. The Latins called Je. 
rnsalevi/SolynMe^Fainy its name having been Sdlyma at first. 

543---4. High priestess of a tree,'] This is spoken in contempt 
of tile Jews, who lived in woods, forests, &c. and, therefore, the 
poet probably hints, in a ludicrous manner, at the priestesses of the 
temple in the wood of Oodona, who pretended to siA and receive - 
answers from oak-trees. 

544. A messengers] Intemnntius is properly a messenger be* 
tween parties — a go-between. 

M5. SheJiUs her handjSfc'] The lady to whom she applies pre* 
senti her with a small piece of money-^Hihe need not give much.-— 
See the next note. 

Mti, Whatever dreams you maychooseJ] They pretended todreams^ 
ia which they received intelligence concerning people's fortunes--^ 
these they sold to the credulous at a very cheap rate, always accom- 
modating thdr pretended dreams tO the fancy or wishes of the par- 
ties. See Ezek. xiii. 17—23. 

547. An Armenian.] Having exposed the superstition of the 
4romen,'with respect. to the Jewish, fortunetellers, he now attacks 
them on the score of consultiDg soothsayers, who travelled about 
to Impose on the credulous. 

, Armenia and Syria (of which Commagena is a part) were famous 

548. A large wiU^ i^c] Tells the lady who consults him, that she 
will be sacc^ful in love, or that some old rich fellow, who die» . 
without heirs, will leate her a large legacy. 

540^--50. Lungs of a tearm dove — breasts of chickens-'^foweh 
of a mhelp^] The aruspices, or soothsayers, always pretended to 
know future evenlS^^rom the inspection of the insides of animajs^i 
which they hsindleiml examined for the purpose* 
TOL. I, ., S 

Digitized by 


t^S JJjyENAI<IS SATIRE. tAt-tfc 

Interdum ct pucri : faciet qnod deff rat ipse. 
Chaldaeis sed major erit fiducia :* quicquid 
Dixerit astrologus, credent a fonte relatum 
Hammonis ; quoniam Delphis oracula cessaut, 
- Et genus hiuhanum damnat caligo futiiri. ^55 

Praecipuus tamen est homni, qui saepius exul^ 
Cujus amiciti^^ conducend'^ue, tabellft ., 

Magnus cms obit| et formidatus Othom. 
Inde fides arti, spnuit si dextera ferro 

Laevaque^ si longo castirorum in carcere maiisitr 4ioO 

]^]^(emo mathematicus genium indemnatus habebit^ 
Sed qui pene perit : cui vix in Cyclada mitti 
Contigity et p^r\k tandem cartdsse Seriphp. , 
Consulit ictencae lento de funere matris. 
Ante tamen de te, Tanaquil tua ; qtiando sororem . $65 

EfFerat, et patruos : an sit victurus adulter 

551. Sometimes of a child.'] Which one of these fellows would 
not scruple to murder on the occasion. 

He will do what^ Sfc] He will commit a fact, which, if any 

body eke did, ^e would be the first to inform against hi^, if h« 
could get any thing by it; *, ^ 

' Deferred i» to accuse tot inform against-^hende the delatores, in* 
formers, metiticWied sk) often ^y our poet ^ an infomaus %et of peo-» 
pie. See mstJ'r^ 3i. iii. 416. iv; 48. et al. 

55% Chdldeang^ d^e.] The Chaldeatas, living about Bsibylon, were 
looked upon as great masters in the knowledge of. the stars, t)r, 
what has Iieen usually called judicial astrology. Some of these, like 
Other itinerant hnpostors, travelled about, and came to Rome, where 
they gained greai^'credit with-silly women, such as the poet has been 
describing, as open to every impo^ure of every kind. 

554i OJ Hammon.'] From the oracle of Jupiter Hammon, of 
which there^were several in Lybm, and were in very high repikle. 
• * ■ •" ■■ "' Because the Delphic orade's cease.'] It ifr said, that the ora* 
rle of Apt^llt), at Delphos, ceased at the birth of Christ. 

565. A darkness^ 6;cf^ Men were now coudemncd, or consigned 
'over, to utter ignorance of things to come, since the ceasnag of the 
'Delphic oracle, and this gave so much repntatton to the orade of 
Jnpiler Hammon. 

556; Been oftenest, Sfc] The inore wicked the astrologer, tlm 
greater credit he gained with these women. ' 

657. Hired tablet.] These astrologers used to write down on 
parchment, or in tablets, the answers which they pretended to come 
*from the stkrs ;'in order to obtain a Sight of which, people used to 
give them money. — Conducenda— lit. to be hired. 

558. A great citizen died^ SfcS] By the astroloj^r, mentioned in 
^he^e- lines. Is' tneant SeleiicttS, a famous astrologer, who had l>ee& 
^Beveral'tiiAes banished from "Rome, and by whose inst^atiov and 
"^edretion^ Otfao-(with whom he was intimate) laifipg to be adopted 
by Galba, .caused iekdhatjo' be mardjM^. 

Digitized by 



And sometimes of aeUld : be itHl do vhot lie himself wdtild beiristy. 

But her confidence in Chaldeans will be gpreater : wbatev^i: 
An astrologer shall say^ they^diink brought from the feimt 
OfHammon; because the Delphic oracles Mi^ease, ' 
And a darkness of futurity .<:ondemn(s the human raee; 5'55 

Yet the most eminent of these, is he who has been ofteoest aa 

^xile, . r 
By whose friendsbifl, and by whose hired tablet, 
A great citizen died, and one fear*d by Otho : 
^Thence confidence [is given] to his art, if with irdn his right 

hand has clatter 'd, ; >^ [camps. 660 

And his left : if he has. remained in the long confinement of 
No astrologer uncondemu'd will have a genius ; [cladea 

Bui he who has almost perished: to whom to be sent to the Gy-» 
It has scarcely happened, and at length to have been freed from 

little Seriphtts. [jaundic'd 

Your Tanaquil consults him about the lingering death of her 
Mother ; but, before this, concerning you : when her sister she 

Hiay , .. ... ^65 

Bury, and her uncles ; whether the adulterer will live 

559* Wkh iron^ Sfc^,U he has been maiiafiled with fetters OA 
J|>oth hands — f . e. hand*cuffed* SoAuit— alludes to the clitikitig of 
the fetters. 

560. Long confinemeni^ ^c] These predkters, who foretold 
tilings in time of war, were carried as prisoners with the army, and 
confined in the camp, invcxpectation of the event; in which condi* 
tioa they had a. sokyer to guard them, and, for more safety, were 
tied together with -a chain of some length (which, by the way, majr 
be intimated by the longo carcere) for Conveniency, the one end 
whereof was fastened to the soldier's left arm, the other to the pri« 
goner's right. Career signifies any place of confinement 
« /^&1. Gncandemnedy ^-c] In short, no astrologer is supposed to 
have a tme genius for Jus art, who has not been within an ace of 

. 5&S. Scarcely happened^ ^-c] With the gteatest difficulty ofo* 
iained the favour of banishment to the Cychides, which wei^ islands 
in the Archipelago : ihey wore accounted fif ty^-tiiree in all ; to some 
of these criminals were banished. 

, 564. Your Ikmaqu&J] L e. Your wife, whom he calls so after 
the name of the wife of Tarquinius Priscar, a woman skilled in di- 
Tination, who foretold het husband should be king. 
• -^-rr-^Constdts him^ ^c] He lashes the trickedness of the women 
t>f his time, who not only consulted astrologers about the death of 
iheip husbands^ bat of their parents and nearest relati6ns. 
^ 5^6. Whether ike aduUerer^ Sfc.'\ Her paramour, whose life a'ic 
not only pi^efers to that of her husband and relations) but even- to 
her awn, as if no greater blessing could be vQuelSif^ her, than that 
he should OHthve her. 


Digitized by 



Posi ipsam : quid enim majus dare niimiiia possunt ? 

tiate tameti ignorat, quid sidus tmte minetur 

Saturnt ; qlio lieta Venus se proferat astro ; 

Qui mensis damno, quae dentur tempora lucro* ^70 

liiius occursus etiam vitare memenU>, 

In cujus nianibua, ceu pinguia succina, tritas 

Cemis ephemeridas ; quae nullum consulit, et jam 

Consaditur ; quae castra viro patriamque petente^ 

Kon ibit pariter^ numerb revocata Tnrasylli. S7i 

Ad primum lapidem vectari cum placei^ bora 

Sumitur ex libro ; si prurit frictus oeeUi 

Angulusy inspect^ geg^esi coUyria posch. 

iBgra licet jaceaty capiendo'^ulla videtur 

Aptior hork cibo, nisi quam dederit Petosirit. MO 

Si mediocris erit, spatium lustrabit utrumque 

MetanuDi et sortes ducet ; frontemque manumqua 

Praebebit vati crebrum poppjsnur ro^panti. 

568. She U ignorant of^ ^c] . She b so earnest about the fate of 
others, thafsbe is content to be ignorant about her own. 

669. Saium,'} Was reckoned an nnlncky planet; and if hearosa 
irhen a person was bom, was supposed to port«id misforfmies* 
Fersius calls Satnm — gravem. Hor. impiura. 

PropUious Fenus,'] Reckoned fortunate if she arose in 

conjunction with certain others. 

570. What months Sfc.'] The Romans were rery superstitioBS 
albont lucky and unlucky times. 

671. Remember also^ ^c] The poet continues his raillerj on the 
tupentition of women ; and now comes to those who calculate their 
fortunes out of books, which they carry about with them, and con-» 
suit on all occasions. 

572 — 3. Like fat amber — worn diarieBJ\ Ephemeridas^— signifies, 
In this place, a sort of almanacks, in whicli were noted down the 
daily rising and setting of th&sereral constellations ; by the consult* 
ing of which, these women pretended to know their own fortunes, 
and to tell those of other people.-^The poet represents these as 
thumbed very often oyer, so as to be spoiled, and to bear the colour 
«nd appearance of umber that had becm chafed by rubbing. 

574. The camp, and his countrp^ Sfc."] Whether being at home 
he is going to the war, or being in the camp wants to return hmne, 
«he refuses to go with him, if her favourite astrologer says the e^ 
trary. ^V-- 

575. 7%e numbers of Thr^i^fUusJJ Numeros may hero either 
mean numbers, or figures, in which some mystery was set down or 
delivered — or some mystical rerses, which it was rery usual for> thai 
sort of ^people to make use of. Thrasyllus was a Platonist, a great 
mathematician, once in high favour with Tibenus; iifter wards, bf 
bis command, thrown into the sea at Rhodes. 

576. Tothejirst sione.^ i. e* The first mile-stooe ffon Rome^ 

Digitized by 


After lier : for whtt greater Uiing can the gods bestow ?— 
These things, however, she is ignorant of— what the baleful stair 
Of Saturn may threaten, with what star propitious Venus maj 

shew herself. 
What month for loss, what times are given for gain^ ^7Q 

Remember also to avoid the meeting of her 
b whose hands, like fat amber, you see worn 
Diaries : who consults no one, and now is 
Consulted: who, her husband gouig to the camp, and hn country. 
Will not go with faim^ called back by the numbers of Thra-- 

syllus. 575 

When she pleases to be carried to the first stone, the hour 
Is taken from her book : if the rubb'd angle of her eye 
Itches, she asks for eye*salve, her nativity being inspected : 
Tho' she lie sick, no hour seems more apt . 
For taking food, than that which Petosiris nas allotted. 580 
IF she be in a middle jtation, she will survey each qpace 
Of the goals, and will draw lots : and her forehead and hand 
She will shew to a prophet, who asks a frequent stroking. 

for there were milei^tones on the roads, as now>on onrs^ — q. d She 
can't stir a single mile without consulting her book. 

577. Cf her e^e, Sfc^l The poet puts these ridiculous instances^ 
to shew, in the strongest light, the absurdity of these people, who 
would not do the most errant trifles without consulting the epheme* 
ris, to find what star presided at their natiTiCy, that from thence they 
might gather a good or ill omen* 

580. Petosiris.'] A famous Mgy^Han astrologer, from whose 
writings and calculations a great part of her ephemeris, probably^ 
was collected. 

581. She will survey, SfcJ] The woman in mean circumstances 
jrdns to the Circus, and looks from one end to the other, till she can 
find some of those itinerant astrologers, who made that place their 

582. Dr4KB /o/s.] For her fortune.— Iliis was one instance of 
their superstition. 

Her forehead and hand.'] That bj the lines in these she 

night have her fortune told. 

583. To a prophet.] A fortuneteller. 

«— : — J frequent stroking.] viz. Her hand. Poppysma signifiea^ 
here, a stroking with the hand, which the fortuneteller made use of^ 
drawing his hand over the lines of her forehead and hand, as takiqj 
great pains to inform himself aright Or perhaps we may under* 
stand that he did it wantonly. Poppysma signifies, also, a popping 
or smacking with the lips, and at the same time feeling, and hand* 
ling, or patting the neck of an horse, to make him gentle : this 
word may therefore be used here metaphorically, to express the 
manner In which these chiromaats felt and handled the hands of the 
woman who consulted them, perhaps smacking them with their lips» 


Digitized by 



Bivitibtis rebponsa dabit Phryx aiigur, et Indus 

Conductus dahity aslforum inupdiqiieperitu34 f&ST' 

Atqu^ aliqiBS seniory qui publica wgura condit. ^ . ' 

Pkbeium in Circo positum est, et in aggere fatum: 

Quae Dullis longum ostendit cervicibus aurum, ^ 

ConsiUit ante Phalas, Delphinonimqpe columaasy 

An saga vendenti nubaty caupppe rekcto. «> 59(X 

Has tamen et partiis subeunt discrimen) et omnea 
Nutricis tolerant, fortune urgente^ labores.: 
Sed jacet aurato vix. filla puei^era lecto ; . . 
Tantum artes bujus, tantum medicamina possunt, 
Quae iBterUes facit, atque homines in ventre necandos 504 

Conducil* Gaude, infelix^ atqqe ipse bibendum 
Pornge quicqiiid erit : nam si di»tendere vellet, 
£t vewe uterum pueris saiieutibus, ^sse^ ^ ■ ■■- - 

*84. J Phrygian.^ Tully, de Divinat, lib. i. sajrg, that these pe<u 
pie, and the Cilicians dhd Arabs, were very' aissiduous in taking 
omens'from the flight 6f birds. - 

585. Indian, S^c,"] The Brachmans were Indian philosophers, 
tfho remain to thh day. They hold,*with Pythagoras, the transtoi- 
gration of the soul* These the richer srort applied to^ as skilled ia 
4he science of the stars, and of the motions^ of the celestial globe, 
from whence they drew their auguries. 

5^6, Some elder,'] Some priest, whom the Latins c^led semor^ 
and the Grreeks presbyter— bofli' which signify die same tiling. • 

-- — Who hides the public lightning.^ If a place were strudc by 
lightning, it was expiated by a priest. They gathered what was 
^cor, lightoifig,<«md> praying with a iow voice, hid or buri^ 
it in the earth. ...... 

THese lightnings were reckoned either public or private^ as w&ere 
'the Buschief happ^ied ^dier io* public buUdings, or to piirate house^ 
and the lik^. . ., . c .. 

PriTate lightnings were supposed to forebode things to come for 
ten years only ; public lightnings, for thirty years. 

bm. Placed in the CircitsJl The common sort apply to the quaciV 
^iBiBd cheats who ply in the Circus^ 

^ — In the mount. 2 What was called Tarquin's mount, whlcb ht 
■cast up on the eastern side of Rome, as a defi^ceto the eit5ic^-^}us 
^as also the resort of these fratidatent people^ who took but -smsill 
Jpees for' their services, , s i ' . . » • 

588. Skews no long gold^'Sfc.y' The poet,' at i. 581^ speaks of 
wcnnen in middling circumstances, who go to the Cirenis in order to 
£nd an itinerant fortuneteller, i^homthey. may consult at a Bmall 
prlce^ ' See the note.. Then he menttons the rtdi; who* couid* affiord. 
to pay well^ and ther^ore employed a more* expensive s<$rt, " •* ' 

Here he mentions the lowerx)rder..of women, whlchj in contradis^. 
tinctioB to the f<>]Fmer,>he describes as weanng no gold as ornattentii 
<about their necks. Hence I think nullis cervicibus ^aurum tkedgkt 

Digitized by 



To the rich a Phrygiiui augur will give miners, and an hired^ 
Iddian^ skilled in the stara and sphere^ will giye them ; 565 

And some elder who hides the pubKc lightning*, 
The plebeian fate is placed in the Circus^ anc} in the mounts 
She who shews bo long gold on her neck^ * * ' " 

Consults before the Phalse, and the pillars of .die dolphins. 
Whether she shall marry ihe blanket-seller, the victualler being 
left. '590 

Yet diese midei^o the peril, of child-birth, and bear all 
The fatigues of a nurse, tlieir fortune urging diem : 
But hardly any lying-in woman lies in a gil^d bed ; [vail, 

So much do the art8,.80 much the medicines of such a one pre- 
Who causes barrenness, and conduces to kiU men in the 595 
Womb. Rejoice, thou wretch, and do thou thyself reach forth 
To be drunk whatever it may be : for if she is willing to dii«- 

And disturb her womb with leaping children, you may be, 

reading*^, e. nnliam aumm cervic!ibu&— -jBTypallage. See. sat* li. 
2. 00, and note. ^ .. » 

Reading ni|#9 cervicibas, &c. as if tJ^ jrojgarp or cemmon sort^ 
wore necklaces of gold abput their. nocks^.s^ems a coqtradictioB. 

569* Pilars cf the dolphins,'] In the.CifCfis^w^re lofty pillai^s, on 
which were placed the statues of dolphins^ greeted, for jornament. 
Others understand this of the t«^ple of Cp.. Dqmitius, in the Fla^i 
miniao Circus, on which were, the figar^s ipf.I^ereids rising upon 
dolphins. The Phals were wooden towers. 

These places are also mentioned here as tl|Q .resort of gypsie^ 
common fortunetdlers, and such sort of folks, who were consukad 
by the vulgar. ,;.,.. .♦ > 

590. fVhi^herj'Sfe,'] SNeis&pppasedtQ detenm^eiby tiier^nswers^ 
from these wr^chesj whifb ,9f }ier swe^e^rts jshe shalT talMe,'aB4 
which leave. 

591. 7%es0 UfkdergPj ^pi] .The, ppe<^ now. Ushes th^.vice of prpt 
fsuripg abortioB,/SO frequent among the ln^M^ of Rome, and intrq^ 
duces it with.sayi^g9^hat, indepj^, the..paQrer sor4 not. only bring 
chiUi^eB, but nurse tibem too ; but then this Is owing to itfaeirlow 
circumstances, which will not afibrd thooi, the means of abortioni 
^r ef put^kipg out their chU4Een to nu^rsie^ 

593. Haritif mtf lying-dn tooman^ 4rc.] i . e. You'll scarce heaf 
of a lying-in woman among the ladies of quality, such is the.powejc 
of art, jiH^ch the force of medicines,. prep^^ed by those who make it 
tiicir business to cause barrenness an4 abprtion I - 
' 590. Rejoice^ thou wretch.] He <;aUs the husband infelix, an un- 
happy wi^tch, i, e,. in havmg such a wife as is capable of having 
chUdren hy ptjiers ; but yet he bi4s h^ rejoice in administering me^. 
djcines to make h^ misicar^, for that, if ^hfi, w<^ut |ier fuU time^. 
4be would priodiiGe a spuriouf ^hild* 

Digitized by 



Ethiopia fortasse pater: mox decolor haeres 

Impleret tabulas, nunquam tibi mane videndus. GOO 

Transeo siippositosy et gaudia, votaque saepe 
Ad spurcos decepta lacus, atque inde petitos 
Pontifices, Salios^ Scaurorum nomina falso 
Corpore laturos. Stat Tortuna improba noctu, 
Anidens nudis infantibus : hos fovet ofiineSy 005 

Involvitque sinu ; domibus tunc porrigit altis, 
Secretumque sibi miihum parat : hos amat, bh se 
Ingerity atque suos ridens producit alumnos. 

jHic magicoH affert cantus, hie Thessala vendit 
Philtra, quibus valeant mentem vexare mariti, 610 

£t soled pulsare nates. Quod desipis, inde est ; 
Inde animi caligo, et magna obliVfo reruniy 
Quas modo gessisti. Tamen hoc tolerabile, si noa 
£t furere incipias, ut avunculus iUe Neronis, 

509. Father of a blackmoor."] Forced io be reputed the father 
of a child, begotten on your wife by some black slare. 

600. Fill your willj Sfc,'] A discoloured child, the real offspring 
of a Moor, will be your heir, and as 9uch inherit your estate after 
your death (t^bulas here means the pages of the last will and testa, 
ment). See sat. i. 1. 63 and 68. 

Never^ Sfc."] To meet him in a morning would be construed 

into an ill omen. The Romans thought it ominous to see a black* 
moor in a morning, if he was the first man they met. 

601. The joy 8^ andvovosy S^c,"] Here he inveighs against the wo- 
men who deceive their huslNinds by introducing supposititious chil* 
dren for their own. 

602. Jli the dirty Uikes,'\ Some usual place where children were 

' The poor husband looks on them as his joy^ and as the fruit of his 
TOWS and wbhes, which are thus deceived by bastards, who are ex- 
posed at some place in Rome, (famous probably for such things,) and 
taken from thence to the houses of the gl^Bat, who bring them up, 
thinking them their own, till at length they pass for the offspring of 
hoble families, and fill the chief offices in the city, 

Salian priestsJ] These were priests of Mars, and Pomade 

from among the nobility. 

603. The names of the Scauri^ 6^cJ\ Beihg supposed to be nobly 
born, they falsely bear the names (^ the nobUity who bring them up 
as their own. 

604. Waggish Fortune J] Fortune may here properly be styled 
waggish, as diverting herself with these frauds. 

605. Smiling on the naked infants^ Sfc."] Exposed as they were 
by night, she stands their friend, and, delighting to carry on the de. 
eeit, makes them, as it were, her favourites — ^makes their concerns 
her own, and laughs in secret at the farce they are to exhibit, when 
conveyed to the lofty palaces of the great^ and educated theie^ 

Digitized by 



Perhaps, the father of a blackmoor : soon a discoloured heir 
May fill your will, never to be seen by you in a morning. 600 

I pass by supposititious children^ and the joys> and tows, often 
Deceived at the dirty lakes^ and the Salian priests f^Kd 
From thence^ who are to bear the names of the Scauri 
In a false body. Waggish Fortune stands by night 
Smiling on the naked infants : all these she cherishes^ 603 

And wraps in her bosom, then conveys them to high houses^ 
And prepares a secret farce for herself: these she loves, 
With these she charges herself^ and, laughing, produces her ow« 

One brings magical incantations, another sells Thessalian 
Philtres, by which they can vex the mind of the husband, 6 10 
And clap his posteriors with a slipper : that you are foolish, is 

from thence ; 
Thence darkness of mind, and great forgetfulness of things. 
Which you did but just now. . Yet this is tolerable^ if you don't 
Begin to rave too, as that uncle of Nero, 

tni she produces them into the highest honours of the ciiy.^ This 
reminds one of Hon. lib. iiL ode xxiz. 1. 40 — 52. 

Fortuna, stevo keta negotiOf 
Ladum insotentem ludere pertinaxw 

808. She charges herself.'] His se ingerat-W. e. she charges her* 
self with the care of them. So the French say — s'ingerer dans des 
affaires des autres. 

Her ownfoster-children.'] Alumnus signifies a nurse-child, or 

foster-child, and may be well applied to these children, nursed, as 
it were, in the bosom and lap of Fortune, who has not only pre. 
served th^n from perishing, but has contrived to make them pass 
for the children of nobles, and to be educated accordingly. 

609. One brings^ Sfc.'] Now the poet inveighs agunst love« 
potions, and magical arts, which were used by the women towards 
their husbands. 

609—10. Thessidian phUiresJ] Fhiltra denotes love-potions, or 
medicines causing love. Fi» these Thessaly was famous, and the 
Roman women either procured, or learnt them from thence. See 
1. 133, and note the first. 

610. Fex fhe mmdy Sfc."] So deprive him of his reason and under, 
standing as to use him as they please^ even in the most disgracefal 

611. From thence,'] t. e. From these philtres. 

613, This is tokriAle,] That you suffer in yonr understanding 
and recollection is tolerable, in comparison of what is much mora 
fatal, that is to say, being driven into raving madness. 

614. Uncie of Neroj Sfc] Cesar Caligula, whom Caesonia, his 
wife, drenched with a iove-potion made of the hippomanes, (a little 
tfkin^ Of bit of fleshy taken from the forehead of a colt newly ibalcd,) 

Digitized by 


ffl JUVENALIS^ SATIRif;. ur. m. 

Cui tQt«m tremuK fronton- Oe^oqi^i puUi 6X5- 

Infiidit. Quae non faciei, quod Prineipis uxor? 

ArUebant, cuncta, et fracti cQinjaiage niebant, 

Non aliter quam hi fecisset Juno maritum • 

Insanum. Minus ergo nOG€H3 eFit Agrippin» 

Boletus : siquidem unius praecordia presfiit 69^^ 

111^ senis^ tremuluipque caput d^scenderejussil 

In coelum, et long^ manantia labra aaliv4. 

Haec poscit ferrum^ atque ignes^ base potio torque^ - 

H^c lacefat mUtos equituin cum sanguine patres. 

Tanti partus equae, tauti una veneiica constat. 6Q5 

Oderunt n^tos de pellice : nemo repi^nat, 
N^mo vetat; jamjapi privignum occidere fs^seaU 
Voi ego« pupiUi> moneo^ quibus ^ipplior e^t res, 
Custo^ite anim»s, et nuUi credite mensae : 
Livida materno fervent adipota ven^o^ '630* 

iirhich drove him into such madness, that he would often shew her 
naked to his friends. This potion of Caesonia's was infinitely worse 
than Agrippina's .mushroom, for that only destroyed' a driTelling bid 
emperor : but Caligula, after Jbis draught, became a merciless, cruel, 
and bloody tyrant, and committed infinite slaughter without distinc- 

615. A trembUng coU,'] Tremuli — trembling with cold on bemg 
ilropped fr<un the dam. 

616. IVhat woman mil not da^ Sfc,'] i. e. Other women, stirred 
tip by the example of so great a personage, will not be afraid to do 
4he same. 

] 617. AH things zoere burning,'] Allu<ting to the devastations of 
Paligula's mad cruelty, which raged and destroyed like fire. 

■ ■ ■ Feli io pieces^ S^c,"] A mietaphor taken from an house fall., 
ing down by the beams giving way--*-so every bond of civil and hn» 
man society vma destroyed by the tyrant, and seemed to threatea 
liniversa]? ruin. 

616. ffJunOy Sfc."] The sovereign of Rome, being thus dHven into 
tnadttess by his wife, was as dt^structive' to Rome, as'if Juii4> had 
made Jupiter mad enough to have done it himself. Perhaps the 
poet alludes to the outrageous fondness of Jupiter for Sunoj ^eetcd 
by the cestus, or girdle of Venus. 

619. The mushraomof Agripj^na,"] The wMe of tiie einperor 
Claudius, ^wkM», that she mij^t i^ake iier son Nero emperor, she 
poisoned with mushrooms, by contriving a subtle poison to be put 
^mong them. 8ee sat. v. 1; 147, 8^ and Aoie. , 

iH^O. One oldvmn.^ The emperor Claudius, who was poiscmed 
in the six ty-fburtb year of his age^ very much debilitated and iafirm, 
from his excesses and debaucheries! 

621*—^. To decend into heaven.'] Claudius had been canonized 
by Neiro after his death, and ranked among the gods. The poet 
)u^e h^unipurously diescribes him as going dowawi^-ds to heareni L c^ 

Digitized by 


ujkT.rh JtITENAIi*S SATIRES; /. Mf . 

For whom Caesonk infiised the wh(de fordbead jpf : a tremblBi^ 
colt. ^If 

What womaa will apt do what the wife of a. prince did ? 
All things were burning, and fell to pieces^ the bond ; 
Seing broken, not otherUise than if Junq had mkde her husband 
JMdd. Less hurtful therefore was the mushroom of Agrippina: 
For that oppressed the bowels of onefold man, 620 

And commanded his trembling head to descend into ^ 
Heaven, and his lips flowing with long slaver. 
This potion calls for the swovd, and fire, this torments, , 
This tears to pieces senators, mixed with the blood of knights. ' . 
Of so great consequence is the o£bpring of a mare: of so much 
importance is one witch. 625 

They hate the offspring of the husband's .mistress.: nobody 
^obody forbids it: now-a-days it is right to kill a SQn-ii|-law« . ' 
Ye, O orphans; who have a large estate,. I admonish ; 
Take care of your lives, and tfust no table j . - 

fhe livid fat meats are warm with maternal poison. 630 

to the heaTen prqKured for sacfa a monster of. folly and cowardice, 
which could tie no other than the infernal regions. See Avti 
Unit. Hist, vol. xiv. p. 370, note o, 

6^9. This potion, ^c.'} For the expIanatioH of this, and the foU 
lowing line, see before, note on 1. 6 14. 

6^. SeniUors^mixedy S^cJ] Mixes senators aiid knights in one 
undistinguished carnage. 

625. The offspring of a mareJ\ The colt from which the ]iippa«» 
manes was taken. See note on h 614, and 1. 13^^ note. 

One xcitchJ^ t . e. One such woman as Caesoaia. 

. e26. Offspring of the husband's mistress.'] The husband's chiU 
flren by some woman he keeps. Pellex properly denotes the con* 
cubine of -a marrjed man.. 

627. Now^a^daifs, 4'c.] Nobody blames a wife for nojt Jiking 
4he husband's bastanls ; but things are now come to such a pass, 
that it is looked upon as no sort of crime to dispatch a husband's 
children hy a former wife, that th^ir own children, by those hus*- 
bands, may inherit their estate^. Comp«l. 132,3. 

628. Fe, O orphans.] Ye that haT;e lost your fathers. — ^The poet 
here iriTeighs against those unnatural mothers, who would poison 
their own children, thai they might marry some . gallant, and their 
chiklren by him inherit what they had. FupiUus denotes a £atheri> 
^ss man-child, within age, and untfer ward. ' . 

^29. Take care off^ou'r lives.] Lest you be' killed by poison. 

' TVustno table.] Be cautious what you eat 

630.*^ The livid fat meats^ Sfc] The dainties which are set before 
you to invite your appetite, are, If you examine them, black and 
oiue with the venom oi some poison; and ^is prepared by your own 
mother. . 

Digitized by 


^e» JrtTVENALlS SATIRJEL smt. ru 

Mordeit tate aliquis, quicquid porrexerit ilia 
Quae peperit : timidus pnegustet pocula pappas. 

Fingimus haec, altum Satiri sumente cotluiniumy 
Scilicet, et finem egressi legemque priorum, 
Grande Sophocleo carmen bacchamur hiaUi, 65S 

Montibus ignotum Rutulis, cceldtiue Latino. 
Nos utinam vani ! ued clamat Pontia, Feci, 
Confiteofy puerisque raeis aconita paravi, 
Quae depr&nsa patent ; fecinus tamen ipsa peregi. 
Tune duos mik, sasvissima vipera, cmA ? 640 

Tone duos? septem, si septem forte fuissent. 
Credamus tragicis, quicquid de Colchide saevft 
Picitur, et Progne. NU contra conor : et illae 
Grandia monstra suis audebant temporibus; sed 
Kon propter nummos. Minor admiratio summis 6^5 

Debetur monatris, quoties facit ira nocentem 
Hunc sexum ; et rabie jecur inceodente feruntur 
Praecipites : ut saxa jugis abrupta, quibus mons 

031. Lei some one bite before youy Sfc'] Hare a taster for your 
meat before you eat it yourself, if it be any thing which your mother 
lias prepared for you. 

63^. The timid tuior.'] Pappas was a serrant that brought up and 
attended children^ and, as sach, very likely to be in the mother's coni 
fidenoe ; if so, he might well fear and tremble if set to be the chil* 
dren's taster. 

633 — 6. Surely we feign these things^ ^c] q. d. What I haTe been 
saying must appear so monstrous, as to be regarded by some as a fic- 
tion { and, instead of keeping within the bounds and laws of satire^ 
I have taken flights into the fabulous rant of tragedy, like Sophocles, 
and other fabulous writers of the drama. Hiatus, lit. a gaping — am 
opening the mouth wide. Heuce bawling. Metaph. iike actors of 
bigh^flowa tragedy. 

636. Unknown to the Rutukan mountains^ SfcJ] Such as no Ro- 
man satirist ewer before attempted. The Rutuli were an ancient 
people of Italy — ^Latium also a country of Italy. Or perhaps the 
poet's allusion is to the subjects on which he writes; which, for 
their enormity and horrid wickedness, were unknown to former 

637. Pontsa."] The poet, to clear himself from suspicion of fiction^ 
introduces the story of Pontia, the daughter of Tit. Pontius, who 
had done what is here mentioned of her. Holyday, in his illustnu 
tibns, mentions an old inscription upon a stone, to the following pur* 
p6se ; viz. ^^ Here I Pontia, the daughter of Titus Pontius, am. laid, 
^< who, out of wretched covetousness, haTing poisoned my two 
•< sons, made away with myself. '• 

630. « H^hMch discovered^'' *c.] q. d. The fact bdng dlscoTered^ 
iieeds no qi^estion-*^but yet I avow it. 

Digitized by 


Mlt.ti. jrVlTNAL'S SATIRES. «69 

Ijet some one^bite befwe yod wfcute^enr dhe i^ho bore you 
Shall offer you, let the timid tutor taste first the cups. 

Surely we feign these things, satire aSsunung the lofty buskin ; 
Having exceeded the bound and law of ail that went before, 
We rant forth lofty verse in Sophocleikn strains, 6S5 

Unknown to the Rutulian mountains, and to the Latin climate^ 
I would we were false ! but Pontia cries out*-^^^ I have done It! 
" *' I confess I have prepared poisons for niy boys ; — 
*f Which discovered are evident : but the deed I niyself perpe-s 

" trated"— 
*' l>idsttliou, O most savage viper, destroy two at one meal? 040 
^ Didst thou two f — ** Yes, seven, if haply seven there had 

« been." 
Let us beUeve whatever b said in tragedies of cruel £wome9 
Colchis, and Progne. I endeavour nothing against it : and thode 
Dared in their day (to commit) great enormities, but 
Not for the sake of money, nut little wonder is due 64ft 

To the greatest enormities, as often as anger makes this sex 
Mischievous, and, rage inflaming the liver, they are 
Carried headlong : as stones broken off from hills, from which 
the mountain 

649. Lei us believey SfcJ] q. d. After such a fact as this we majr 
believe any thing, 

643. Co/c^V.} Medea, the danghter of ^ta, king of Colclii% 
who fled away with Jason, and, being pursued by her father, cat 
her brother Absyrtes in pieces, and scattered the fimbs in her fa- 
ther's way, to retard his pursuit. 

Progne,"] Daughter of Pandion king of Athens, and wife to 

Tereus king of Thrace, who having rdvishod her sister Philoroelay 
she, in revenge, killed her son Itys, and served hkn up to her hus- 
band to eat. 

/ endeoDour nothing against it.'] If you say you believe 

ttiese things, I shall ofier nothing to the contrary. ^ 

645. LitHe wonder is due, Sfc,"] To be sure those women did 
iBonstrous things, but then not for the sake of money, which is th^ 
ease with our women ; this still is almost incredible : — as for what 
the sex will do through anger, or revenge, or malice, there is no* 
thing that they are incapable of, when thoroughly provoked* See 
1. 134, note. 

648. As stonesj Sfc.'] Women as naturally predpitate into mis- 
chief and cruelty, when in a passion, as stones fall down from the 
top of an eminence, when that which supports them is removied from 
under them. 

The poet supposes large stones, or rocks, on the summit of a high 
cliff' oil the top of a mountain, and, by an earthquake, the moun« 
tain sinking, and the cliff* recedmg from under the bases of the 
recks : ^ coufse these must net only f «m^ but thraaten tttii^ whe^a^ 

Digitized by 



Subtrahitar/cliyoqiie litavpeuieikte reeedk^ , ^ 

lUam ego* non tuieriuiy qvm compiitat, et scelus kigteit * .650 
Satiaiajcit. Spectant subeuiifem fata mariti 
Alcertiin ; et, timilis si penniitatio detur^ 
Morte viri cuperent anknam servare cateibe. 
Occarrent'niiiltae tibi BelideSy atque Erifrfiylae: 
Mane Clytemnestram nuUus non vicus habebit. ' 653 

Hoc tantum f^fert, qaod T^mdaris iila bipennens 
InsiilsiDn'et fatuam, dextri invjbqiie tenebat : 
At nunc res agitur tenui pulmone rubetae ; 
Sed tameQ et farro, si pnegust&rit Atrides 
Pontica ter victi cautos medicamina regis. 660 

thej alight. TUs Simile is rerj apt and beautiful to illiistratf 
his description of women, who, when proToked, so that all reser^ra 
is taken away, their mischief will fall headlong, (like the rock from 
tfie top of the cliff,) and destroy those on whom it alights. 

651. IVhile in her sound mind.'] In cold blood, as we say. 

Akestey 5*c.] The wife of Admetus, king of Thessaly, who 

bdng sick, sent to the oracle, and was answered that he mnst needs 
die, unless one of his friends would die for him : they all refused, 
and then she voluntarily submitted to die for him. 

The ladies of Rome saw a tragedy on this subject frequently re- 
' presented at the theatres ; but, ^o far from imitating Alcestc^ they 
would sacrifice their husbands to save the life of a favourite puppy- 

654. BeUdesJ\ Alluding to the fifty daughters of Danaus, the son 
of Belus, who all, except one, slew their husbands on the weddidg- 
night. See Hor. lib. iii. ode xi. L 25—40. 

EriphyUs.'] I. e. Women lite Eriphyla, the wife of Amphi«> 

anis, who for a bracelet of gold discovered her husband, when he hid 
himself to avoid goiag to the siege of Troy, where he was sure ha 
pliould die. 

655. Qifiemnestra.l The daughter of Tyndarus, and wife of 
Agamemnon, who living in adultery with jEgysthus, during her.hns* 
l^and's absence at the siege of Troy, conspired with the kdulterer to 
joiurder him at his return, and would have slain her son Orestes also'; 
but Elcctra, his sister, privately conveyed him tb king Strophius. 
After he was come to age, returning to Argos, he slew both his 
mother and her gallant. 

' 6bQ. fVhat Tyndaris,'] i. e. That daughter of Tyndarus — Clytem- 
nestra. Juvenal, by. the manner of expression — ^illa Tyndaris— 
means to insinuate, that this name belonged to others b^^ide her-^ 
;/5. io many of the R^Qiaa ladies of his time. ' ' 

Digitized by 



Is withdrawn, and the side recedes from the hanging cliff. 

I could not bear her, who deliberates^ and commits a great 

crime 650 

While in her sound laind. They b^old-Akeste undergomg 

the fate • ^ ' ; -^ * > • . 

Of her husband, and, if a like exchange were allowed, 
They would desire to preserve the life of a lap-dog by the death. 

of an husband. 
Many Belides will meet yon, and Eriphylse : 
N-o street but will have every momiog a <Glyteninestra« • SSB 
This is the only difference, that that Tyndaris held ft stupid . 
And foolish axe, with hex right hand and her l^ft : 
But liow the thing is done with the small lungs of a toafl,^ 
But yet with a sword too, if cautious Atrides has beforehand 

tasted . 
The Pontic medicines of the thrice-«conqner'd king. 660 

556 — 7. Held a stupid and foolish axe^ ^cJ\ The ottl^ ^ff^etic^ 
l^etween her and the. modern murderers of their husbands, is, tbaH: 
Clytemnestra, without any subtle contriyance, but only with a foolish^ 
bungling axe, killed her husband. Comp* Hon. lib. i. sat. i. dd^ 
100. Whereas the Roman iadie^, wi^ great art and subtlety^ 
destroy theirs, by insinuating into their food some latent poispdj, 
curiously extracted from scHueTenomoua. animal. See sat. i. 70. 

659. With a sword too^ 4*^.] Not but they will go \o work as 
Ciytemnestra did, rather than fail, if the wary hnsband, suspecting 
mischief, has prepared and kken an anttdpte to counteract the poi-> 
t^n, so that it hsfi no effect upon him. 

.— "^ — Atrides,'] Agamemnon, ^e son M Atreus.-^-4'uvenai us^ 
ihis name, as descriptlte of the sitnaticm of the husbaud, whom dte 
modem Qytemnestra- is -determined to murder, for the sake of agal« 
lant. Thus he carries on the seter^, but humourous parallel, be- 
tween the ancient andi^modern scenes of female treachery, lust, and 

a60. Tfc^ Pontic medUdms^ S^.'] MithrJdates, king of Pontus, 
invented a medicine, which, after him, was called Mithridateh-^ieiie 
.the Pontic ihe^cine, an antidote against poison. 

— r-^ I^ncc-cowjfiitfr'rf king,'] He was conquered by SyUa, tfaeii 
by liucnllus, and then by Pompey« After which, it is said, he 
would have poisoned himself, but he was so fortified hj an «intidoti 
Which he had iuYetited, and l^.offten taken, that no poison. would 
'^erate upon hm|. . - . 


Digitized by 




This Satire is addressed to Telesimts, a poet. Juoenti tamenis ike 
neglect of encouraging learning. That Ceesar only is the patron 
of the fine arts. As for the rest of the great and noble JUmans^ 
^ley gave fio heed to the protection of poetSy historians^ UmgerSf 

£T spes^ et ratio studioram in Caesare tantiun : 

Solus enim tristes hftc tempestate camcenas 

Respexit; cum Jam celebres^ notique poetas 

Balneolum Gabiis, Romae conducere fiirnos 

Tentarent : nee foedum alii, nee turpe putarent i 

Pnecones fieri ; cum desertis Aganippe» 

Vallibus, esuriens migraret in atria Clio. 

Nam si Pieri& quadrans tibi nulfus in umbrft 

Ostendatur, ames nomen, victumque Machaem; 

£t vendas potius) cominissa quod auctio v^dit 10 

Line 1. The hope andreasony 4rc«] i» e. The single ezpectatioa 
of learned men, that they shall hare a rewfllrd for thdr labours, ant 
the onlj reason, therefore, for thdr employing themselyes in liberll 
studies, are reposed in Caesar only. — ^Donudan seems to be meant ; 
for though he was a monster of wickedness, yet Quintilian, Martial, 
and other learned men, tasted of his bounty. Quintilian says of 
him— (( Qno nee pnesentius aliquid, nee studUs magis propitium nu* 
« men est" See I. 20, 1. 

2. The mournful Muses."} Who may be supposed to lam^t the 
fad condition of their deserted and distressed rotari^. 

4. Bath at Gabiiy Sfc'] To get a liyelihood by. Gabii was a 
little city near Rome. Balneolum— a small bagnio. 

Ovens."] Public bakehouses, where people paid so much for 

baking their bread. 

6. Criers."] Praecones—whose office at Rome was to proclaim 
public meetings, t)ublic sales, and the like— a rery mean employ* 
ment ; but the poor starring poets disregarded this circumstance — 
^' any thing rather than starve"— and indeed, however meanly this 
occupation might be looked upon, it was very profitable. See 
iat. ill. 1. 157, note. 

Jganippe.] A spring in the sofitary part of B<£otia, conse* 

i^ted to the nine Muses. 

7. Ibingrjf CUo.] One of the nine Muses—the patroness of 

Digitized by 



fhetoricians^ grammarians^ Sfc. These tost were not ont^ illpatd, 
but even forced to go to lawj for the poor pittance which they had 
earnedy by the fatigue and labour of teaching school. 

iiOTH the hope, and reason of studies, is in Caesar o^y : v 

For he only, at this tinie^ hath regarded die mournful Muses^ 

When now our famous .and noted poets would try 

To hire a small bath at Gabii, or ovens at Rome : 

Nor would others think it mean, nor base, 5 

To become criers ; when,, the vallies of Aganippe 

Being deserted, hungry Clict would migrate to cdurt«*^yards. 

For if not a fartbii^ is shewp to you in the Pierian shade. 

You may love the name, and livelihood of Machsera ; 

And rather sell what the intrusted auction sells 10 

heroic poetry : here, by mdtd^; put for the stslrrlng poet^ who is 
forced^ by his poverty, to leave tie regions of poetry, and would fain 
beg at great men's doors* AMum signifies the court,| or Courts 
yard, before great men's housen where thiese poor poets are sup* 
posed to stand, like other beggarM to ask alms* 

8. In the Pierian shade."] Sec »t. iv. 1. 35, note.— g. d. If by 
passing your time, as it were, in jSie abodes of the Muses, no re-^ 
ward or recompense is likely to be 'obtained for all your poetical la- 
bours. Some read area — but Pieria umbra scans best to carry on 
ihh humour of the metonymy in this and tiie preceding line. 
. 9. Love the name, Sfc] Machaera seems to denote the name of 
some famous crier of the time, whose business it was te notify sales 
by auction, and, at the time of sale, to set a price on the goods, 
on which the bidders Were to increase-whence such a sale was called 
auctio. SeeAiNsw. Preco, No. 1. 

q, d. If you find yourself pennyless, and so likely to condnue by the 
exercise of poetry, then, instead of thinking it below you to be called a 
criier, you may cordially embrace it, and be glad to get a livelihood by 
auctions, as Machaerai does. 

10. Intrusted.] So IIo)yday.*~^Commissus signifies any thing com* 
mitted to one's charge, or in trust. Comp. sat ix. 1. 93-^96. 

Goods committed to sale by public auction, are intrusted to the 
auctioneer in a twofold respect — first, that he sell them- at the best 
VOL. I. T 

Digitized by 



Stantibu.% (Bnophorum, tripodes, armaria, cistus, 
f AlcithowiJPacd^jr^ Fausti. 

Hoc satiusTquaih si'idlcas sub judice,^ Vicli,* 

Quod non vidisti : faciant equitea Asij^ni, 

Quanquain et Cappadoces faciant, equitesque Bithjrm, 15 

Altera quos nudo traducit Gi^^ia ta!o. 

Nemo tamen stiidiis indignum ferre laborem 

Cogetur posthac, nectit quicimque canons 

Eloquium vocale modis, laurumque momordit. 

Hoc agite, 6 Juvenes : circumspicit, et stimulat vos, 20 

; Materiamque sibi ducis indulgentia quserit. 

Si qua aliunde putas renrni expectanda tuarum 

PrKsidia, atque ideo croceas membrana tabellae 

price ; and, secondlj, that he faithfally acconnt with the owner fdir 
the produce of the sales'. 

CoBHnissli nay also allude to the commission, or licence, of the ma- 
gistrate, by whi6h public ssAes in the fornm were appointed. 

Some understand commissli aucdo in a metaphortoa! senso'-^-a^lltiding 
to the contention among the bidders, who, like glaiifiators matched ih 
fight— commissi, (see sat. i. 1 63, note,} oppose and enga|^e agaiint eadi 
other ki their sereral biddings. 

11. To ike stamps ^.] t* e* The people who attend die anctiom 
as buyers. 

12. TV Alcithqe^-^he T%ebe$j ^c] Some editions read Alcyonem 
iBacchi, &c. These were tragedies written by wretched poets, which 
JavenaJsupposes to be sold, with other lumber, at an auction. 

13. 'than if you said^ ^c] This, mean as it may appear, is still 
getting your bread honestly, and far better than hiring yourself out 
ils a false witness, and forswearing yourself for a bribe, in open colirt. 

14. The AHatk kntghts^'\ This satirizes those of the Roman no* 
bility, who had faTOured some of thdr Asiatic slaves so much, as to 
Enrich them sufficiently to be admitted into the equestrian order. 
These people w^re, notwithstanding, false, and not to be trusted. 

Minoris Asiae po^ulis nuUam fideja esse adhibendam. Czc. pro Flacc(x 

15. The Cappadocians.'] Their country bordered on Armeaaau 
They were like the Cretans, (Tit. i. 1%) lyars and dishonest to a pro- 
Terb ; yet many of these found means to make their fortunes at 

•*: — The knights €f Bithjfmih] Btthynia. was another easton 
province, a country of Asia Minor, from whence manjr such people^ 
as are abote deacribed, came, and were in hi^ favour, and shared ia 
titles and honours. 

16. The other Gauij 4*0.] Gallo-Grascia, or Galatia, another 
country of Asia Minor : from hence came slates, who, like others, 
were exposed to sale with naked feeU Or it may rather signify, 
that Aesc wretches (however afterwards highly honoured) were so 
poor, when they first came to Rome, that ihey had not so much as 

' adioo to their feet* 

Digitized by 


wt.f!t JUVENAL'S SAtlRES* tTS 

To the standers t>y^ a |k>t^ tit^odSi book-cases, chests, 
Tke Alcitho'^ of PacciHs, the Thebes and Tereus of Faustus. 
This is better than if you said before a judge, *^ I have seen,** 
What you have not seen : tho' the Asiatic knights [nia, 15 

And the Cappadocians may do this, and the knights of Bithy- 
Whom the other Oaui brings over barefoot. 
But nobody to Undergo a toil unworthy his studies 
Hereafter shall be compiled, \(4ioe'r he be that joins, to tuneful 
Measures, melodious eloquence, and hath bitten the laureL 
Mind this, young men, the indulgence of the emperor i,6 

Has its eye upon, atid encourages you, and seeks matter for itself. 
If you think protectors of your aflairs are to be expected 
From ebewhere, and therefore the parchment of your saffron- 
colour'd tablet 

The poet means, that getting honest btesAf in however mean a 
Way, was to be preferred to obtaining the greatest afiaence, as these 
tbllows did, by knavery. 

1& Brings ovar,^ Tradudt signifies to bring, or dorit^, firmi 
oae piaoe to another. It is used to denote transplanting trees, or 
other plan^, in gardens, &c. aad is a very significant word here^ 
to denote the transplanting, as it were, of these vile people from thd 
east toUomi^. 

1& T3iatjotnSj Sfc.'] The perfection of heroic poetry, which 
seems here intended, is the uniting grand and lofty etpressioH, ek^ 
quium vocale, with tuneful measures-— modis canoris. 

Vo^alis signifies sometimes loud-^-^mak^ng a noise — ^thei^efore, 
when applied to poetry, lofty — ^high.sounding.'— 9. d. No writer, 
hereafter, who excels in unitii^ loftiness of style with harmony of 
verse, sh^ be driven, through want, into employments which are 
below the dignity of his pursuits as a poet. Comp. 1. 3 — ^6. 

Id. Baten the laureL'} Laurum momordit. — It was a notion 
tint, when young poets were initiated into the service of the Muser, 
it was a gieat belp to their genius to chew a piece of laurel, in ho* 
nour of Apollo. Some think that the expression is figurative, and 
meaii^ those who have tasted of glory and honour by their compo- 
sitions ; but the first sense seems to agree best with what follows. 

^9» Mind this.'] Hoc agite^-^iit. do this-^'. e. diligently apply 
yourselves to poetry. 

— '-^ — Of the emperor,'] Ducis is licre applied to the emperor, ad 
the great patron and chief over the liberal arts. 

91; Seeks matter for itself.'] Carefidly endeavours to find out its 
own grs^cation by rewarding merit. 

9$. Therefore the parchment, S^cJ] They Wrote on parchment, 
which sometimes was dyed of a safFron-colour ; sometimes it was 
white, and wrapped up in coloured parchment. The tabellas wert 
the books themselves — i. e. the pages on which their manuscripts 
were written. 

If^ says thp poet, you take the pains to writs volumoi Mt^ ik 

T 2 

Digitized by 


«y« JUVENALIS SATIRE. sat. to. 

linpletur; lignorum aliquid posce ocjus, et quae 

Componisy dona Veneris, Telesine, m^rito : 25 

Aut claude, et positos tine& pertunde libellos. 

Frange miser calamos, vigHataque preelia dele^ 

Qui hcis in parv& sublimiaT^annina cell&, 

Ut dignus venias hederis, et imagine macr&« 

Spes nulla ulterior: Jdidicit jam dives avarus 30 

Tantum admirari, tantum laudare disertos, 

Ut pqeri Junonis avem. Sed defluit aBtas, 

Et pelagi patiens, et cassidis, atque ligonis. 

Taedia tunc subeunt animos, tunc seque suamque 

Tefpsichoren odit facunda et huda senectus. 35 

Accipe nunc artes, ne*quid tibi conferat iste. 

Quern colis : Musarum et ApoUinis aede relictst. 

Ipse &cit versus, atque uni cedit Homero, 

Propter niille annos. At si dulcedine famae 

Succensus recites, Maculonus commodat aedes ; 40 

bopes of finding any other than Caesar to reward yon, you had better 
prevent your disappointment^ by burning them as fast as you can. 
Lignorum aliquid posce ocyus — ^lose no time in procuring wood for 
the purpose. 

25. Telest'nm.'] The poet to whom this Satire is addressed. 

The husband of Venus,'] Vulcan, fhe fabled god of fire- 
here put for the fire itself. He was the husband of Venus. 
q. d. Put all your writings intp the fire. 

26. Or shut upy and bore, ^c] Lay by your books, and let the 
moths eat them. 

27. Your watched batties,'] Your writings upon battles, the de- 
scriptions of which have cost you many a watchful, sleepless night 

28. A small cell,'] A wretched garret, as we say. 

29. Worthy of ivy y S^x.] That, after all the pains you have taken, 
you may have an image, t. e. a representation of your lean and 
starved person, with a little paltry ivy put round the head of it, in 
the temple of ApoJIo. 

30. JTiere is no farther hope,] You can expect nothing better- 
nothing beyond this. 

32. As boys the bird of Juno,] As children admire, and are de- 
lighted with the beauty of a peacock, (see Ainsw. tit. Argus,) which 
is of no service to the bird ; so the patrons, which you think of get- 
ting, however rich and able to afford it they may be, will yet gire 
you nothing but compliments on your performances : — ^these will do 
you no more service, than the children's, admiration does th^peacock. 

32 — 33. Fimr age passes army.] You little think tffllt, while 
you are employing yourself to no purpose, as to your present sub- 
•sistence, or provision for the future, by spending your time in writ- 
ing verses, yonr life is gliding away, and old age is stealing upon 
you — ^your youth, which is able to endure the toils and dangers of 
the sea, the fatigues of wars^ or the labours of husbandry, is decaying. 

Digitized by 


Is filled^ get some wood •quickly, and what 

You compose, Telesinus, give to the husband of Venus : 25 

Or shut up, and bore thro' with the moth your books laid by. 

Wretch, break your pens, and blot out your watched battles. 

Who makest sublime verses in a small cell, 

That you may become worthy of ivy, and a lean image. 

There is no farther hope : a rich miser hath now learnt, SO 

As much to admire, as much to praise witty men. 

As boys the bird of Juno. But your age, patient of the sea^ 

And of the helmet^ and of the spade, passes away. 

Then weariness comes upon the spirits ; then, eloquent 

And naked old age hates both itself and its Terpsichore. . 35 

Hear now his arts, lest he whom you court should give you 

Any thing : both the lemple of the Muses, and of Apollo, being 

Himself makes verses, and yields to Homer aloiie. 
Because a thousand years [before him.] But if, with the desire 

of fame 
Inflamed, you repeat your verses, Maculonus lends a house; 40 - 

34. T%en.'] When you grow old. 

Wearinessy S^c,"] You'll be too feeble, in body and mind^ to 

:endure any labour, and become irksome even to yourself. 

35. Hates both itself and its Terpsichore^ Your old age, how:« 
ever learned, dothed in rags, will curse itself, and the Muse that 
has been your undoing. Terpsichore was one of the nine Muses^ 
who presided over dancing and music ; she is fabled to have in« 
vented ithe harp — ^hwe, by meton. lyric poetry may be understood. 

36. His arts^ ^fc] The artifices which your supposed patron will 
use, to have a ^r excuse for doing nothing for yon. 

97. The temple, Sfc."] There was a temple of the Muses at Roine^ 
which was built by Martins Philippus, where poets used to recite 
their works. Augustus built a library, and a temple to Apollo, on'' 
Mount Palatine, where the poets used also to recite their vefses^ 
and where they were deposited. See Peas. prol. 1. 7. and Hon. 
lib. i. epist. iii. L 17. 

Amoiig the tricks made use of by these rich patrons, to avoid giv« 
ing any thing to their poor clients, the poets, they affected to make 
verses so well themselves, as not to stand in need of the poetry of 
others ; therefore they deserted the public recitals, and left the poor 
retainers on Apollo and the Muses to shift as they could. -^ 

38. Yields to Homer alone.'] In his own concdt ; and this only 
upon adbunt of Homer's antiquity, not as thinking himself Ho* 
mcr's inferior in any other respect. 

39. /f, with the desire of fame, ^-c] If you don't want to get mo« 
ney by your verses, and only wish to repeat them for the sake of 

40. Maculonus^ Sfcl Some rich man will lend you lus house. 


Digitized by 


trt jDVBNALiS SATIRiB, m fWr 

Ac longe ferrata don^na s^r^m jnhetiiry 

In qu& soUicitKs iiAitatur janua portas. 

Sot dajne libertos extretna in parte i^edentes 

Orcjliiiisy <^ magiias comitum dUpooere voces. 

Nenio dabit regiim^ quanti subsellia CQnstentj ^i 

Et quae conducto peodent anal^thra tigUloy 

Ciuaeque repqrtandis po$i(ia e9t orcbestfS catbeflri«« 

Nostemen hoc agjsgus, tenuiqu^ in pulvere sulcoi 

i^UciJDmis^ etlilf us 9tenii versamus aratro.^^ 

Nam si diiscedasy laqueo tenet arobitiosi 5Q 

Consuetudo mali : tenet iasanabile n^ultoa 

Stribepdi cacoetbes, et aegrp iacorde se^e^cit. 

Sed vatem egregium, cui npn sit publica \em, 

Qui nihil expogitiim ^oleat deducece, nee qui 

Communi feriat carmen triviale monetk ; , ^A 

Hunc^ qualem nequep monstrare, et seaiip tantMo^j 

41. Strongly barr'^d,'] Longe-*-lit. exceedinglf-^Teiy mnd--^ 
jr. d. If you afe thought to want money of him for your Verses, the 
doors of his house will be barred against you, and resemble the gate$ 
of a city wlien besieged, and under the fear and %9xiety which the 
|>esiegers occasion ; but if you proless only to write fo|r faflie, he 
witt open his house to you, it will be at yoi^r service, that yoi| 
nay recite your verses if ithin it, and will procure you lie^rers, of 
Jiis own freedmen and dependei^ts^ whpxQ ^c wili order to f^pplaa4 

43. He knozcs how to pl^ce^ Sfc,'] Dare — ^lit. to giyc-r^. d, H9 
Icnows how to dispose his freedmen on the farthest seats behind th$ 
irest of thp audience, that they may begin a clap, which lyill be fol- 
lowed by those who are seated more forward* Ordp is a rank 0| 
row of any thiug, so of benches or seats. 

44. And to dispose^ Sfc,"] How to dispose his clients and foiloWf 
f rs, so as best to raise a roar of applause— euge !— i-bene !-— .bravo I 
as we say, among your hearers. AU this he will do^ for it costs hiiq 

. 46. The stcfirsj Sfc>'] These vvere for the poet to ascend by into 
)iis rostrum, and were fastened to a )itUe beam, or piece of WQod, 
ivhich was hired for the purpose. 

47. The orcheHra^ Sfc,'] The orchestra at the Greel^ theatres wai 
the part where the chorus danced — the &tage. Among the Romany 
it was the space between the stage and the common seats, wher^ 
the sei^ator9 ^d nobles sat to see plays acted^ The poor poet 
|s liere supposed to make up such a place as this for tke recep* 
tion of the better sort, should any attend hb recitals ; but thi^ 
iras nuide qp of hired chairs, by way of seats, but which were 
to be returned as sO^on as the business was over. 

48. Yet we still go on.'] Hoc agimus— lit. we dp this— we still 
pursue our poetical studies.— -Hoc agere is a phrase signifying to 

Digitized by 


Mt. *m JUTENAt'g SAtlRES^ %f| 

And the house atengl^ baited is cdmnntiMled lo serte jroti| 
In which the d€M>r imitates anxioas gates. 
He knows haw to place his ireedm^n^ sittitig in the extfethQ patt 
Of the rows, and to dispose the loud Tcriqes of his attendants. 
J^one of these great men will give as much as the benches ma| 
cost, 4$ 

And the stairs w)iich hsmg from the hired beam, [ried baclu 
And the orchestra^ which is set with chairs, which are to be car- 
Yet we still go on, and draw furrows in the light 
Dust, and turn, up the shore with a barren plough. 
For if you would leave off, custom of ambitious evil 50 

Holds you in a snare : m^ny^an incurable ill habit of writing • 
Possesses, and grows inveterate in the distemper'd heaft* 
But the excellent poet, who has no common vein. 
Who is wont to produce nothing trifling, nor who 
Composes trivial verse in a common style, $5 

Him (such a one I can*t shew, and only conceive) 

mind) aittend to, what^re are about See Taa. And. aet I. se. iL 
1. 12. So befoie, K 90.«-*kec agite, O Javenes. 

48. Draw fkrrtfm^ SfcJ] We take muck pains to no purpese, 
like people who i^uld piough in tke dast, or on the sea-shore^ 
Comp. sat t 157, note. 

50, Would leave off,'] Discedas-^ you would depart from iht 
occupation of making verses. 

'•^ CuHom of ambHioui €0^.] Evil ambition, which it Is so 

customary for poets to be led away with. 

51.^ An iuewrabie ill fu^ii.'] Cacoetiies (from Or. xanoq, bad, 
and fAof, a custom or habit) an evil habit-*-Many are got into such 
an itek of seiibbiing, tliat ^ej cannot ieave it off.-— Cacoethes also 
signMes a boil, an ulcer, and tlie like. 

52. Grows inoeiermle^ ^c] It grows old with the man, tod rootl 
toelf , as it were, bj time, in bis ^fety frame. 

53. No common vem.] Such talents as are not found among thd 

54. Nothing trifling.'] £xpoBitQm«<H:omtton, triiing, obvious-^ 
nothing in a eommon way. 

55. IVfetol verte^ ^c] Trivialis comas from tntiom, a plaotf 
where three ways meet, a pUce of common resort : therefore I con^ 
^ve the meaniag of tliis line to be, that fnch a poet as Juv^ud vi 
describing writes notking low or vulgar j sack verses as are usudl/ 
sought after, and purchased by theoonnnon people in the street. 
The wotd feriat is here metaphorical. Feno literally signifies to 
strike, or hit; thus to coin or stamp money-^hence to compose* oi^ 
make (hit off, as we say) verses ; which, if done by a ^ood poet, 
may be said to be of no common stamp. Moneta is the stamp, or 
iinpression, oji money— hence, by metaph* a style in writing, 


Digitized by 



Anxietate carens animus fiicit, omnis acerbi 

ImpatieDBy cupidus sylvarumy aptusque bibendis 

fontibus Aoi^dum : neque enim cantare sub aotco 

Pierioy thyrsumve potest contbgere sana 60 

Paupertasy atque 9eris inops, quo nocte dieque 

Corpus eget. Satur est^ cum dicit Horatius, Euhoe ! 

Quis locus iugenio : nisi cum se carmine solo , 

Vexanty et dominis Cirrhaey Ntpeque feruntur ' j y 

Pectofranostra^ duas non admittentia curas i \J 65 

Magns mentis opus, nee de lodice parandai 

AttonitSy currus et equos^ faciesque Deorum 

Aspicerey et qualis Kutuluni confundit £rimiys« 

Nam si Virgilio puer, et' tolerabile desit 

Hospitium, caderent omnes a crinibus hydri : 70 

Surck nihil gemeret grave buccina. Poscimus ut sit 

J^on minor anti^uo H^bTenus'Xla{>pa cothumo^ 

57. A mindf SfcJ] t. e. Such a poet is formed by a mind that ii 
▼Old of care and anxiety. 

68. Impaiieni.'] That hates all trouble, can't bear vexataon. 

Desirous of uoodsj] Of sylvan retirement. 

50. Fountains of the MusesJ\ Called Aoaides, from their sup. 
posed habitation in Aonia, which was the hilly part of B(eot]% and 
where there were many springs and fountains sacred to the Muses. 
Df these fountains good poets were« in a figurative sense, said to 
drink, and by this to be assisted in their compositions. 

59—60. In the Pierian cave^ 4*c.] Picria was a district of Mace- 
don, where was a cave, or den, sacred to the Muses. 

60. TTi^rsusJi A spear wrapt about with ivy, which they car- 
Tied about in their hands at the wild feasts of Bacchus, in imitation 
of Bacchus, who bore a thyrsus in his hand. The meaning of this 
passage is, that, for a poet to write well, he should be easy in his si<» 
tuation, and in his circumstances : for those who are harassed with 
poverty and want cannot write well, either in the more sober Stylo 
of poetry, or in the more enthusiastic and flighty strains of compo« 
sition. By sana paupertas, the poet would insinuate, that no poor 
poet, that had his senses, would ever attempt it. 

62. Horace is satisjiedy 4[cO It might be objected, that Horace 
was poor when he wrote, therefore Juvenal's rule won't bold, that a 
poor poet can't write well. To this Juvenal would answer, '^ True, 
<^ Horace was poor, considered as to himself; but then remranber 
<^ what a patron he had in Mecaenas, and how he was enaUed b^ 
*< him to avojd the cares of poverty. When he wrote his fine Ode 
^< to Bacchus, and uttered his sprightly-^Evse or £ahoe«^ho^ dofh^ 
4< less, W4S well sated with good cheer." See lib. ii. ode xfci, 1. ^-^ifc, 

64. The lords of Cirrha and Njsa.'] Apollo and Baccih^i^ 
tutelar gods of poets. Cirrha waS a town of PJio(;is, ne^ ^k 
jphos, where ApoUo had an oracle, 

Digitized by 



. A mind free from anxiety makes; of every thing displeasing 
luirpatient^^ desirous of woods, and disposed for drinking the 
Fountains of the Muses : for neither to sing in the 
Fieriap cave, or to handle the thyrsus, is poverty, 65 

Sober, and void of money, (which night and day the body wants,) 
Able. Horace is satisfied, when he says — Euhoe ! . 
What place iakhere for genius, unless when with verse alone 
Our n»inds trouble themselves, and by the lords of Cirrha and 

Are 'carried on, not admittiqstwo cares at once ? 6S 

It is the work of a great mml^ot of one that is amazed about 
Getting a blanket, to behold chariots, aud horses, and the faces 
Of the gods, and what an Erinnys confounded the Rutulian : 
Por if a boy, and a tolerable lodging had been wanting to Virgil, 
All the snakes would, have fallen from her hairs : 70 

The silent trumpet have groan'd nothing disastrous. Do we 

That Rubxenus I^appa should not be less than the anqieot buskin. 


/v Nfsa, a den in Arabia, where Bacchus was educated by the 
>^ nymphs, when sent thither by Mercury. From hence Bacchus was 
called IJ^ouysftis — ex Aiog, and Nisa ; Gr. AtowJ^, 

65. Carried on.] t. e. Inspired, and assisted. 

66. Not of one^ Sfc.'] q. d. It is tiie work of a great and power- 
ful mind, above want, not of one that is distracted about getting a 
blanket for his bed, to fix the eye of the imagination, so as to con- 
ceite and describe horses and chariots, and godlike appearances, in 
such a manner as to do justice to these sublime subjects of heroic 
arerse. — See Virg. ^n. xii. 1. 326, 7. 

68. And what an Erinnys,'] How Alecto looked when she asto- 
nished the Rutulian king Turnus^-when she filed him with ter. 
ror, by throwing her torch at him. iEn. vii. 1. 456, 7. Erinnys 
is a name compion to the three furies of hell, of which Alecto was 
pne, ' 

70. jill the snakes would have fallenj S^c.'] q.d. Had Virgil been 
poor, and without his pleasures and ^ conveniences, he never would 
have been able to describe, in the manner he has done, the snaky 
tresses of Alecto. See JEn. vii. L 450. All this had been lost 
^ us. ' 

71. 7^ siient trumpet'} Surdus not only means to express one 
who does not hear, but that also which gives no sound. See sat. xiii. 
J. 194. 

. Juvenal alludes to ^n. vii. 1. 519, 20, 1, 
'*dr:7% Rubrenus Lappa^ 4r<^*] An ingenious, but poor and miserable 
tsagic poet, who lived in Juvenal's time* 

— ^ — Less than th^ ancient brnkinJ] Not inferior to the old wri* 
ters of tragedy. Cothurno, per metonym* put here for the tragic 
poets, ^ it often is fpr tragedy. 

Digitized by 


«M JUVENALtS 6ATIIlM« il^.w. 

Cujtts et alveolos et bemm pigneret Atreus t 
Non habet infelix Numkor, quod mittat afiUK^ ; 
IQiuntillae quod donet^ babet: nee defuit iUi, 73 

Unde emeret multft pascendum carne lemiem 
Jam dotnitum. Constat leviori bellua sumptu 
Nimirum^ et capiunt plus intestina poets. ^ 

Contentus fam& jaceat Lucanus in faortis 
Mamioreis : at Serrano^ tenuique Saleio M 

Gloria quantalibet, quid erit^ si gloria tantum est? 
Curritur ad vocem Jucundam^ et carmen amicae 
Thebaidosy Istam ^it cum Stayos urbem> 
Promisitque diem : tanti dulcedine captos 
Afficit ille animos, tantftqne libidine vutgi %S 

Auditur : sed cum fregit subsellia versu, 
£surit| intactam Paridi nisi vendat Agaven* 

73. Atreus had laid in pawn.'] It has been obserred by Ains. 
worth, against Stephanas and other lexicographers, that pignero 
does not mean to take, or receive, a thing in pawn, but to sead it 
into pawn. In this riew we maj understand Athens to be the nzme 
of some tmgedj, on ike subject of Atreus, king of Mycenae, whidi 
met with such bad success as to oblige poor Rubrenus to pawn }a» 
clodies and furniture. Stephanas and others understand (ngnerat in 
Ae sense of taking to pawn, and suppose Atreus to be the name of 
tiie pawnbroker, to whom Rubrenus had pawned his goods. 

The first sense seems to have the best authority ; but witb whicli« 
erer we may agree, the thought amounts to the same tiling in sulu 
atamce-*-vi2r. Can it be expected tiiat this poor poet should eqoal tits 
fire and energy of the old tra^c writers, while his- clothes and f^mi* 
lure were pawned, in order to supply him with present necessaries 
to keep him from starring ?-^A man in such distress, whater^ hit 
genius might be, could not exert it. 

74. NumHor.] The name Nuuiitor may stand, here, for an? 
rich man, who would let a poet starve for want of that money whidi 
he lays out upon his mistress, or in baying some useless caiiosity, 
such as a tame lion. Infelix is here ironical. 

78. Doubtless^ SfcJ] Ironically said.*-*-No doubt it would cost^ 
more to maintain a poet than a Mon. 

79. Lucany Sfc.'] A learned and rich poet of Corduba in Spaiii) 
who, coming to Rome, was made a knight. He wrote, but lived 
not to finish, the civil wars between Caisar and Pompey, in an hcroib 
poem, called Pharsalia. He was piit to death by Nerq. See more^ 
AiNsw. Lucanus. 

•-^ — May Ue in g^rdens^ SfcJ] Repose himself in eaiK^ and lax^ 
nry, fame being sufficient for one who wants notlnng els^. lVfor« 
moreifr-^adomed with fine buildings of marble. 

80. Serranusy and to thin Saletusy ^c.J These were two poor 
^oets in Juvenal's tijne. Of the ^tter Tacitus sajrs—** Who u:ike$ 

Digitized by 


Whose platterty and cloke, Atreus bad laid in pawn f 

Unliappy Numitor has not what he can send to a friend; 

)ie has what be c^n give to Quintilla : nor was there wanting 

to him 75 

Wherewithal he might buy a lion, to be fed with much flesh. 
Already tamed. The beast stands him in less expense, 
Poubtless, and the intestines of a poet hold more. 
Xiucan, content with fapoe, may lie in gardens adom'd with 
Marble : but to Seirranus, 9nd to thin Saleius, 80 

What will ever so much fiime be, if it be only fame ? 
They run to the pleasing voice, said poem of the favourite 
Thebai's, when $tatius has made the city glad, 
And has promised a day : with so great sweetness does he affect 
The captivatefl mmds, and is heard with so much eager desire 85 
Pf the vulgsir : but when he has broken the benches with his 

He. hungers, i^nless he shoi^ld sell his untouched Agave to Parb* 

f^ any notice of^ qr evw s^ttends or speaks to, our excellent poet 

T^ese n^en may get faoie by the excellence of ttieir compositions ; 
))nt what sjignifies tiuit, if they get nothing else ? fi^m^ won't fee4 

Perhaps the poet calls Saleius tenui^-^-fthin, from his meagre ap^ 

8^. Th^ run.'] Curritor, here used imperspnallj, like concurri* 
tvr. Hoj^* sat i. 1. 7, 

The pleasing voice,"] «• e. Of Statins^ when h^ reads otci 

his Thebais in public. 

84. frotni*fd ^ d<{^.] u e. Appointed a day for a public recital 
of his poem on the Theoan war. 

86. Broken the benchesy Sfc] By the numbers of his hearers, 
who floci^ed tp attend Um when he recited hl9 Thebais. Notwith. 
standing this he must starve, for any thipg the nobles will do for 
hmau . 

87. ffis untouched utgope.] His new play calif 4 Jgave, which 
has never been heard, or performed. This play was formed upon 
the story of Agave, the daiigbter of Cadmus, who was. married to 
Jlchion king of Thebes, by whom she had Penth^us, whom she, and 
the rest of the M^^^9 i^ ^^' ^.^ revels, tore limb from limb, 
because he would drink no wine, and for this was supposed to slight 
the feasts of Bacchus. AiNsw.--^ee Hon. Sat lib. ii. sat. Ui. 1. 303 ; 
and Ovin, Met. iii. 725<^8. 

— : — PqrisJ] A stage-player, in high favour with Domitiian ; in« 
^^somuch that Domitia|i fell in love with him, and repudiated his wif^ 
pomitia for his sake. 

What Juvenal i^ys here, and in the three following lines, in a 
seeming complimentary way, was no more than a sneer upon Paris 
l}^e fhtjer^ and^ through hnn, upon the emperor, who so understood 

Digitized by 


S84 JUVENALIS SATIRE. bat. rir. 

Ille et militias multis largitur honorem ; 
Semestri vatum digitos circumligat auro. 

QuchI non dant proceresy dabit bistrio. Tu Camerinos 90 

Kt Bareas^ tu nobiliiun magna atria curas ? 
Praefectos Pelopea facit, Pbilomela tribunos. 
Haud tamen invideas vati^ quern pulpita pascuut. 
Quis tibi Mecaenas ? quis nunc erit aut Proculeius, 
Aut Fabuis ? quis Cotta iterum ? quis Lentulus alter i 95 

Tunc par ingenio pretium :^tunc utile multis 
i/ Pallere, et vinum toto nescire Decembri. 
Vester porro labor foecundior^ historiarum 

it, and turned our author^ jest into his punishment, for in his old 
age, he sent him into Mgypt, by way of an honorary senrice^ with 
a military command. This shews that this Satire was written in the 
time of Domitian, and he is meant by Cassare, 1. 1. 

Howeyer, it is yery eyident, that Juyenal meant to rebuke the 
nobles for their parsimony towards men of genius, by shewing how 
generous Paris was to them, insomuch that they ought to be ashamed 
to be outdone by a stage-player. 

89. Semesttian gold,^ Semestris not only means a space of sue 
months, (sex mensium), but the half or middle of a month. The 
moon is called semestris, when she is arriyed at the middle of her 
month, and is quite round in form. 

The aurum semcstre, here, means gold in a round form, t, e, a 
ring ; such as was worn by knights, to which dignity some poets 
had been raised, through the interest of this stage-player with the 
emperor. But qii. — If there be not here an allusion to the winter 
And summer rings ? See sat. i. 1. 2B« 

91. Camerini and Barecs^ S^'cJ] Some rich nobles, whose leyees 
the poor poets might attend in yain. 

92. Pelopea makes prefects.'] The tragedy of Pelopea, the 
daughter of Thyestes, who was lain with by her own father, and 
produced Jilgysthus, who killed Agamemnon and Atreus. 

Philomela tribunefr,] The tragedy of Philomela, the ciiugh- 

ter of Pandlon king of Athens, rayished by Tereus, who had mar* 
ried her ^istci* Progne. See more, Ainsw. tit, Philomela. 

The poet seems here to insinuate, that the performance of Paris, 
in these tragedies, so charmed the emperor, and gaye the actor such 
an ascendancy oyer him, as to enable Paris to haye the great offices 
of state at his disposal, so th^t they were conferred on whomsoeyer 
he pleased. 

93. Envj/ not) <5rc.] q> (/. Though, in some instances, great things 
haye been done for some indiyiduals, through the influence and in« 
terest of Paris, yet^ in general, those who haye nothing else to det 
pcnd on but writing for tlie stage, are left to starye, and therefore 
are hardly (haud) to be enyied. Pulpita — see sat. iii. 1. 174, note. 

94. Meccenas.] Who is the rich man that is such a patron to you, 
IM M^capi^i^ wa9 to JJorace ? yfho not onl^ enriched him, but madf 

Digitized by 



He also bestows military honour on many ; 
He binds round the fingers of poets with Semestrian gold, [90 
What nobles do not give^ an actor will. Dost thou trouble thine 
Head about the Camerini and Barese^ and the great courts of 

Pelopea makes prefects, Philomela tribunes. 
Yet envy not the poet whom the stage maintains. 
Who is your Mecaenas ? who now will be either a Pf oculeius, 
Or a Fabius ? who a second Cotta ? who another Lentulus ? 95 
Then reward was equal to genius : then 'twas useful to many 
To be pale, and to know nothing of wine for a whole December. 
Moreovervour labour, ye writers of histories^ (!s)more 

him his friend and compAnion^ and introduced him to the Ikvour of 
the emperor Augustus. 

94. Proeuleius.'] A Roman knight, intimate with Augustus. 
He was so liberal to his two brothers, Scipio and Murena, that he 
shared his whole patrimony with them, when they had been ruined 
by the cItII wars. See Hor. lib. ii. 6de ii. 1. 5^ 6. 

95. Fabius.'] The Fabius is, perhaps, here meant, to whom Ovid 
wrote four epistles in his banishment, as to a noble and generous 
patron of men of genius. Or it may relate to Fabius Maximus, 
who sold his estate, in order to redeem some Romans who had been 
taken captires by Hannibal. 

'- Cotta.'] A great friend ta Ovid, who wrote to him three 

times from Pontus, as to a constant patron. Ovid says to him : 

Cumque labent alii, jactataque vela relinquant, 

Tu laceras remanes anchora sola. rati : 
Grata tua est igitur pietas. Ignoscimus illis. 

Qui, cum fortuaft, terga dedere fugae. 

'--—Lentulus.'] A man of great liberality, to whom Ci'c. 
epist. vii. lib. i. ad famil. thus writes : Magna est hominum opinio 
de te, magna commendatio Iiberalitatis. 

96. Rezeard was equal^ 8^c.] Whea there were such men as thesa 
to encourage genius, and. to be the patrons of learning, then reward 
was equal to merit. 

97. 7b be /Mile.] With constant study and application, which 
were then sure to be profitable. Comp. Hor. epist. iii. 1. 10. Pers. 
sat. i. 124. 

— — To know nothing of wine, ^c] The feast of the Satuma« 
lia was observed in the month of December, with great festivity and 
jollity, with plenty of wine and good cheer : all this it was worth 
a poet's while to give np entirely for his study ; and rath^ than not 
finish what he was about, not taste so much as a single drop of wine 
during the ivhole festival, knowing that he was certain to be well 
paid for his pains. 

' 98. Your labour^ Sfc.'] He now speaks of the writers of history, 
whose labour aftd fatigue are beyond those of other writers, and yai( 
they are equally qeglcctdd* 

Digitized by 


Scriptores^ J>etit hie phis temporis, atque olei plus t 

Namqoe obbta modi mille^ima pngifia surgit 100 

OmnibuSy et cn»cit inult& damnosa pa^ro. 

Sic ingens renim iminerus jubet, atque opeiiun lex^ 

Qus tamen inde seges? terrae qiiis fructus apertaef 

Quis dabit bistoricoy quantum daret acta legenti ? 

Sed ^enus ignavum, <}ttod lecto gaudet et ombri. lOJ 

Die igitiir^ quid causidicis civilia prxstent 

Official et magao comites in fasce libelli f 

Ipsi magna ifonant ; sed tunc cum creditor audit 

Prsecipue^ vel si tetigit latus acrior illo. 

Qui venit ad dubium grandi cum codice nomen : HO 

Tunc immensa cavi spirant mendacia foUes, « 

Conspuiturque sinus. Verum deprendere messem 

98—9. Is more abundanty 4c] The stthject-inatter more rariovf 
and extensire. 

99. More m/.] Alluding to the lamps which i^ey used to wrife 
by, in which they consamed a great quantity of oil. See sat. i. 
1. 61, note. 

100. Forgetful of measureJ] The subjects are so rartoufi, and 
the incidents crowd in so fast upon the historian, that he passes all 
bounds, without attending to the size of his work — ^it rises to a 
thousand pages before you are aware. 

101. Ruinous with much paper."] So much paper is used, as to 
ruin the poor historian with the expense of it, 

102. The great number cf things.'] i. e. Which are treated. 

■ The law of such works.] The rules of histbryj wtiich obl%e 
the historian to be p«rticidar in his relation off facts, asid, df eoufse, 

103. What harvest, S^c] What profit do jntreap ? 

Tike far^^^ex^nded ground.] The wide and boundDess 

field of history. Comp. Vino. 6ear« ifi. \9^ 5-;. and Oeor, ii; 

Some think that this eiqpression of tefra^^ aperi% taken in oon« 
nexlon with the seges, is, as tint is, miAafriioii^ and nHudesno the 
labour of the husbandman, in opening the ground by tillage^ in ia^ 
der to prepare it for the seed. Soihehistoitei-ptoo^s, and-digs, 
and labours, as it were, in the field of histery, in hopes cf MSrpiB|[ 
profit thereby. 

104. A collector of the registtrs.] The acta were journals, re^ 
gisters, acts of the senate, or the like redcmls* The clerk,' whe 
wrote or collected them, was caUed adtuartus. Be was a sort of 
historian in his way. 

105. Tne^ are an idte race, ^e.] But perhaps it may be said, 
that, though they MTite mudi, yet that they write at their ease ; thirt 
they, as well as the poets, are a lazy set 4^ fellows,. Who w^cile Jtol* 

Digitized by 


%kt.w%h JUVENAL'S SATIRES. t» 

Abmrlttnt; this demaods more tinier and more oil ; 
For the thousandth page, forgetful of measure, arises 100 

To ye all^ and increases ruinous with much paper : [works^ 

Thus the great number of things ordains, and the law of (such) 
M^hat harvest is from thence? what fruit of the far-extended 
ground ? [lector of the registers i 

Who will give an historian as much as he would give to a col- 
Bttt they are an idle race, which rejoices in a couch or a shade. 10$ 
Tell me then, what- civil offices afford to the lawyers. 
And the libels their attendants in a great bundle i 
They make a great noise, but especially then, when the creditor 
Hears, or If one, more keen than he, has touched his side^ 
Who comes with a gre^it book to a doubtful debt : 1 10 

Then his hollow bellows breathe out prodigious lies, 
And his bosom is spit upon. But if you would discover the 

thig upon their couches, or repose themsdres in shady places. Hence 
HoR. lib. 1. ode xxxH. 1. 1. 

PoMimafl. 9i quid vacui nib umbrs 
Lasimus tecum. 

And again : 

Somno gaudentis e^-vmbtft. Epist. iL lib. u. 1. 78. 

106. Civil officesy Sfc."] What they get by their pleading for their 
clients in civil actions. 

r07. The libeUj 4'c.] Thdr bimdla of briefs which they carrjj: 
with them into court. 

108. A great noise.*] Bawls aloud— ^ma^na, adverbially, for mag« 
nopere. Graecism. See sat. tu 516. Grande sonat. 

108 — 9. Especially — vohen the creator hears.] Creditor signifies 
one i)xiLt lends, or trusts, a creditor. 

The lawyer here spoken of must be supposed to be of council 
with the prdntiff, or creditor, who makes a demand of money lent 
to another. If the lawyer obserres him to be within hearing, h% 
exerts himself the more* 

109*. One more keen*] If another, of a more eager disposition) 
and more earnest about the event of his cause, who sues for a boolu 
debt of a doubtful nature, and brings his account-books to prove 
it, thinks that the lawyer does not exert himself sufficiently in his 
cause, and intimates this to the pleader, by a jog on the side with 
his elbow-^-^hen, &ac. See Aivsw. Codex, No. 2| and Nomen^ 
No. 5. 

tlU His hollow bellows.] i. e. His lungs. 

*-^*-^ Breathe out prodigious lies.] In order to decdve the couri^ 
and to make the best of a bad cause.. 

i\% is spit upon.] Is shivered all over with his foammg at the 

'-'-•^^If ^ou would discover^ ifc.] Were it posdble to corapuds 
tbe^nsof lawyers^ you might put aUthc^ get in one 4€aU^ and ia 

Digitized by 


«» JUVENALtS SATIRE. lit. Tir. 

Si libet; hinc centum patrimonia causidicorum, 

Parte ali& solum rusaati pone Lacertae. 

Consedere duces : surgis tu pallidus AjaXy lli^- 

Dicturus dubi^ pro libertate, Bubulco' 

Judice. Runipe miser ten^um jecur, ut tibi lasso 

Figantur virides, scakrum gloria, palmse. 

Quod vocis pretium r siccus petasunculus, et vas 

JPelaipidum, aut veteres, Afrorum'epimenia, bulbi ; t^ 

Aut vinum Tiberi devectum : quinque'^lagense/ 

Si quater egisti. Si contigit iaur^us unus, 

Inde cadunt partes^ ex foedere pragmaticorum. 

the other, those of Domitian's coachman, and there would be no 
comparison, the latter would so far exceed. 

As some understand by the russati Lacertae, a charioteer belong- 
ing to Domitian, who was clad in a red liTery, and was a great fa- 
Tourite of that emperor ; so others understand some soldier to be 
jneant, who, as the custom then was, wore a red or russet apparel : 
in this view the meaning is, tiiat the profits of one hundred lawyers^ 
by pleading, don't amount in value to the plunder gotten by on» 
soldier. So Mi*. C. Dryden : 

Ask what he gains by all this lying prate, 
A captain's plunder trebles his estate. 

So Job: Britanmcus — Russati LacertcB.'^ Lacerta, nomen milltis^ 
fictum a poeta : nammilites Roman! usi sunt in prselio yestibus rus« 
satis, &c. 

.1 1 5. The chiefs^ ^c] Consedere duces. — The beginning of 0?id's 
liccount of the dispute, between Ulysses and Ajax, for the armour 
of Achilles. Ovid, Met. lib. xiii. 1. 1. Here humourously intro- 
duced to describe the sitting of the judges on the bench in a court 
of justice. 

Thou risest a pale JjaxJ] Alluding to Ovid, lib. xiii. 1. 2.. 

Sargit ad hos cljpei doininus septemplicia Ajax—, . 
by way of ridicule on the eager and agitated lawyer, who is sup« 
posed to arise with as much fury and zeal in his client's cause, as 
Ajax did to assert his pretensions to the armour in dispute. 

116. Doubtful freedom.'] The question in the cause is supposed 
to be, whether suich or such a one is entitled to the freedom of the 
city ; there were many causes on this subject. 

116 — 17. Buhukus being judge.'] This may meau C Attiliui 
Bubulcus, who was consul. Or, by Bubulcus, the poet may meaa 
some stupid, ignorant fellow, who was fitter to be an herdsman, 
than to fill a seat of justice. And thus the poet might satirize the 
advancement of persons to judicial offices, who were totally unqua- 
lified and unfit for them. 

117. Break ^our stretched liver.] Which, with the other con- 
tents in the region of the diaphragm, must be distended by the rioknt 
exertions of the speaker : or it may mean the liver distended bj 

Digitized by 


.^» J^U¥E»AL»tS SXTIMB. 

it^rofit, put the palfmoiiy ^{ mi^mdwi^hiwyen on one aide, 
.^And on the other*that of LAcerta only. 
IThe chiefs are set dowa together, thou risest a iptie Ajiix> 115 
In order to plead about doubtful freedoniy BubulciiA 
Seing judge : break^ wretch, y«ur stretched liver, that, to ycfa 

"Green p«dms may be fixed up, the glory of your stairs, [vessel 
What is the reward of your voice ? a diy bit of sak bacon, and a 
Of sprats, or did biflbous roots which come^moBlhly from Africa, 
Or wine brought down the Tiber : five flagons, {120 

If you have pleaded four times — 'If one piece of gold be£als| 
j^m thence shares fi»U,aocordtng to theagreemeat of pragmaticli. 

anger. So Horace on another occasion ferrens difficili bile tumet 
jjecur. Hoa. odejiiti. lib. i. 1. 4. 

118. Green pdlms^ 4*c.] It was the custom of Ait client, if he 
succeeded In lus cause, to fix such a garUmd At the lawyer's door. 

■■ ^ ' Th&ghry of yowr stairsS] By mU^ i^ poor lawyer as« 
icanded to liis miserable h^ltation. ^ 

, 120. Of your voice.'] Of all yaur bawItiig-^Wlutt A.0 ^on get 
Iqt all tiie noise whidi you have been soaking ? 

— — Of sprats J] Pelamidum. — It is not very cer4»a what these 
Jfish were; but seine snail and cjieap fish seem to-be hese meant* 
AinswoFtii says they were oalled peJamides^ k Gr. is^o^, lutoBv-*- 
jchiy, or mud. Most 4iliely they were chiefly IcMuid in mud, like 
joar^gijgs in the Thames, aii^ were, like them, of little <worth. 

Old bulbous roots J ^c] Perhaps onions ere hero meant^ 

which might be ametig the small presents sent montMy fr<$m Africa 
to Rome. See Ainsw. .^pim^iia. Fuxn. jsik. 5. calls a khid of 
onion, epimeiudiiun, from iGr* vtii$imAo9. Aiirsw* fipiedeiiicUmn.-^ 
TttioseiseHt to the lawyer were veteves — old <and stale. 

1^1. Wiue brought down the Tiber.] -Coming down the stream 
fr^om Yejento, or some othar>plaee where bad wine gr^r. ^ 

--•^ — Five j.^agons.] L^gena was a sort of bottle m which wine 
was J(ept The fif« lagene cannot- he .aapposed to make up any 
gj»at.quaatity. Five botUes of bad wioe^^for pleading four causes^ 
was poor pay. 

122. Apiece ofgold^ Sfc] If it should so happen, that you shouM 
get,a^isce jof gold for a £ee. — ^Tbe Roman aureus was in vaiiie about 
11. 4s. 3d. according to Pliny, lib. si^xxiii. c. 3. See post, 1. 243. 

433. l^tence shares Jolly Sfc] This |)Oor pittance must be •divided 
into shares, and fall equally to tbeiot of othees besides yourself. 

<4ccording to the agreement. Sfc] AInswoijth says, that the 

pragmatici were prwapters, who sat beUead the lawyers while they 
were pteading, and instructed them, telling, th^ what the law, «nd 
the. meaning oi the law, was. :For th»s^ it may be supposed, that 
ihe pragmatici agreed m'tih the lawyers, whom they thus served, to 
share in the feps. We owe the word pragpiatical, to *denote busily 
' neddling a^.intx;u4»)g kto withers' 4H>n(:«iK8«H--lH»tt^^<^.^iy ^^-^ 
' VOt. J, ■ 'U" - ^ -■• •'- ■ 

Digitized by 



Mauiio dabitufy qiiantum petet, et melius nos 

Egimus : hiijiis enim stMp currus aheneus, alti 125 

Quadrijugesm vestibulis, atque i][iae feroci 

Beliatore sedens curvatiim hastile oiinatur 

Eminus, et statuft meditatur praelia lugc&. 

Sic Pedo conturbaty Matho deficit : exitu3 hie est 

Tongilliy magno cum rhinocerote lavari 150 

Qui solet, et vexat hitujfBntdrbaloea turb&, 

Perque forum juvenes longo premit assere Medos^ 

Empturus pueros, argentum, myrrhinsij villas : 

Spondet eiiim Tyrio stlataria purpura filo. 

Et tamen hoc ipsis est utile : purpura vendit 135 

Causidicum, vendunt ametfaystina : convenit illis 

atiye, impertinent, saucy. Phillips.— rGr. ••fay/AaTMto? — sokrs In 
negotiis agendis. ' 

124. To ^miliu$ will be ghen^ ^c] We may suppose that this 
JGmilius was a rich lawyer,, who, though of inferior abilities to 
many poor pleaders, yet got a vast deal of money by the noble and 
splendid appearance which he made. 

124—5. We have pleaded better,'} Though there besomeamon^ 
us who are abler lawyers. 

125. A brazen chariot, ^-c] He had a large brazen statue, a fine 
bronze, as we should call it, of a chariot, drawn by four horses, 
placed in his restibule, or entrance to his house, which made a mag- . 
nificent appearance. Quadrijugis signifies four horses harnessed to- 
gether, and drawing in a chariot. 

l^^—J. Himself —sitting, S^c.'] There was abo an equestrian sta- 
tue of iEmilius himself, mounted on a war-horse, in the Tery action 
of bending back his arm, as if ready to throw a javelin. 

128. A blinking statue.} The statue represents iEmilius as medi- 
tating some great stroke against an enemy, and having one eye shut, 
in order to take aim with the other. Or perhaps iEmilius had but 
one eye, which the statue represented. All these things, which can 
add no real worth or ability to the owner of them, jet strike the 
Tulgar with high veneration for JEmiWm, and engage them to em- 
ploy him in preference to others, insomuch that he may have what 
fees he pleases. See 1. 124. 

129. Tlius Pedo breaks.} Conturbat — rukis himself— by want- 
ing to appear rich, in order to draw clients. 

Matho fails.} Becomes bankrupt, as it were, by the expaise 

he puts himself to on the same account. 

^ ISO. Of Tongillus.} This was some otlier lawyer, who ruined 

himself by wanting to seem rich and considerable. 

frith large rhinoceros.} The richer sort used to go to the 

baths, with their oil in a vessel made of the horn of a rhinoceros, 
which was very expensive. Tongillus did this in order to be thought 
rich. So ivory is called elephant. Geor. iii. 26. Meton. 
.131. mth a dirtj/ croiod.} Who followed hiii^ tKrough the dir^ 

Digitized by 


To iBmilius will be given as much as he will ask ; and we have 

Pleaded better : for a brazen chariot stands, and four stately 1^5 

Horses in his vestibules, and himself on a fierce 

War-horse sitting, brandishes a bent spear 

Aloft, and meditates battles with a blinking statue. 

Thus Pedo breaks — Matho fails : this is the end 

Of TongilluSy who to bathe with large rhmoceros . 130 

Is wont, and vexes the baths with a dirty Crowd ; 

And thro* the forum presses the young Medes with a long pole^ 

Going to buy boys, silver, vessels of myrrh, and villas ; 

For his foreign purple with Tynan thread promises for him. 

And yet this is useful to them : purple sells 135 

The lawyer, violet-colour'd robes sell him : it suits them 

streets, as his attendants, and therefore were themselves mnddy and 
dirty, and, of course, very offensive to the gentry who resorted to 
the public baths. 

132. Presses the young Medes^ S^cS] He rides through the forum 
in a litter, set upon poles which rested on the shoulders of tho 

Young Medes,"] The Romans were furnished with slaves 

from Media and Persia, who were very tall and robust — these were 
chiefly employed iii carrying the lecticae, or litters, in which the 
richer people were carried through the streets of Rome. 

133. Going to buy^ S^cJ] Appearing thus, as some great man who 
was going to lay out money in various articles of luxury. Pueros^ 
here^ means young slaves. 

134. His foreign purple, Sfc."] His dress was also very expensive^ 
and was stich as the nobles wore. 

Promises for him.'] t. e. Gains him credit. Spondeo pro- 
perly signifies to undertake, to be surety for another, and it is here 
used in a metaphorical sense ; as if the expensive dress of Tongillus 
was a surety for him as being rich^ because by this he appeared to 
be so. 

Foreign purple.] Stlatarius (from stlata, a ship or boat) 

signifies outlandish, foreign^ as imported by sea from a foreign . 
country.. • 

Tifrian thread.] The thread, of which the garment of Ton- 
gillus was made, was dyed in the liquor of the murex, a shell-fish, of 
which rame the finest purple dye, and the best of which were found 
•near Tyre ; therefore we often read of the Tyrian purple. See 
^n. iv. 269. Hob. epod. xii. 1. 21. 

135. This is useful^ <^c.] All this parade of appearance is a mean 
of recommending the lawyers to observation, and sometimes to em- 
ployment, therefore may be said to have its use where it succeeds. 

135—6. Purple sells the lawyer.] His fine appearance is often 
the cause of his getting employment, in which, for the price of his 
fee, he may be said to sell himself to his client. 

136. VioleUcoloured robes.] Amethystina. — The amethyst is a 

u 2 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


♦Et ^trepilQ, eVhcie majoris iW«re'C€«rrtw» r 

tSokl .fittem jmpeiutt^ticni s6k!v«t tn-oi^ 
Ut redeant veteres, Ciceroni nemo duceatds ^ 

Nunc dederit nuniinos> nisi f akerk atanuliis .u|^i6, i40 

Respicit hoc«piintttm ^-litigat, antibrspervf 
Octo, decern comites; tn tp^st te seHa, togadi 
Cftfite pedes. ^Ideo cotHlact(L Pauhira ngdxit 
Sardopyche, atque ideo plniis, qvmm iCosmis «gebat, 
(Qomn ^Mkb. iWa in tetwii ftKimdia^paiino^ 14S 

iQuando ircet fl^ntem BasiloJintMiiicere^iatFeRi f 
Qutt bbne dksetoi&n Basiluln ferat? acoipfat^ts 
SSallia, vel potius natrieula causitfeeirfiiii 
Africa^ si'PlacaitindKedemimpcnKtielitigtt^ 

rpveditms -stoiie ef a itMet-e^iOiH'. Tliis coloar vAso the ^entiy 
^amoBg the Romaas were fond of wearing ; and ikis^ therefore, oho 
•recommended the lawyers to obsenration, and sometines to employe 

, 137. JViih the bustle^ ifc.^ tlf^y 6nd It suUaUe to th^ Tiews <rf 
recommending themselves, to live above their fortunes, and, of-eoofsfy 
4o be sQrrotifndBd'With -BHsbeps of Sttendaifts, ^.^ — and,' from this, 
4md the appearance of their stress, to seem ri^tll' than <ii^ were^ 
^ihis, as the next line imports, because nobody was looked apm Itet 
was not supposed -able to afford 4o be eKtra?9ga9^l/; such wfis thff 
^onstrouS'prodjgality-of the times, tiiat dieei^petfses of peopjb'were 

139. Nobody would give Cicero^ Sfc.'] Sudi js the importance rf 
fashionable and expensive appearance, that even T«Uy himself, (if he 
V.ouId return from the dead,) though ^ ^nsatest orat4>r that Jtoioe 
ever saw, as well as 4he siblest advocate, UGlbody would givehim a 
tee, though «ver so small, unless he -i^peared with a ring of great 
value gHttering upon bis fitter — duoentos nmnmos.-^The nummw 
argenti was a sesterce, the fourth part «f a denarius, but seven iti^ 
things of our money. 

14U He thai UUgutcB^ SfcJ] He tihtft Wtftils to eit>plO]r counsel, 
Instead of first inquiring'intp the abilities of the man whom he em- 
ploys, first asks h(fw many servants he keeps, and in what atyle fat 

141--^2. '^ight servmU.'] 4. e. Slaves to c&rry your litter. — ^The 
jitters were more or less respectaUe, -ad to their appearaaoe^ from 
the number of bearers whieh carried them-^^ome had six. See sat. L 
1. 64, and note. These were called besftphori, from Gr. i{, six<*- 
aad ^%^v, to bear^ 

Lnior hnaphoris turn lit Ie«^ft IteeVlt. 

{^MaImt. lib. ii. -ep. M. 

( ' Qaum tibi Don esa^nt 8^ milfia, CAteiliBXie, 

lBgenti4ate veetus es JiejLaphoM. 

.Mart. Kb. iv. ep. 50. 

^ Tran4|ttilJ[us wrkes, that Ci^igula Wat aarrfed ia a fitter 'bot«« by 

Digitized by 


7b live with the bustle aad appttanooe o£ a greatec iocomew 
But prodigal Rome obaecvea bo. bounda to expense., 
niio* the .aocieiita should retum, nobodjr would give Cicero 
Now-a-days two hundred aeslacces, uid^ a.^ceat ring shone. 14<X 
He that litigates regards this finsti wJiether you.have ei^t 
Servants, ten attendants, whether a chair is. after you, [s^n hired 
Gownsmen before your steps. Theiaafimce Paulus pleaded with 
Sardonyx, and therefore pleaded at a. highec fee than [145 

Cossus or than Basilns. Eloquence is rape in. a n^an clothii^. 
When can Basilus psaoduce a weeping nioth^ ? 
Who will bear Basilus (tho*) speakii^ well ? let Gallia 
Receive yoiu, or rather, that mi^se of 'lawyerS| 
Africa, if it has pleased you to set a reward upon your tongue* 

^ht— -octpphoro.. This piece o| s^ mi^tf afterwiHc^df be agecMb 
bj those who wished to make a great fmd splendiA a];^)eaniQce. 

. 142* Ten n^endflm^,] Comtto^'-^tteiidaoti upcHi him. It was 
the oastom, says Grangiu% not only for princ^bat foe o(tieR8> 
w>p nKere dkried ia litters, to ha^ye a np^itber of poopte att^ading 
them, who were called comites. 

; „^^^^ Whether a chm\ ^c] Whether, ibongh you may walk on 
foot, you haTe a litter carried aftQc you, that yon. may get into.i^ 
^An» yect please. 

^.^.^^^^Gpxtmmmpny 4:^] Fooc cllent9|. caUed toga^, from thft; 
giomm w2»kh. thiiy wore. Se» sat. i. 1. 3, aod aote ; and. sat. iii. . 
1. 127, note. Numbers of these were- se^a walkji^ before the gipeat^ 
on "whfm they weve dependent. 

-rr— Therefore Pmbi^y 4r(?.] Spme poor la^er, who,» though 1|0> 
conld not afford to. bi^ a ring s»i n^th a 9%rdonyi(, yet hired ovti^ to 
make his appearance with at.the bar ; ao4 ^. this me»n.gpt greateic 
f«BS than those who appeared without- so«»esncb oTjaseof^U 

. X4Su CosstM or B/tsihu.'] Two poor^ bqt> ppobaUj) Iwrnrf lavf«. 
yeraof tbetim^. 

^r- — Eloquence k rare^ ^c] Nobody? will givea lasja qredU for 
being eloquent, if he appears in rags, at least Tery rarely. 

. \4S. When cam BjmHus produce^ ^c] Whw will ^asilu^^ ^^ 
ax^ man with a mean appearance, be, enaployed in a cauas of great 
coin^neoee, a^ Cicei^o for Fonteijis, wh,ere a mother was pr<k[)ioed in 
court, weepiag) a«d. snppUceth^ for the life of her. sQn. 

: 147; WM w<^ hmr Bq^Uh^^ *«.] t. e. L^ a lawyer be ever so 
al^le, or spc9k' ever m w^, nobo4y will pay him the l^a^t attea^- 
tion, if his appearance be poor wid shabby* 

p l^ Gulli0^ SfcJ] Franoe and Africa wei;e vemarkabje, at 

Vtiiat ttm^, for eocpucs^ing dktiiueiM^e, 8^4 h»d gr^tlawyew^ who got 
largefee^. See M^ C, Dryden's note. - 

Comp. satw X?* 1. 111. Ainsw. ^iMns nutwula--a. broader, a 

, I4ftp If if. ha9 ple(^se4^o^.y <Src.] i. e. If yx)u.mAke.j^.pflint ofgwt- 
ting money by your eloquence at the bar. 

V 3 

Digitized by 



Declamare doces i 6 ferrea pectora Vectt ! 130 

Cum perimit saeros claMb numerosa tyrants : 

If am qiuecimque sedem modo legerat^ haec eadem stans 

Proferet, atque eadem cantabit versibus tsdem. 

Occidit miseros crambe repetita magistros. 

Quis color, et quodTsU causie genus, at^ue ubi summa 155 

Quaestio, quae veniant divenft parte ^agittae, 

Scire volunt omnes, mercedem solvere nemo. 

Mercedem appellas i quid euim scio ? culpa docentis 

Scilicet arguitur, quod Usvk in parte mamilte 

150. Do youieach^ SfC.'] Having shewn how badly the lawyers 
were ofty in £is dearth of encouragement given to liberal sciences, and 
of rewarding real merit and abilities, he now proceeds to shew, that 
the teachers of rhetoric, who opened schools for the laborious employ- 
ment of instructing youth in the knowledge and art of declamation^ 
were, if possible, still worse off* 

O the iron heart j ^c] q, d. O the patience of Vcctins ! One i 

would think that his mind was insensible of fatigue, quite steeled, as I 
it were, against the assaults of impatience or weariness? See sat. i. ' I 

Feeiius.^ The name of some teacher of rhetoric, or perhaps | 

pnt here for any person of that profession. 

151. tVhen a numerous classj Sfc,^ Classis here signiGes a num« I 
ber of boys in the same form, or class, every one of which was to re* 
peat over a long declamation to the master, on some particular sub- 
ject which was given out to them as a thesis. 

Destrojfed cruel tyrants.'] Alluding to the subject of the de- 

chunation, as — ^' Whether tyrants should not be destroyed by their 
^^ subjects ?" — The declaimers arie supposed to hold the affirmative. ' 
Comp. sat. L 15—^17, and note on 1. 15. 

Some refer this to Dionysius, the tyrant of Sicily, who, after he 
was deposed, went to Corinth and set up a school, where Juvenal hu- 
mourously supposes him to be killed by the fatigue of his employ- ; 
ment ; but the first sense^ which is given aboYe, seems to be the most 

153. For whatever J sitting^ ^c] It is probable, that the rhetori- 
cians first taught their scholars the manner of pronunciation and ut- 
terance, which they might do, when their scholars read over their de- 
clamations sitting ; but when th^ instructed them in gesture and ac» 
tion, then they were made to stand up, still repeating the same things 
over and over again, and the master exerting himself, to shew them the ! 
best method of speaking and action. i 

153. Rehearse over^ Sfc] Canto — ^lit. signifies to sing or chant. 
Perhaps the ancients, in their declamation, used a kind of singing, or' 
chanting, to mark the cadences of thar periods. Canto also signUies . 
to repeat the same thing over and over again, in the same letters and 
syllables — ^nothing more than this seems to be meant here. Versus, as 
well as a verse^ signifies a line^ even in prose. Ainsw. Versus, 
No. 6, 

Digitized by 



Do you teach to declaim ? O the iron heart of Vectius ! 150 
When a numerous class hath destroy^ cruel tyrants : 
For whatever, sitting it has just read, these same things standing, 
It will utter, and rehearse the same, over and over, in the same 

verses. • 
The cabbage repeated kills the miserable masters. 
What the colour, and what the kind of cause, and where 155 
Tlie chief question, what arrows may come from the contrary 

All would know, nobody pay the reward. 
Do you call for your reward ? — ^wbat, forsooth, do I know ? The 

fault of the teacher 
You may be sure is blamed, because in the left part of the breast 

154. Tlie cabbage^ S^c."] Crambe*-a kind of colewort, or cabbage. 
The poet means (in allusion to the Greek saying — At^ x^jASn ^waroi) 
that the hearhig the same things forever (like cabbage warmed up, and 
served at table many times to the same persons) mu^tbe nauseous 
and surfeiting, enough to tire and wear the masters to death. 

Others 'read Cambre, a town near mount Gaurus, in Campania, 
where a battle had been fought between the Campanians and the peo- 
ple of Camae. This had been made the subject of a declamation, 
which the scholars repeated so often in the schools, for their exercises^ 
as to tire their masters almost to death. 

155. What the colour. '\ That which tbe ancients called the colour, 
was that part of the declamation which was introduced by way (of 
cause, or reason, for the thing supposed to be done, and by way of 
plea or excuse for the action. As Orestes, when he confessed killing 
his mother, " I did it," says he, " because she killed my father." ) 

fVhai the kind of cause,'] Deliberative, demonstrative, or ju« 

dicial — or whether defensible or not, 

156. The chief question^] That on which the whole cause must 

What arrows^ ^c] What arguments hiay come from the 

other side. Metaph. from shooting arrows at a mark. 

157. All would know, SfQ.] Every body is willing enough to be 
taught these thin^, but very few choose to pay th^ master for his pains 
in teaching them. 

1 58* Do ifou call for your reward?'] f . e. What do yo^ mean by 
asking for payment? (says the scholar.) — What do I know more 
than before ? This is supposed to be the language of the scholar, wheu 
the master demands payment for his trouble. The dull and inappre* 
hensive scholar, who gets no benefit from the pains of the ms^ter^ 
lays his ignorance upon the master, and not upon his own in^tten^ 
tion or stupidity ; and therefore is supposed to blame the mas-, 
ter, and to think that he deserye^ AQthing for all the pains he has 

169, In the left part of the breast, S^c] TJeheajrt is supposed to^ 

V 4 

Digitized by 



Nil salit Am^«o juveni, eujus ntMsextA 160 

Quaque die mkeniiti dinis capot Hatmibal itnplet. 

Qikicqiiid i(} esty <k ifao deliberat ; an petat nrbera 

A Caonis ; Wa post nimbos et fulmina canttia 

Circumagat jnadidas a terapestate cofaortes* 

Quantum vis stipulare, et pfotimis acoipe quod do^ l6X 

Ut foties ilium paler audiat. Ait alH sex 

£t pkires ilno cbnclamant ore sophktae, 

Et veras agitant lites, raptpre relicto : 

Fusa venena silent, mains ingratusque marhus,: 

Et quae jam veteises saffHmt rooitma oscoflu 170 

Ergo sibi dabit ipse rudem, si nostra mowbtiiit' 

G<m^lia, et vit» dmrsum iter i^;»9ditliir> 

be in ^ Mt part of tke breast, aHcl to be tbe seat of vndemiafidaig 
afnd wisdoiii ; m both idiicb tiie jooth, bere spoken of, seems to be as 
d^i^ieivt, as if his heart were aknost without motion, withoiit that 
lively palpitation which is fowad in olhers. Lit. ac^hiag leaps to 
the Arcadian jonth in the left part of the breast. 

160: Afcmdifm ^ouihJ] Arcadia was famous for its Weed of asses, 
to which, bj the appellation ArcacKeo, this young man is eompared^ 
whose dulness had prerented his prefitiai^ imdev the pains .which his 
master took with him. See Pers. saft iii^ L 9. 

Whose dire Hannibal^ ^c.] No theme was more eommoa, ia 

tke Roman schools, than the ad^^ntnreaaf Hanmbal. Every week, 
says the master, does the story of Haniubal torment my poor head 
Upoti A declaumiirg day. 

l&X Gtfto^dty.^ MlMrehdinectly to Rome, after dwbaMe of 

1 M. WkeelabmU his troops toet^ 4r^«] Bannibal, when witbin abcrat 
three miles from Rome, was assaulted by a dreadful tempest. Ma- 
feerbal, his general of horse, persnaded him to go on, and promisedhim 
that he should, that night, sup in the capitol ; but Haunibal delibe* 
rated, whether he should not lead his troops bock into Apulia^ as 
they were so assaulted aaddisaiayed by the violence f^ the tempest. 

These circumstances are supposed to be the constaBt aabjects of 
dsclamations in the schools^ 

165. Bargain for ^ S^cJ] Ask what you please, I.willgiv« it you,, 
if you can get this stupid boy's father to hear him aa often asi do : 
then I Miink he would be persuaded of hisspn^s dulness, and think also 
Ihat r deserve to be handsomely paid for what I have gone tfaroaghia 
hearh^h^. SeeAiNsw. Stipulor. 

' 1 66 — 7. Six other sophiste^ SfC,"] Sophlstas meant at first learned mea 
(from Grt. dro^^ ii4se) ; afterwards, it meant pretenders to learning, 
prathig cavillers. It also signifies orators; in this last sense it seems 
used hem, where the poet means to say, that many of these teachers 
of rhetoric had left the schools, where fictitious matters were only de# 
claimed upon^ for the bar, where real eaosea. weie agitated. 

Digitized by 



The Arcadian youtb. Ims nothii^ifait leaps, whose dke HamribalV 
Sviery sixth day, fills my miserable head: [160 

'Whatever it Im. conceiiiiii§ whiob he deliberates,, vvfaedief ha 

should go to the city 
From Camiasy or after showeis and thunder caulaouSy 
He should wheel about bs tceo|M ymt Wuk the tempest. 
Bargain for as much a» you please^ and immediately take what* 

I give, 165 

That his father sbovU heap him as often. But six other 
Sophists, and mor^ cry together with one mouth, 
And agitate real causes, the ravisher beti^ left: 
The mixed poisons are silent, the bad and ungrateful husband, 
And what medicines now heal old blind men. 170- 

Therefore he will dischaif^e himself, if my counsels will 
Move ; and he will enter upon a differoit walk in life. 

167. Cry together with one mouth.'] £. e. All agree with one con* 
sent to take this step — viz* to have done with teaching school, and 

IM. Tkrrmmher bewg lefi."] t. e. Leaving the fictitious subjects 
of declamation, such as some supposed ravisher, or perhaps the rape 
of Heto, Proserpine^ &c, 

KSCK The. mixed prisons are silent.'] Nothing more is said about 
the poisons of Medea. Fiisa — poured and mixed together. 
. -—^Ungrmtefid husband,] Jason, who having married Medea^ 
kit her, and murf ied another. 

170k What medkines nom heai^ SfcJ] Mortsuria — mortars. Per 
aset. mediciNies braided in a.BM>rtar. — ^What mediciiaes recoi^ered old 
.C^n tQ hkyouthy and sight^ again. Ov. Met. lib. i^ii. 1. 387 — 93. 
. Giw^His thiolis tfaaA &is alludes to a story oi a son, who made 
op soue BifidicineB to care his father's eyes, and who was accused by 
hi^ mother-in-law of having mixed up poison, which the father be* 
iJLi^j disinherited him. ' Se Faruaby. 

171* Thiir^areJ] JSrgo*-^* dL As the profession of teaching 
school is so miserable, and without profit, I would therefore advise 
tjiose, wte hane- left the shadowy declamation of the school fpr the 
veal CQAtention of the bar, to follow a new ceurae of life, and never 
think of returning to teaching, rhetoric again, lest they should have 
n^lhi^ left to buy bread with-^this seem^ to he the sense of the pas- 

■ ■ ■■■ Disehatge himself.] Sihi datait ipse rudem-^terally^ he will 
^ve himself the wand. 

The rudis wa« a rod, or wand^ given to sword.players, iu token of 
9,dUthdXS9y or release, from that exerci^o. Hence the phrase-^dare 
mdepi, to give a diseharg^-^to dismiss. 

See Hon, ep. i. L 9. dooataiu jam rade-^-dim^sed. Francis. Jut. 
sat. vi. 1. 113, and note. 

Hia wis dl^dmife hiwelf ftQVi%e(«l9fi[3eho<d;; 

Digitized by 



Ad pugnam qui rbetoric& descendit ab umbr^, 

Summula ne pereat, qu^ vilis tessera venit 

Frumenti: quippe htec merces lautissima. Tenia 175 

Cbrysogonus quanti doceat, vel Poliio ipianti 

Lautorum pueroi, arteth scindens Theodori. 

Balnea sexoentis, et pluris porticus, in qu& 

Gestetur dominus quoties pluit : anne serenum 

Exspectet, spargatve luto junienta recenti f 180 

Hie potius : namque hie mundse nitet ungula mulie* 

Parte alift longis Numidafiun fiilta columnis 
Surgat, et algentem rapiat coenatio solem. 
Quanticunque domus, veniet q7ii fercula doctd 
Componity veaiet qui pulmentaria condit. 185 

Hos. inter sumptus sestertia Quintiliano, 
Ut multum^ duo sufficient ; res nulla minoris 
Constabit patri, quam filius. Unde igitur tot 
Quintilianus habet saltusf exempla novorum 

1 73. Tlie rhetorical shadow^ S^cJ] From the poor empty daclama« 
tions in the schools, which at best are bat a shadow oi reality, and are 
bat shadows in point of profit. 

RefU engagement,"] To engage in pleading causes at the bar, 

which have reality for their subject, and which, he hopes, will produce 
real profit. Descendit ad pagnam — a military phrase. 

174-^5. ji vile rtkeatMcket,'] In any dole made by the emperor, 
or by one of the city-magistrates, for distributing com, the poor ci- 
tizens had each a tally, or ticket, given them, which they first shewed, 
and then receiyed their proportion, according to the money tiiey 
brought to bay wheat from the public'magazines, at a lower th«i the- 
market price. This tally, or ticket, was called tessera, it being four- 
square : it was made of a piece of wood, or of lead — whence Juvenal 
calls it Tilts. 

175. A most splendid reward."] Though they should gtt only a 
wheat- ticket for a fee, yet this is noble, in comparison of what they 
get by teaching rhetoric^ 

176. Chrysogonus— Poliio.] Rhetoric-masters, who read to their 
pupils the works of Theodoras Gadareas, an excell^t orator, bom 
at Gadara, a city of Syria, not far from Ascalon. 

177. The qtuUity.] The nol^lity, the rich fathers of the poor rheto* 
rician^s pupils. 

•'"^^ Dividing.] Scindensr-^iyiding, taking to pieces^ and thus 
opening and ex plainfng the several parts. 

— ^ Baths are at six hundred sestertia.] Vhich they built for 
themselves, and maintained at a great expense. See sat. i. I. 106, note. - 

— i- A portico- at more.] They were still more expensive in- 
their porticos, or covered ways, where they used ^ride in rainy or 
dirty weather. 

179. Can he zoaity Sfc,"] Should these great people be forced tQ 

Digitized by 


tAT« Til* 



Who has descendecl from the rhetorical shadow to real engage- 

Lest the small sum should perish^ from which cometh a vile 
Wheat-ticket : for this is a most splendid reward. Try 175 
For how much Chrysogonus teaches^ or PoUio the children 
Of the quality, dividing the art of Theodorus. 
Baths are at six hundred sestertia^ and a portico at more, in which 
The lord is carried when it rains : can he wait for 
Fair weather; or dash his cattle with fresh mud ? ] 80 

Here rather, for here the hoof of the clean mule shines. 

In another part, propp*d with tall Numidian pillars, 
A supper-room aris^, and will snatch the cool sun. 
Whatever the house cost, one will come who composes skilfully 
Dishes of meat^ and one who seasons soups. 185 

Amidst these expenses, two sestertiums, as a great deal. 
Will suffice for Quintilism. No thing will cost a father 
Less than a son. Whence, therefore, hath 
Quintilian so many forests ? — ^Tbe examples.of new fates 

^tay at home till fine weather came, or else go out and splash them- 
selves, and their fine horses, with dirt ? 

181. Here rather^ ^c] To be sure he wi|l use the portico, 
where not only he, bat his very moles, arc protected from having 
their feet soiled. 

182t TaU Numidian pillars,'] The room raised high on pillars 
of marble from Numidia, which was very elegant and expensive. ^ 

183. A supper-room.] A diHiog-room we should call it; but 
ccenatio, aonong the Romans, signified a room to sap in, for their 
entertainments were always at supper. 

-^Snatch the cool sun.] The windows so contrived as to catch 

the son in winter-time. The Romans were very curious in their 
contrivances of this sort. They had rooms toward the. north-east, 
to avoid the summer son ; and toward the south-west, to receive the 
sun in winter. 

184. Whatever the house cost.] They little regarded the expense 
they were at in building. 

One wHl^come, Sfc] They'll he sure to have their tables 

fiumptoously furnished by cooks, confectioners, Sec. Pulmentaria 
seems used, here, for victuals in general. Ainsw. 

1S6. Amidst these expenses^ Sfc] Which they squander away in 
biiildiogs, eating, and drinking, they think two poor sestertiums 
(about 151.) enough to pay Quintilian (the great rhetorician) for 
teaching their children* 

187—8. Will cost a father lesSj Sfc] They laid otft their money 
with cheerfulness on their gluttony, &c. but grudged ever so little 
expense for the education of their children : therefore nothing costs 
tjiem so little. 

}S^^9. Hath Quintiliaup 4c-] If these 'things be so^ how comes 

Digitized by 



Fatoram tramsi : felix et pulche^ et aceis 19O 

Felix et sapiens et nobilis et generosus, 

)Appositam nigrs liuiam subtexit alijt^ : " 

Felix, orator quoque maxiiniiSy et jaci||atory 
£t si, pei£:ixit, cantat bene. . Digtat enim, qoii^ 
Sidera te*excipiant, modo pnmcw inoipientesi 195 

Edeve vagitus, et adhuc a niaty« rubentenW 
Si Fortun^volot, fies de rhetore consul : 
Si volet hsBC eadgra, fies de consule rhetor. 
Ventidius^qnid eniin f quid Tulliua? anne diud qiiam 
Sidus, et Qcculti mirauda potentia fati ? ^tOO 

Servis regna dabunt, captivis fata triuniphos. 
FeKx ille tamen, corvo quoque rarior albo. 
Poenitiiit niultos vanae stemtisque cathedras, 
Sicut Thjfasymachi probat exiUis, atque Secundt 
Carrinatis; et hunc inogem vidistis, Athenae> iOS 

Nil praBter gclidas ausas eonferre cicutas. 

Dj nKyorum umbris teQuena, et sine ponder^ terram, 

Qiiintilian to hare so large an estate, and to be the owner of such a 
tract of country ? 

189. Examples of new fates ^ ^c] There is noliiiBg to be said 
of men, whose fortunes are so new and singular as this : they mast 
not be mentioned as examples for others. As if he h^d said^Who 
but QuintUian ever grew rich by ihe cultiyation of the liberal arts ? 
It is quite a noveity. The Romans called an unusual good fortune 
— ^lova fata. 

190. The fortunate is handsome^ SfcJ] In these lines the poet is 
saying, that '' luck is all ;" — ^let a man be but fortunate^ and he 
will be reckoned every thing eke. 

Witty,'] Acer — sharp, as we say — acer ingenio. 

192. The moon^ Sfc,"] The hundred patricians, first established 
by Romulus, were distinguished by the numeral letter C fixed on 
their shoes, which, from its resemblance to an hatf meon, was called 
luna. This was continued down to later times, as a mark of dis- 
ttncdon among the patricians : tht^ wore a sort of baskin made of 
black leather. Hor. lib. i. sat. vi. 1. 27. By this line the poet 
means to say, that the fortunate may become senators and nobles. 
Aluta — ^Itt. tanned leather : by meton. any tiling made, thereof^— 
hence a leather shoe, or buskin. 

193. A dari^tbrower.'] This is the literal sense of jaculater : but 
we must here suppose it to mean, one skilful in throwing out, or 
darting, arguments— i. e. a great dispatant^r— 1. 156. 

194. There is a difference^ Sfc,^ The Romans were very super- 
stitious, and thought that the fortune of their future Hfe mainly de- 
pended on the stars, or constdhitions, which presided over their 
natal tvo»r^ See sat. ik-. 1. 32-^, et al. 

196. Red from your mother."] t. c. Just born. Before the blood 
centvacted fKom the birth is washed away. 

Digitized by 


Pass over : the fortunate is haiicfeoniey and wktjv 190 

The fortunate is wise, and noble, and. generousi 
t;And subjoins the moon set upon his black shoe. . 
llie fortunate is al^o a great orator, a dart-lhrower, 
And, if he be hoarse, sings well : for .there is a diffareiK)e whft 
Stars receive .you, when you first be^n . IflS 

To send forth crying, and are yiet red from your mother. 
if fortune please, you will from a rhetorician beoome a 'consul;: 
If this same pl^s^,.you wiH from a consul become a rhetorician. 
For what was YentitUus? what Tullius ? was it other than 
A star, and the wonderful power of hidden fiite i WO 

The fates will give. kingdoms to slaves, triumphs to cai^tives. 
.Yet that fortunate person. is also more rare than a iwfaite crow. 
Many have repented the. vain and barren chair, 
As the exit of Thrasymachus proves, and of Secundus- 
.Carrin^ and him whom poor you saw, O Adiens, SOj 

Daring to bestow nothing but cold hemlock. X^i^^^^^ weight. 
Grant, ye gods, to -the shades oLour ancestors thin earth, and 

199. Fentiiius,'] Bassus, son of a bondwoman at Ascalon. He 
was first a carman^ then a muleteer ; afterwards, .in one year, he 
->was created praetor and consal. 

^Tulkui.'] The.sixfh king of Rome, bom of a captive. 

199—200. Other than a star,^ f. e. To what did these men owe 
tiieir greatness, but to the stars which. presided at their birth, and to 
the niysteriotts power of destiny ? 

^ 202. More rare^ ^-c] However, that same fortunate and happy 
man is rare to be met with. Comp. sat. vi. 164. 

203. Many have repentedy 4-4;.] Of the barren and be^arly em« 
ployment of teaching rhetoric — which they did, sitting in a chaii:^ 
desk, or pulpit. 

204. llirasymachua.'] Who hanged himself. He was a rhetor!* 
clan of Athens, born at Carthage. 

204 — 5. Secundus Carrmas.J He came iVom Athens to Rome^ 
^nd, declaiming against tyrants, was banished by Catignla. 

205. Him whom poor you sazoy Sfc."] Socrates, whom yon saw, un« 
i;rateful Athenians ! ahnost starving, and paid him nothing for his lee 
tures, btit the barbarous reward of cold hemlock, with which he was 
poisoned by the sentence oT his jadges. Hemlock has s«ch a re- 
frigerating^ quality over the blood -and juices, as to cause them to 
stagnate, and thus occasion death ; it is therefore reckoned among 
'the cold poison^. The word ausse, here,, is very significant, to iati. 
mate the daring insolence and cruelty of the Athenians, who, to^ 
their own eternal infamy, couM reward sach a i^an in such a man« 

207. Grani^^c.'] This sentence b elKptical, and mu^t be 8up« 
jplied with some verb to precede umbris, as give, grant, or die like. 
-^ — - Thinearihy^Sfc.2 M was usual with the. Romans to etpress 

Digitized by 



Spiratitasque c^ocos, et in urnft perpetocim veri 

Qui pneoeptorem rancti voluere parentis 

Esse loco* Metuens virgse jam grandis Achilles 210 

Cantabat patriis in montibus : et cui non tunc 

Eliceret risum citharaedi cauda magistri f 

Sed RufFum, al^ue^ltos caedit sua quasque juventus : 

RufFum, qui toties Ciceronem Allobroga dixit. 

:Qais gremio fenceladi, docti^ue Palannonid affert 215 

.Quantum mmniaUcus meruit labor i et tamen ex hoc, 

QuodcuncjPI est, (minus e»t autem, quam rhetoris aera,) 

Discipuli custos prasmyrdet Acoenitus ipse^ 

Et qui disgetisaty frangit sibi. Cede, Paleemofiy 

Et patere inde aUquid decrescere, non aliter, quam 220 

Institor hybemae tegetis, niveique cadurci : 

their good wishes for the dead, in the manner here mentidhed^ that 
the earth might lie light apon them. So Martial : 
Sit tibi terra levis» m|^|^ue tegaris arenft. 

208. Breathing crocuses?] Breathmg forth sweets. — Crocus, lit 
satfron ; also the yellow chives in the midst of flowers. What we 
call a crocus blows early in the spring. 

Perpetual springy Sfc."] May flowers be perpetdally grow- 
ing and blooming, as in the spring of the year. They were fond of 
depositing the urns of their deceased friends among banks of flowers. 

209. Who wouid have a preceptor^ ^c] Who Tcnerated tiieir 
masters and teachers as if they were their parents; and esteemed 
them, as standing in the place of parents. 

210. JlchUleSy Sfc.'] The famous son of Thetis, when almost a 
man, was in great awe of his tutor Chiron the Centaur. 

211. Sang,'] Practised lessons in vocal and instrumental music 
under his tutor. 

-• In his paternal mountains.] The mountains of Thessaly, 

from whence came Peleus the father of Achilles. 

212. Wouid not the tally Sfc] The upper part of Chiron was 
like a man, the lower like an horse. His figtire must be ridiculous 
enough, with. a man's head and with an horse's tail, and would have 
been laughed at by most people; but Achilles had too much rever- 
ence for his master, to make a joke of his figure, as more modern 
scholars would have done. ^ ^ 

Harper his master,] Chiron is said to have taught music, 

as well as medicine and astronomy. 

213. But Rnffus^ S^c] Now, so far from the masters receiving 
veneration from their scholars, it is a common practice for the scho- 
lar to beat the master, as had been the case of Rufi'us and others. 
So Plavtus, Bacch. iil. 3. 37. Puer septu^nnis pasdagogo tabula 
dirumpit caput. 

214. Ruffus^ ^-c] This RufTus charged Cicero with writing bar- 
barons Latin, like an Allobrogian, or Savoyard. £ven this great 
grammarian could not obtain respect from his scholars. 

Digitized by 



And breathing crocuses^ and perpetual spring upon their um^ 
Who would have a preceptor to be in the place of a sacred 
Parent. Achilles, now grown up, fearing the rod, 210 

Sang in his paternal mountains; and from whom then [laughter? 
Would not the tail of the harper his master have drawn foc|k 
But Ruffus, and others, each of their own young men strike, 
RufFus, who so often called Cicero an AUobrogian. [215 

Who brings to the lap of Enceladus, or of the learned Pakemon, 
As much as grammatical labour has deserved? and yet from this, 
Whatever it be, (but it is less than the money of tho^ctorician,) 
Acoenitus himself, tlie keeper of die scholar, snips, [iasmon, 
And he who manages, breaks off some for himself. Yield, Pa- 
And suffer something to decrease from thence, not otherwise 
than 220 

A dealer in winter-rug, and white blanket. 

215. Who brings^ 4*c.] Who pays Enceladas a reward equal to 
his labours ? He was a famous graminjirian. Gremio here denotes 
a loose cavity, Or holloir, formed by i!lie doubling of the robe or 
garment. — 9. d. A lap, into which things were put. Gr. xo^tro^. 
Comp. Luke vi. 38. 

The learned Pal(Bmon,'\ Rhemniiis Palaemon, a very learned 

and diitinguished gi^ammarian, but who was so conceited, as to say, 
that learning would live and die with him. See Suet, de Gramm. 23. 
See sat. vi. I. 451. 

• 217. Whatever it be, S^'c,"] After all, small as the pay of a gram- 
marian may be, (which at the roost is even smaller than that of a 
rhetorician,) there are sad defalcations from it. 

218. Acesnitm — the keeper, Sfc,'] This Acoenitus is a feigned 
name for some pedagogue, (Gr. r»t<;, a boy, and etyu, to lead,) who 
was a sort of servant, that followed his young master, took care of 
Ms behaviour, and particuJariy attended him to his exercise, and to 

lie is properly called, here, discipuli custos. — He insisted on hav- 
ing pairt of the poor grammarian's^pay, as a perquisite. The word 
prsemordet is here peculiarly happy, and intimates that the peda« 
gogue, who, perhaps, carried the pay, took a part of it before 
he delirered it to the master : like a person who is to give a piece 
of bread to another, and bites a piece off first for himself. 

219. He who manages, ^c] Qui dispensat, t. e. dispensator, the 
steward, or housekeeper ; either that belonging to the grammarian, 
into whose hands the money is paid, retains some part of it for his 
wages, or the steward of the gentleman who pays it, retains a part 
of it by W^y of poundage, or perquisite j to himself. Fraagit— • 
metaph. from breaking something that was entire. 

Yteld, FalcBmoUj <^c.] Submit to these abatements, and be 

glad to hare something, though less than your due, as it fares with 
tradesmen who are willing to abate something in their price^ rather 
than not sell their goods. See Aiksw. Institor. 

Digitized by 



Dummodo non p^reat, medke-qw)!! moe^ db iiorA 

Sedisti, qui nemo tkher, qu& nemo aederet, 

"Qui docet oUtquo ranam deduoere ferro : 

Dummodo fion pereat totidem olfecisse lacernas^ 42B 

Quot stabant pueri, cum totus decolor esset 

luaccus, et bsereret nigro fuUgo Maroni. 

/Rara tamenmerces, quae cosnitione Tribuni 

!Non egeat Sed vos swvas nnp^te leges, 

Ut pneceptori verbonim regub cosBtet, £jQ 

Ut legat hiBtoriaSy atictores noverit omnes, 

Tanquam ungues digitosque suos; ut forte rogatos 

Dum petit aut thermasy «iit Pl^bi balnea^dicat 

jy utricem Anchism, Domen, patriamque noveroae 

Archeinori : dicat quot Acestes vixerit annos, 23S 

Quot Siculus Phrygibus yf'mi donaverit unias. ~ 

Exigue, ut mores teneros ceu pollice ducat^ 

Ut si quis cer^ vultum facit : exigite, ut sit 

9^% Lei a not be losi^ Sfc.'\ Oofy take cave 'to hatB wuM&ag 
.for your trouble ; let not all your ^ns, 'Whieh you hare -taken, i» 
thrown away, in rising at midnight to teach your lK)ys^-Hi Ikftigufe 
Jthat no common mechanic would ^indeigo 

224. Todraw^out^ooly ^c] To coarbireol, Mt^hidi ikey did, as 
we find by this passage, with a ^rd.harviag orooked teeth siade «f 
iron — ^like those now in use, 

^25. To have smelt, ^-c] Let it not be for notiiiiig that s^on 
iliare.been half poisoned with the stink of ^as many lamps as yo« 
have boys standing round ypu to say tfadr lessons bdbre it is ligiit^ 
and therefore are eadi of tl^em with a lamp in bis ^and tovead %^. 

226—7. Horace M disc^lour^.'^ With the oU of 4he lamps, 
iwhich the boys, through cardessness, let drop <aitkeir ibooks. 

227. Black Firgil.^ Made black with the sm«»ke of ^be lamps, 
which the boys held close to their books, when they were peadbg 
mid constriung their Wessons. 

228. Vet pi^is rare, iMch, j^c] Though llttleds IcTt <of ibe pay 
^ the grammarian, after aill the deductions 4i;bo^e tteirtioiMd, yet it 
is very rare that they 'get ^any thing at all, unless tbey go to hmtet 
it l^e tribune here means the judge who tried ti?fl oanses. 

229. Bat tmpo$e >ye, 4*c.] Though t^e poorgtammamn iabouM 
onder all these difficulties, be sure, you that 8ettd^oariSOAS^to'>th«m, 
to impose ^all the task upon th^ that ye can : make no atate- 
meat in his ^foaltfiGaiicais : expedt that be knows aveiy rale ^ 

«31. Read Jiistimes, SfcJ] TMt he should "be a ^good historian » 
that he should know all authors at bis Angers' ieiid6---4id unguem*^ 
as the saying is. 

^3. :Fhe:hai btUhs.'] There were Olhennae, liOt bat^s, in Rome, 
as Mrell'ji&oiiiid baths, balnea ; to the foroaer they nrentto sweat, in 
the other they washtitU ^ow> tl^ poor gcaBuaaiiaD was expected 

Digitized by 


«4t.TiT. jtJtENAL'S SATIRES. «J* 

Only let it not be lost^ thkt from th6 ihidnight hoak* 

You have sat, in ^hich no smith, in which nobody would sit, 

Who teaches to draw out wool with the crooked iron i 

Only let it not be lost' to have smelt as maiiy lamps SI25^ 

As boys were standing, when all discolour'd wad 

Horace, and soot stuck to black Virgil. 

Yet pay is fare which may not want the cognizance 

or the Tribune. — But impose ye criiel laws, 

That the rule of words should be clear to the preceptor: 250 

That he should read histories, should know all authors f ask'cj 

As well as his own nails and iingers; that, by chance, being 

While he is going to the hot baths, or the baths of Phoebus, he 

should tell 
The nurse of Anchis^s; the name afnd country of the step-mother 
Of Archemorus : should teU how many years Acestes lived : £35 
How many urns of wine the Sicilian presented to the Phrygiansi 
Require, that he should form the tender manners as with hi« 

A^ if one makes a face with wax : require, that he should bef 

io be feady to answer any questions which were asked him, bjr 
people whom he met with, when he went either to the one or the 

233. Phesbus,'] The name of some bath-keeper. 

234. The nurse of Anchises.'] The poet here, perhaps, means to 
ridicule the absurd curiosity of Tiberias, who used to be often 
teasing the grammarians with silly and unedifying questions; as. 
Who was Hecuba's mother ? What was the name of Achilles when 
dressed in woman's clothes ? What the Sirens sung ? — ^and the like* 
See Suet, in Tiberio, cap. Ixx. 

Such foolish 'questions might be asked the grammarian, when he 
met with people at the baths ; and he was bound to answer them, 
under peril of being accounted an ignoramus. 

Caieta, the nurse of ^Eneas, is mentioned, j^n. vii. 1, 2 ; but 
there is no mention of the nurse of Anchises: perhaps Juvenal 
means to ridicule the ignorance of the querist, as mistaking Anchises 
for iBneas. 

234 — 5. Of the step^mother of Archemorus.'] For Anchemolu^, 
(see -^n, X. 1. 389.) who seems here meant ; but perhaps the querist 
may be supposed to call it Archemorus. 

235. Acestes.ll Mn. i. 199 ; and ^n. t. 73. 

23(5. 7%e Sicilian.'] Meaning Acestes, who was king of Sicil 
of his giving wine to the Trojans. See ^En. i. 199, 200. 

237. Require.] Exigite, exact — ^that, beside his teaching yc 
children, (and, in order to that, he be perfectly learned,) he a 
should watch over their morals, and form them with as much nice 
care, and exactness, as If he were moulding a face in wax with 
fingers. Ducat— metaph. taken from statuaries. Comp. Vii 
Ma. Ti. 1. 848. 

TOL. I. X 

Digitized by 



Et paler ipsnis ceetfts, ne turfna ludant^ 

N*> ini^}^\ vicibug. Non est leve tot puerorum M^ 

CR)8ervare manus, oculosque in fine trementes* 

H»c, iiHjuity cures; sed cum se verterit annus^ 

Accipe, victori populua quod postulate aurum. 

9S9. A father of his Jlock.'] Keqwre also, diat he should be as 
anxious, and as careful of his scholars, as if he were their father* 

Lissi they should play ^ Sfc.'] Lest they should fall into lewd 

and bad practices among themselres. This is the substance of this^ 
and the two following lines, which had better, as some other pas* 
sa^ed in Juvenal, be paraphrased than translstedr 

342, fVhsn theyear, ifc.'} Whm the year comes round — at the 
end of th6 year. 

243. Accept a piece of gold.'] Aurum.--<*The Riunan aureus (ac» 
cording to Ainsw. Val. and Proportion of Roman coins) was itbout 
II. Vd. of our money : — ^bnt, whatever the pcecise value of tiie 
aurum mentioned here might be, the poet evidently means to oay, 
that the grammarian does not get more for a whole year's labour in 
teaching, and watdiing over a boy's morals, than a irictorious fmoeri 
or sword-player, gets by a single battle won upon the stage-— «?«:;• 
about 41. (or rather about 5/.) of our money, which Marshil, after 
Vet. Schol. says, was the stated sum, and which was not to be 

Digitized by 



Even a father of }m flock, lest thej should play base tricks, 
And corrupt each odiert it is no light matter to watch 240 
The conduct of so many boys, and their wanton looks, [itself^ 
These things, says he, take care of — but when the year turns 
Accept a piece^of gold, which the people require for a conqueror. 

343. WkiA the people require.'] When a fencer, or gladiator, 
came off vlctorioiis, the Roman people required the quinque aurel 
to be ^vea to him by the praetor, tribune, or other person, who 
gare anid presided at the show. Thb passage is, by some, referred 
to Mart. lib. x. epigr. 74. Irhere he mentions one Scorpus, a fa* 
raous charioteer, who, by being victor in a chariot-race, carried off^ 
in one hour's time, fifteen sacks full of gold. But this does not 
seem to agree with what Juvenal says of the gains of the poor 
grammarian, which the poet evidently supposes to be no more than 
the perquisite of a common gladiator that had come off conqueror : 
even this was five times as much as a lawyer got by a cause. Comp. 
L 1«2. 

Thus Juvenal concludes this Satire, having fully accompfished his 
purpose ; which was to shew, by many instances, the shamef al neg« 
lect cif learning and science, as well as of the professors of them| 
which then prevailed among the nobility of Rome. 



Digitized by' 


JCfi tkh Satire the P%et pr&ees^ that trite nobiUfy doti noi 4k>mi0i im 
Haines and pedigrees, bui in hoHmtrabk mnd good ais^itns* Andy 
in opposition to persom nobiy bom, toho are a disgrace to thHr 

StEMMATA quid faciunt ? quid prodest, Pontice, loi^ 

Sanguinecenseri, pictosque ostendere vuhus 

Majonim, et stantes in curribus ^mUianos^ 

J£t Curios jam dimidios, humeroque minorem 

Corvinum, et Galbam auriculis nasoque carentem I 5 

Quis fiructus generis tabula jactare capaci 

Corvinum, et post hunc muM deducere virg& 

Fumosos equitum cum Dictatore Magistros, 

Si coram Leg^dis male vivitur ? effigies qud 

Tot bellatorum, si luditur ale^ pemox 10 

Ante Numaiitinos ? si dormire iucipis ortu 

Lane 1. IVhat do pedigrees?"] i. e. Of what use or serrice ai» 
ihey, merely considered in themselres ? 

Vonticus,] There was^ a famous heroic -poet, of this name, 

much acquainted with Proper Uus and Orid : but tb# person here 
mentioned, to whom this Satire is addressed, was probably some 
Bian of quality, highly eleTaled by family pridSi but whose manners 
disgraced his birth* . 

2. ^ a long cfetosfi^.] Longo aanguiBO n desoent thsough a 
long train of ancestors of noble blood. 

Painted countenances, Sfc] It was customary among the 

Romans to hate their houses furnished with family-pictures, Images, 
&c. and it was no small part of the pride of the nobility. 

3—4 — 5. The ^mUii — Cum— Corwnu*.] Were noble Romans, 
the founders of illustrious families, and an honour to tKeir country. 

3. Standing in chariotsJ] Triumphal cars, as expressed in the 
triumphal statues. 

4. Now half.'] i. e. Half demolished by length of time. 

4<— 5. Less by a shoulder Corvinus,] His statue thus mutilated 
by time and accident. 

5. Galba.] The statue of Sergius Galba, a man of consular dig- 
nity, and who founded an iUustripus funily, was idso ddaced and 
mutilated by time» 

Digitized by 




famifyj he dispiayi the worth of mantf who were meunt^ born^ 
u$ Cicero^ Mariusy S^rv. TiiUiu$y 4ind the Decii. 

What do pedigrees? what avails it, Ponticus, to be valued 

By a long descent, and to shew Hie painted Goimtenaoces 

Of ancestors, and ^milii standing in chariots^ 

And Curii now half, and less foy a shoulder 

Coryiaus, and Galba wanting ears and nose ? . .# 

"What fruit to boatft of Corvinus in the capacious table 

Of. kipdred, and after him to deduce, by many a. branch. 

Smoky masters of the knights, with a Dictator^ 

liF before the Xepidi you live ill ? whither (tend) the effigies 

Of so Q\any warriors, if the nightly die be played with 10 

before the Numantii^ if you begin to sleep at the rising of . 

^. What fruit.J i. e.' Of what real, solid use, can it be ? 
7%e capacious table,'] viz. A large genealogical table. * 

7. Bff many a branch.'] The geifealogii»l tables were described 
in t]|e form' of trees : th^ first founder of the family was the root 
—his immedtate descendants the sterna— and all the collaterals from 
them were the branches. So among us. 

8. Smoky masters of the hmghts,] Images of those who had beett 
magistri equitum, masters or chiefs of the order of knights, now 
tarnished, and grown black, by tiie 'smoke of the city. 

With a dictator.] An image of some of the family who had 

filled that office. He was chief magistrate among the Romans^ 
vested with absolute power, and from whom lay no appeal. Twenty, 
four axes were carried before him. He was nev«r chosen but in 
some great danger or trouble of the state ; and comnoniy at the end 
of six months was to resign his office. 

9. If before thk Lepidi^ S^c] i. e. If before the images of those 
^eat men fon exhibit scenes of vileness and Infamy ? 

10. T%e nightly die^ <$>c] Pemox signifies that which lasts 
through the night. What avails it, that your room is furnished with 
busts, pictures, &c. of your noble ancestors, if, in that very room^ 
before their faces, as it were, you are gambling and playing ^1 night 
at dice? 

11. If you begin to steep^ Sfe.^ If you^ after a night's debauchj 


Digitized by 



Laciferiy quo si^ Duces et castra movebant? 

Cur Allo^ogicis, et magn&.gaudeat wA, 

Natus in Herculeo Fabius lare^ si cu{>idus, si 

Vanus^ et Eugane& ouantumvis mollior agnsL ^ 15 

Si teoerum attritus Catmensi pumice lumbum 

SquaUeutes traducit avos : emptorque .veneni 

Frangend^ miseram fiinestat imagine gentem ? 

Tota licet veteres exornent undique cerse 


Paulus, vel CossuS; vel Drusus moribus esto : 

Hos ante effigies majorum pone tuorum : 

Praecedant ipsas illi^ te consule, virgas. 

Prima mihi debes animi bona. Sanctus haberi^ 

Justitieeque tenax fectis dictisque mereris i t5 

Agnosco procerem : salve^ Getulice, seu tu 

are going to bed at daj-break, the very time when those great gc^ 
nerals were setting forth on their march to attack an enemy. 

13. Fabius, Sfc.'] Why should Fabius, the son of Qa. Fab. 
Maximus, who overcame the AUobroges, boast in his &ther*s 
achieyements, and in the origin of his family's descent from Hercu. 
les, the care of whose altar was hereditary in that family. If he be 
covetous and run, and unworthy of the honour which he claims ? 

15. Softer than an Euganean lamb."] The sheep bred upon the 
Euganean downs had the finest and softest fleeces in aH Italy. To 
liave a very soft and delicate skin was a mark of great effeminacy ; 
but more especially if, as the following Ktfe supposes^ it was made so 
by art. 

16. Catinensum pumiceJ] The best pumice-stoneS were gathered 
la Sicily, at the foot of Mount iEtna; with these the effeminate 
Italians used to smooth their skins. Catina (now Catania) was a 
city near Mount ^tna, almost ruined by an earthquake, 1693, 
Here were the finest pumice-stones. 

17. He shames^ Sfc."] He dishonours the old and renerable pic« 
tures, or images, of his rough and hardy ancestors, how dirty with 
the rust of time, and thus disgraces the. memory of those great men. 
Traduce signifies to expose to public shame. Ainsw. No, 5. 

18. An image to be broken.'] If he should cast a sadness orer 
the whole family, as it were, by having his own image placed among 
those of his ancestors, when he does such things as to deserve to 
have his image broken. — If any one, who had an image of himself, 
was convictdl of a grievous crime, his image was to be broken to 
pieces, and his name erased frqm the calendar, either by the sentcmce 
of the judge, or by the fury of the people. Comp. sat. x. 1. 58. 
Such must, most likely, be th^ ca^e of a man who dealt m poisons 
to destroy people. 

10. out waxen jfigures.'] Images and likenesses of ancestors, 
made in wax, and set up as ornaments and memorials of the grea^ 
persons from which they were takeu. 

Digitized by 


fci«. ^uu JUVENAI/S SATIRES. «ir 

Xiucifer, at which those generak were moving their standards 

and qamps f 
Why should Fabius, bom in a Herculean family^ rejoice 
lit the Allobrogesy and the great altar^ if eovetous, if 
Vaiiiy and Itever so much softer than an Euganean iamb ? 15 
Iff having rubb'd his tender loins with a Catinensian pumiee. 
He shames his dirty ancestors — ^and, a buyer of poison, 
He saddens the miserable ianuly with an image to be broken? 
Tbo' the old waxen figures should adorp th^ courts on all sinjes. 
Virtue is the only and sinojle nobility. £D 

Be thou in morals Paulus, or Cossus, or Drusus : 
Put these before the effigies of your ancestors : 
Let them^ you being consul, precede the fasces themselves. 
Vi9u owe me first the virtues of the mind — do you deserve 
To be accounted honest, antl tenacious of justice, in word and 

deed? 25 

1 acknowledge Ae nobleman : — |Iail, Getdiaoi—- or thou, 

* 20. Firtue^ SfcJ] All the ensigns of grandeur and nobility are 
aothing without this — it Is this alone which stamps a real greatness 
upon all who possess It. 

. 21. Pauius.'} ^Qiilias, who conquered Perses kiqg of Macedo* 
Bia, and led him and his childrea in triumph : — ^he was a man of 
great frtu^ality and modesty. 

. dossus.'] He cenqnered the Getulians, iiader Augustus 

Cesiu: — whence was called Gttulicus. See L 26. 

Drums.'] There were three of thb name, all of which de» 

serred well of the republic. 

. i% Put these before^ S^cJ] Prefer the examples of those good men 

before the statues of your family. 

23. Let them^ 4'c J If ever you should' be consul, esteem I2iem 
before the fasces, aud aJl the ensigns of your high office. 

24. Vou Otoe me, 4rc.] The ornaments — ^bona, the good qualities 
—of the mind, are what I first msist upon; these I expect to find is 
l^oa, before I allow you ito be indeed noble. 

25. Honest.'l Sanctus is an extensiye wond, and here may include 
piety to the gods, as well as justice, honesty, swd truth towards mea» 
Seesat. iii. 137. 

26. / acknowledge^ ^c] I then acknowledge you as a man of 

^ — HfiMy GeiuKan!'] I salute you as^ if you were Cossus, the 
^nqueror of Getulia — hence called Getulicus, 1. 21, note. 

Orthou^ 4'C.] Silanus was a noble Roman, who conquered 

Magon the Cartha^nian general, took Ha«n.eD, another commander^ 
prisoner, and did other great services to his country;. 

q. d. If, besides your personal private virtues, (). 24, 5.) you 
shew yourself a rare and choice citizen, cmineiitly serviceable and 
useful to your country, like Silanus of old, whatever blood 
you 9iay derive your pedigree, however »eaa it may be, yet your 


Digitize^ by 



Silaniu, quocunqiie alia de saiiguiiie rgrut 
Civis, et egregius patriae contingis ovanti. 
Exclamare libet, populus quod clamat O^ 
Invento : quis enim generosum (fixerit hunc, qui 30 

Indignus genere, et praeclaro nomtue tantum 
Insignis ? namim cujusdam Atlluita vocftmus : 
^thiopepi cygouiD : parvam extortaii\que puellam^ 
Europien : canibus pigris, scabieque vetusti 
X^vibus^ et siccae lambentibus ora Iu€erB«> S6 

JioJxien erjt pardus, tigris^ 1^ ; sx quid ^adhuc est, 
Quod fremat in terris viokntius. Ergo cavebis, 
£t metues, ne tu ^sic Crejicus, aut Camarinus. . 

His ego quern monui ?' tecum est mihi sermo, Rubelii 
Plaute : tames alto Drusorum sanguine, tanquam 40 

Feceris ipse illiquid, propter quod nobUis esses; 
Ut te conciperet, quae sanguine fulget liili, 
Non cfiie^ ventoso conducta sub^.aggere texit. 
Vos humiles^ inquis, vulgi pars ultima nostri, 

country will rejoice that such a man has failen to its !ot^-ui ex« 
claim, as the .^Egyptians did, when they found Osiris. » 

.^9. Osiris, ^c] The chief deity of i^gypt, which the -3Sgyp. 
6»D|( wjQEshippcd under the form of a bull, or ox. Tlus said bull 
' was supposed to be inhabited by Osiris: but they used, once in s| 
CbuT yefti^ to put this bull to death, and then go, with their priests, 
howling, and making lamentations, in search of another Osiris, or 
Apis, with the same exact marks as the former h^d ; which, when 
they had found, they shouted for joy, and with loud acclamations, 
called oi| trr^'Evf itxa/AEv ! ^EvfUiKUfjuv \ we have found him ! we have 
found him ! 2)vy;^a*fa;/^fy ! let us rejoice together ! 

31. An illuHrious name,'] Or title, derived from some great and 
iUustrions ancestor. 

S3. The dtoajrf of some one.] The people of quality used to keep 
dwarfs for their amus^ent. . ^ 

Atlas,'] A high hill in Mauritania, so high that the poett 

Brake a person of it, and feign that he was the brother of Prome- 
theus, and turned into this mountain by Perseus, at the. sight of the 
gorgon's head. From its height it Was fabled to support thi^ cdestial 
globe. See Virg. ^n. iv. 1. 481, 2. ^ 

33. An j^thiopian — a swan.] «. e. Black white. 

34. Europa,] The beautiful daughter of Agenor, king of the 
Phoenicians, whom Jupiter in the form of a bull carried- into Crete. 
From her the quarter of the globe, called Europe, is said to take 
Its name. See Hon. lib. Hi. od. xxtII. 1. 7$, 6. 

Slow dags.] Slow hounds that are unfit for the chase. 

35. Smooth.] Haying all their hair eaten off by the mange. 

' n Licking the mouths, ^c] So hungry and starred as to lick 

the stinking oil off the edges of lamps. ' Giving the titles of riohifi-* 
ty, ^d calBng tho£^ nobl^ v^liQ ire; by their .eTil mannen^ and bad 

Digitized by 



SiknttSy from Mrbatever oiker bk>od; a tare, and 

Choice citizen^ thou befallest thy triumphing country. 

We may exchmhf what the people call out tO;08iri8 

When founds — But who would call him noUe^ who is ^ 

Unworthy his race, and for an illustrious name only 

Iteniarkable f We call the dwarf of some one^— Adas 2 

An Ethiopian — a swan : a little and deformed wendi— 

£uropa : to slow dogs, and with an old mange 

Smooth, and licking the mouths of a dry lamp, [yet 35 

The name of lion, leopard^ tiger shall beloi^ ; and if there be 

Any thing on earth that rages more violently. Therefore bewarti 

And dread, lest thou shouldst thus be Creticus, or Camerinus. 

Whom have I admonidied by these things? with thee is my 

^ discourse, [as if 40 

Rubellius Plautus : you swell with the high blood of the Drusi, 

You yourself had done something, for which you should be noble ; 

That she should have conceived you, who diines with the blood 

of liilus. 
Not she who, -being hired, has woven under the windy mount. 
^' Y^ are low," 0qj you, ^* the last part of our common people | 

actions, a disgrace to their famifies, is calling a dwarf — a giant ;— a 
blackmoor — a fine white swan;-'-a crooked deformed wench— 
Europa : — we may as well call a pack of mangy, worthless honnds— 
tigers, leopards, and lions ; or by the name of nobler beasts, if no» 
bier can be found. 

S7. Beware^ SfcJ] Carebis-^metues — ^!it. you will be cautious^ 
and will fear, lest the world flatter you with tiie mock titles of Cre* 
ticus and Camerinus in the same way. See sat. ii. 1. 67. 

Publ. Sulpitius Camerinus was an illustrious and virtuous Ro* 
man, who was sent by the senate, with Posthumius and Maniius, to 
Atheni^, to copy the laws of Solon, as well as those of other cities. ^ 

39. Bif these things.'] By what I have been saying. 

40. RubelUus Plautus.] Some read Phuicus, others Blandus ; 
but Plautus seems to be right. Rubellius Bhmdus was his father, 
who married Julia the daughter of Drusus, son of LiTla, wife of 

Of the Druri.'] You are very proud of your descoit cm 

your mother's side. Compare the preceding note. 

41. Done something^ 4*^.] As if you yourself had done something 
lo make you tHustrious, and deserving the honour of a mother of 
the Julian line. 

43. Not she^ Sfc,"] Instead of behig the son of some poor creature 
who knitted stockings for her bread under the town-wall. The ag» 
ger, here mentioned, is the mount raised by Tarquin, for the de^ 
fence of the city, a place much resorted to by low people. -Sea 
sat. vi. 587. It was much exposed to the weather. 
\ Some read subaere, t. e, sub die— in the open air. 

44* The last party ^T^^.] The very dregs of our plebeians. • * 

Digitized by 



Quoram nemo ^at patriain xnonslrare parentis : .45 

Ast ego Ceer^ides. Vivat^ et ontginis huiu» 

Gaudia longa feras : tamen imlL ex plebe Quiritem 

FtNnnidam inveniea : solet hie defendere causas 

Nobilis indocti : veniet de plebe togatsl, 

Qui juris nodoiy et le^am senigaiata, solvat. ^ 

Hie petit Eiiphratien juvenis, domitiqiie Batavi 

Custodes aquilas, anuis indHStrius: at tu 

Nil nisi Cecropides, truncoque siniillimus Herm« : 

NuUo qnippe alio vincis discrimine^ quam quoci 

Illi marmoreum caput esty tua vivit imago. SS 

Die mihiy Teucrorum proles^ aoimalia muta 

Quis g^nerosa putet, nisi for tia ? nerape volucrem - • 

45. Of whom none^ Sfc.'] Of such obscure parentage, as to be un- 
able to trace out the birth place of your parents, 

46. lama Cecroptan.'] Descended from Cecrops, tiie first king 
of Athens. 

This is an insolent speech, which vsome proud noble is supposed 
io make, in scorn and derision of those whom he thought his infe- 

— — May ycu Uve, Sfc."] Sir, I wish you much joy of your 
noble descent. Ironically spoken. — Viva ! as the Italians say. 

47. Yet^from the lowest^ 4rc*] Much as yon despise them, there 
bave been men of the highest talents and abilities from among them 
•—some who have defended the causes of ignorant nobles, when they 
themselres could not haye defended them. 

4&. The gowned people.'] u e. The common people, caHed to* 
gati, from the gowns which they wore. See sat. 1. 1. 3, and note. 

30. Who can untie^ 4'C.3 Some great and eminent lawyer^ able 
to solTe all the difficulties, and unfold all the perplexities of juris- 

51. Seek9 the Euphrates , SfcJ] Another goes into the East, and 
distinguishes himself as a soldier. 

Confuer^d Batavus>] The Batavi, or Hollanders, conquered 

ky Domitian when a youth. 

62. T%e gaardUm eagles,"] The eagles mean the Roman troops^ 
which had the figures of eagles on their standards, and were set to 
keep the newly conquered Batavi from reTolting. 

w/CttOther of the common people distinguishes himself as a useful 
person to his country, by joining the t^-oops that were sent on this 

5^ But a Cecropian.] As for you, irhen yoi» i|a?e called your- 
Mf a Cecropian, you have no Qiiofjs tq my — and this most pror 
perly belongs to yon, from yo^r resemblance to one of the Hermae 
at Athens, that is made of marble ; ^o, in point qf insensibility, 
afe you : — that has neither bands nor feet ; no more have you, 
in point of usefulness, io your country, yourself, or to any body 

Digitized by 



** Of whom none can shew the 'conntiy of bm pmreat : 45 

** But I am a CecrofMan.**— Afay you live— «itd long enjoy die 

' happiness ' 
Of this origin : yet> from the lowest of the people^an eloquent 

You will find : this is used to defend die causes of an 
Unlearned nobleman : there will come from the gowned people 
Another, who can untie the knots of ri^ty and the riddles of 
the laws. 60 

This youth seeks the Euphrates, and of conquered Bataviis 
Tlie guardian eagles, industrious in arms ; but thou 
Art nothing but a Cecropian, and most like to a mutilated 

For you excel from no other difference, than that 
He has a marble head, your image lives. 55 

Tell me, thou otfspring of the Trojans, who tliinks dumb animals 
Noble, unless strong i for thus a swift 

53. A muiilaied HermaJ] Herma-as — signifies a statue of Her- 
mes, or Mercury. — Mercury was called Hermes, from Gr. m*.im\M; 
to interpret ; because he was the supposed inventor of speech, by 
which men interpret their thoughts to each other. See Hob. lib. L 
ode X. 1. l-T^S. 

-It was a piece of religion at Athens, to have a figure of Mer« 
eury fixed up against their houses, of a cubic form, without hands 
or fe^ti this was called Herma. The poet, therefore, humors 
roiisl^ compares this RubeUius Plautus, who boasted of hi^ descent 
from Cecrops, and therefore called himself a Cecropian, to the use- 
less figures of Mercury, which were set up at Athens, or, perhaps, 
to the posts on which they stood. In this sense he might caU him. 
self Cecropian. 

SA. You excelS] You have no preference before him in point of 
utility to your country, or in any thing else, than that yon are a 
living statue, and he a dead one. 

56. Thou offspring of the Trqjans.'l Meaning Rub. PlaHtas, 
who, though he boasted himself of being descended from Cecrops 
the first king of Athens, and who is supposed to hare lived be- 
fore Deucalion's flood, yet likewise might boast, that he wzs also 
descended from ancestors, who derived their blood, in later times, 
from the Trojans who first settled in Italy. 

' Some think that we may read this, ye Trojans — ^meaning the chief 
people of Rome in general, who prided themselves on their descent 
from the Trojans, and to whom he may be supposed to address 
himself. Comp. sat. i. 100, where he calls them Trojugenas. But 
see 1. 71, post. 

57. Strong.'] Fortia — ^vigorous, courageous, fit for the purposes 
for which they are wanted* 

■ Digitized by 



8ic lauchmus equum, iacilis cui plurima pahna 

Fervety et exultatrauco victoria oirco. 

Kobilis hie, quocunque venit de gramine, cuju9 ' ISO 

Oara fuga ante alios, et primus in asquore pulvis. 

Sed veoale pecus Cor^thte, posteritas et 

Hirpini, si rara jtigo victoria aedit* 

Kil ibi majorunii respectus, gratia Dulia 

Vmbraram: d<Mninos pretiismutarejubentur -6^ 

Eicignis, tritoque trafaunt epirfaedia coUo 

Segnipedes, dignique molam versare Nepotis. 

Ergo ut miremur te, non tua, primum aiiquid d^ 

Quod possim titulis incidere prseter honores, . ' 

€^08 illis damus, et dedTmus, quibus omnia debes. 70 

Hflec satis ad juvenem, quern nobis fama superbum 
Tradit, et inflatuni, plenumque Nerone propinquo* " 
Rams enim ferme sensus communis in iU& * 

Fortunft. Sed te censeri laude tuorum, 

Pontice, noluerim, sic ut nihil ipse futurae IS 

XAudisagas: miserum est aliens incumbere vxum, 
He coUapsa ruant subductis tecta columnis. 
I Stratus bumi palmes viduas desiderat ulmos. 

58. Man^ a kind handy Sfc.'] They used to clap their hands^ ia 
token of applause, at the public shows and sports. 

59. T%e hoarse circus/] t. e. The people in the drcos, hoarse 
with their appfaading acclamations. 

60. From whatever pasture.'] Lit. grass-— g. d. wherever bred. 

. 61. Whose dust is firsts S^c] Who keeps b^ore the others, so 
Ihat the first dust must be raised by htm. ; • . 

62. J%e cattle of Cor^ha^l^ The breed, or stock, of a famous 
mare, so called, are sold. 

63. Hirpinus,] A famous horse, so called from the place where 
ke wa& bred, being a hill in the country of the Sabines. 

If rare victory ^ Sfc] If they seldom win in the chariot race. 

65. Of shades.] No regard to tiie ghosts of ther departed an- 

To change their masiersy Sfc] Their present raastinr dis« 

poses of them very cheaply to others. v v- ~ 

66. With a worn neck.] They are put into teams, and the hair 
is all worn off their necks, which are galled with the harness with 
which they are fastened to the carriage. See Epirhedium. AiNsw. 

67. €f Nepos.] The name of some miller, who ground com in 
korse-mills. ' 

68. Admire ^ouy noi^ours^ Sfc] That we may admire you pcr^ 
sonally for your own sake, and not merely for your family, 'or fbr« 
tune, or title. 

— SAe» something^ ^c] Give us some proof^ by some noblt 

Digitized by 



Hone we pnute, for whom mtpy a kind han4 , ^ A /; 

Glows, and yictory exults in the hoarse circus^ / u ;.< / < . 
He is noble, from whatever pasture, he comes, ^bo3<i flight . .6Q 
Is famous before the others,. and whose duat is first on the plain^ 
But the cattle of Corytha.are set to sale, 9Qd the posterity of -. 
Hirpinus, if rare victory. sits on their yol^e. 
There is no respeot of ancestors, no favour 
Of shades ; they are commanded tp change their masters £§ 
For small prices, and draw waggons with a worn neqk,. , » < 
Slow of foot, and worthy to turn die mill, of Nepos. [things 
Therefore that we may admire you, not yours, .first shew some^ 
Which I ma^ inscribe among your titles besides your honours. 
Which we ^ve^ and have given, to them to whom you ewe all. 70 
These things we enough to the youth, whom fame deUvers to us 
Proud, and puffed up, and full of his kinsman Nero« ^ 
For common sense is, for the most part, rare in that [ancestors. 
Condition, But to have thee esteemed from the praise of your 
]Ponticus, I should be unwil^ng, so as that yourself should do JS 
Nothing of fiiture praise: 'tis miserable to best oh 
anotiter's fam£, [tunible into ruii^s, 

Lest the house fsdlen, by the pillars being taken away, should 
The vme s^row'd on the ground wants the widow'4 elms. 

and worthy actions, of true nobility, which, besides year high titlei^ 
may be^ recorded with honour to yourself. 

70. Which we givey Sfc.'] t. e» To your ancestors, to whom, aa 
thiogs are at present, yoa stand solely indebted for every mark of 
fespect that is bestowed upon you* 

71. To theyouthy S^c.'^ q, d. So much for Rubellius Phmtus, n 
jouth (as famp repreaients him, &c.) 

72. His kinsman Aero.] flis reUtionship to Nero. Comp. note 
on I. 40. 

73. Rar0y SfcJ] Y^y seldom foand in such a situation of life. 

75. Poniicusy 6fcJ] See 1. 1. of this Sat, a^d note. 

The poet teUs the person to whom he addresses tbia Satire, that 
ke should be sorry to have him esteoned merely on aceount of his 

76. Nothing of future praise."] That he should do nothing him« 
self, in order to raise his own character, in times lo come. 

.' 77. Lest the house faUen^ Sfc,'] Metaph. t. e. lest, like a building 
whi^h tumbles into ruins, when the pillars, which support it are 
removed, so you, if you have no other support to your character, 
than i^a( your ancestors have.done, if this be once put out of the 
question, should fall into contempt. 

78«- The viney Sfc."] If you owe the support of your fame entirely 
to that of others, let that be removed, and you will be like a viae 
which wants the support of an elm to keep it from crawling along 
the ground. 

Digitized by 


nt jrtTVENALtS SATniiE. atf.vnn 

Esto bonus miles, tutor bonusy arbiter i^fem 

Integer : aikibiguft m quando citalbere testier GO 

Incertsque rei, Phalaris lieet inperetut sis 

Falausy et admoto dictet perjuf ia tauro, 


Et propter vitam vivendi perdere causas. 

Dignus morte perit^ coenet licet ostrea centum S5 

Gauraoay et Cosjni toto mergatur aheno. 

Expectata diu tandem provineia cum'^e 

Rectorem accipiet, pone irse froena, modumque 

Pone et avaritiae : miserere inopum sociorum. 

Qssa vides regum vacuis exhausta meduUis« 90 

Respice, quid moneant leges, quid curia mandet ; 

Pneniia quanta bonos maneant^ quanTfulmine justo 

They used to fasten up their Tines, by tying them to the trunla 
of clm.trees.---See sat. wl 149. Virg. Geor. L 1. 2. 

If by any accident the vines broke from the trees, and lay upon 
the ground, they called the trees Tiduas ulmos, alluding to their 
haying lost the embraces of the yine, as a widow those of her hus- 
bsmd when he dies. 

79. ji good soldter."] Serve your country in die army. 

' AfaithftU tutor. "] Quasi tuitor — a trusty guardian to some 

minor, having the charge of his person and affairs, till he comes of 
age to manage lor himself, 

79 — 80. An uncorrupted umpire.'] When called upon to dedde 
a cause by your arbitration, distinguish yourself by the utmost im« 

80. A witness^ Sfc. ] If called upon as a- witness in some dark ai^l 
difficult matter, let your testimony be true, fsur, and unbiassed^ 

81. Phalarisj Sfc."] One of the most cruel of all the Sicilian fy- 
rants ; he had a brazen bull^ in which he inclosed people^ and burnt 
them to death. 

Though this tyrant were to bring his bull, and threaten io put 
you to death, by burning you alive, if you would not speak falsely^ 
yet let not even this make you deviate from the truth. 

83. TTie highest impiety ^ Sfc."] Esteem it a crime of the deepest 
dye, to value your life, so as to presenre it in a dishonourable vray, 
at the expense of your reputation and honour, Pndor — fame^ re« 
putation. Ainsw. 

84. To loscy S^c."] L e. The only causes which make life valuable, 
the purposes for which it was ordained, and for which it should be 
desirable, honour, truth, and surviving fame. 

85. He perishes^ ^c] Such a wretch, who would prd'er bis 
safety to his innocence, deserves to perish utterly, and, when he dies^ 
to have his memory perish with him, however sumptuously he may 
have liyed. 

86. Gaurane oysters.'] Lucrine oystws, taken about the port at 
Baise^ near the mountain Gaurus^ in Campania. 

Digitized by 


UT. Yuin JfrmJfAL'i SATtRBS. Stt 

Be you a good soldieri * fwthfol tutor, an uncomii^ed 
Uvipire also : if you are MuniDOiied as a witnessin adoubtfiildd 
Aad uncertain thing, tho' Phsdari* sbou'd command tliat: you 
Shou'd be false, and should dictate perjuries with the .bull 

brought to you, [bbput a-tiox^ 

Believe it the highest impikty to prefer xife to 
And, for the sake of Ike, to lose the causes of living. 85 

He perishes worthy of death, tho' he should si^oa an hundred 
Gaurane oysters, and should be imoiersed in tbe^wlMde caidroQ 

When at length the province, long expected, shall receive you 
Governor, put checks to anger, and measure also 
Put to covetousness : pity the poor assafiifttes. &4Vt^ 
You see the bones pf kii^s exhausted, widi empty marrow. gO 
Regard what the laws may admonish, what the state command ; 
How great rewards may await the good ; with how just a stroke 

S6. Immersed^ Sfc.'] The Romans gave particular names to par. 
ticttlair perfumed ointments ; sometimes they named them after the 
country from whence they came, sometimes (as probably here) after 
the name of the confectioner, or perfumer, who prepared them. 
They had an ungueatum Cosmlanum, so called from one Cosmas^ 
who, by boiling various aromatics together, produced his famous 
ointment. The poet here means, that, if the person spoken of were 
not to anoint himself, as others, but could afford to purdias^ and 
dip himself in a whole kettle full at once of this rare perfume, yeit 
his name would deservedly rot with his carcase. It is not livii^ 
sumptuously, but living well, that gives reputation after death* 

87* The province^ Sfc,"] He now advises Ponticus as to his beha* 
Tiour towards the people he is to govern, when in possession of the 
government of one of the conquered provinces, which he had long 

58. Put checks^ ^c] Frflena— literally, bridles. — g. dL Bridle 
your anger, keep your passion within proper bounds. 

59. Put to cofO€tou8ne$s,'\ Restrain your avarice, set bounds to 
your desires. 

— ^ The poor assodatesJ\ The poor people who have been r6. 
duced by conquest, and now become the allies of the Romans. 

SK). The bones qf ktngSy Sfc."] u e. You see some of the kings, 
which we conquered, unmercifully squeezed, and the very marrow, 
as it were,. sucked out of their bones. Ossa vacuis medullis — L e. 
ossa vacua a pdedullis. Hypalkgc 

91. 7%e stateS\ Curia literally signifies a court, more especially 
where the senate or council assembl^ : here (by metonym.) it may 
Stand for the senate itself — Curia pro senatu— Campus pro comitiis 
— ^Toga pro pace, Spc. appdlatur. Ocat. iii. 4^ It was 
usual for the senate to grve a charge io new governors, on their d» . 
parture to the provinces over which they were appointed. 

92. HovD just a stroke.^ How justly they were punished by- 

Digitized by 



£t Cftg^o et Tdtor ruemty dtmnante semto,. 

Pir|tae Cilicinn T sed <|uid dattmatto coqfertf 

Cum Pansa eripiat quicquid tibi Natta reiiquit f gS 

Pi«c(meni, Chaerippe^ tuis circumspice pannis, 

jamqpe tace : furor est post omnia perderS nauluni» 

Non idem gemkus <Aim, nee tuIbus erat par * 

Danmoniniy soctis florentibQSy et modo victis. 

VhoA donws tunc osinis, et ingens i»tabat acervus 100 

Nummomin^ Spartana chlamys, conchylia Co^i 

£t cum Parrhasii tabuUs^ lignisque Myronis, 

Phidiacum vivebat ebur, nee non Pol^cleti 

Multus ubique labor : rar« skie Mentore mensae« 

Inde Dolabella est, atque hinc Antonius, inde 105 

Sacril^us Verres. Keferebant novibus altis 

a decree of tiie senate, wbick fell on tlieia like a thunder- 

94. Robbers of the Cilidang.'] Cossutianus Capito, and Julias 
Tutor, had been succesfliyelj prasfects, ot governors, of Cilicia, and 
both recalled and condemned bjr the senate for peculation and ex- 

95. Puma can sehe^ Sfc."] Where b tiie use of making examples 
<>f wicked governors, when, if you publish one, his successor will 
•till seize on all he left behind him, and thus complete the ruin which 
he began. 

96. CfuBr^[)pusJ] He introduces Chaerippus, a subject of Ihis 
plundered province, whom he advises to make a sale of his clothes, 
and the rest of his poor rags, which he had left, before the successor 
comes with a fresh appetite, and devours all, supposing that if he 
turned what he had into mon^, it might be better condoled. See 
sat. vii. 6, note. 

97. Be sUeni/] Say nothing of the money, for fear the new go- 
vernor should seize it. 

— *— - Your freight.'] Naulum signifies the freight, or fare, paid 
for a passage over the sea in a ship. The poet seems here to mean, 
that it would be no better than madness, to let the governor know 
of the money whidi the goods sold for ; for, by these means, even 
this would be seized, and the poor sufferer not have enough left to 
pay his passage to Rome, in order to lodge his cotti^laint before the 
s'enate, against the oppressor. 

98 — 9. The wound of losses^ Sfc.] The hurt or damage received 
by the rapine of governors, with respect to the property of indivi- 

99. Associates.'] Sociis. — ^The conquered provinces were allied 
with the Romans, and called sodi. 

100. Every house was full.] t. e. Of valuable things, as well as of 
large sums of money, which the conquerors left untouched. 

101. A Spartan doak.] A garment richly dyed with the purple 

Digitized by 



Both Capito and Tutor fell, the senate condemnii^. 
The robbers of the Cilicians : but what does condemnadon avail. 
When Pansa can sei2e whatever Natta left you ? gs 

Look about for a crier, Chaerippus, for your rags, 
And how be silent : it is madness, after all, to lose ydur fi«ight» 
There were not the same complaints formerly, nor was the 
wound of [quer^d. 

Losses equal, when our associates flourished, and were just <*on* 
Then every bouse was full, and there was standing a great heap 100 
Of money, a Spartan cloak, i)urples of Cos, 
And with pictures of Parrhasius, statues of Myron, 
The ivory of Phidias was living, also every where 
Much of the labour of Polycletus : few tables without Mentor. 
Thence is Dolabella, and thence Antony, thence 105 

The sacrilegious Verres : they brought in lofty ships 

of the marex taken on the shore of Laconia, a coontry of Pelopon* 
nesns, the chief city of which was Sparta. 

101. Purples of Cos,'] Cos, or Coos, was an island in the Mgwux 
sea, near which the fish, from whence the purple dye was taken^ 
was also found. Sat. iil. 1. 81, note. 

102. Parrhasius."] A famous painter of Greece, who contended 
with Zeuxis, and gained the prize. See Hon. ode riii. lib. iv. 1. 6. 

-; — — MyronJ] An excellent statuary, whose works were in high 
esteem, especially his brazen cow, which exercised the pens both of 
the Greek and Roman poets. Ut similis verae vacca Myronis opus* 
Ov. c Pont. iv. 1. 34. 

103. Phidias,] A famous painter and statuary : he is here said 
to have wrought so curiously in ivory, that his figures seemed to bt 
alive. See also Ai NSW. Phidias. 

104. Polycletus,] A Sicyonian, a famous statuary and sculptor* 
There were many of his works among this collection^ 

Mentor J] A noble artist in chasing and embossing plate. 

We are to understand here, that there were few tables, i. e, enter* 
tainnients, where, in the courses and services of the table, there were 
not some cups, dishes, plates, &c. of Mentor's workmanship. 

All these fine oraaments were permitted to remain in the houses 
of the owners by Iheir first conquerors.; but the avarice and rapine 
oi the governors who succeeded -stripped them of alL 

105. Thence,] These things left by the conquerors proTed a 
source of rapine and plunder to the prefects who succeeded. 

DolabeUa,] A proconsul of Asia, accused by Scaurus, and 

condemned, foi: plundering the province over which he presided. 

AntoT^,] C« Antonius, a proconsul of Achaia, likewise con- 
demned for plnndering the province. 

106. Sacrilegious Verres.] The plunderer of Sicily, who spared 
not even sacred things. The province prosecuted him, and, TuUy 
undertaking the cause, he was condemned and banished. Vid. Cic« 
in Verrem. 

you U y 

Digitized by 


nt JUYBNALIS SATfRJE* f49.¥»». 

Occulta s|)oH«> ft pluret ete pace triumpho^. 

Nunc flociia juga pauca bourn, ct grax parvus cqumum ; 

£t pater armenti eapto eripietur agello : 

Ipsi delude L^f^, si <^i\od speetabUe^ sigBum, 1 10 

Si qiua in a$di6ul& D^us unicu^ : htee ctenim aunt 

1^0 auwrnU r^nam sunt b»c n^axima. Despicit^ to 

Fortitap imbelles Rhodios, unctamque Corinthum t 

Desqfucifa merito : quid resigatajuventuss 

Crursique totius (acieut tibi hevia genliti ? US 

Horrida vitanda est Hispania, Qallyrua axis, 

Illyricumque ktn^. Paice et meMoribus iUis, 

Qui saturant urbem, cjrco, scwtagque vacantem. 

Quanta autem inde iSres tain dir» prasmisf eulp«&, 

Cum tenues nuper Marius diseinterit AAros-f HQ 

107. Jfiddfin sppih.'] Which they k^pt, as much as th^ couldy 
llroiii publio xieii> ^ net daFing to expose them^ as was usnai hj fair 
conq^uerors in their triumphs. 

^fmiw^ Mow t9tUimph9y SfeJ] Than ethers did from war. — q, d. Thej 
fot a greater l^o^y, bj siripphig the poor associates, now at peace, 
and in amity with Rome, than the conquerors of tliem did, when they- 
•ubdue<ii then by open war. 

109. Tt^fiake^ of ike herd^ Sfc.'} Mr. Stepney, in his poetical 
liC^aabitiott ef this passage, has well expressed the sense of it ; via* 

■ I... ULU..U our Qoivfed^ratcs, no^ 
Rave nothing left but oxen for the plough. 
Or some few mares reserv'd vlonf for breed ; 
'i'ety lest thi^ ^ovident design siiccf ed» 
Tfbejf <teiv<Q tiii iktUn oi tl«B tod away, 
Hdaking both stalhou and hU pasture prej^ 

H0» The^ very household ^dsj d^cJ] These plimderen of the pron* 
tinces are so mereiless and rapacious,, that they refrain not even from, 
^he lares, or Kttle imagos, of those tutelar deitieii whkh were placed ia 
people's heasef ; and^' particularly, if any of these struck their fancy, 
as a handsome, well- wrought hna^e — spectab&e signi^m. Nay, though 
there w«re bul one single image, they wouU take ere^ that See 
AiN»w. Lar. 

119. ¥br ekiefi.'] Pro suramb, i e. Yiris,r— ^r. d. These sacrtlegi. 
ous depredations are for Roman chiefs to comiQit, because they are 
tiio most enormoas (m.axhna„ the greatest) crimes of all— (scelera un. 
derstood^-— snch as ho others wpuld be guilty pf. 

Olfaer sense&are given to this passage ; but the aboYe seems best to 
agree with the poet^s satire on the Roman chi.ef$,^ who plundered the 
conqaered provinces after their alliance with Rome. * 

113. The toeak Rhodians.'] A pegple infected with sloth and effe-^ 
Bdlnacy. See sat. vi. 295, 

^Anointed Cormth.'] So called from its hixury and use of 

perfuBied ointments — a sure sign of great effeminacy. 

You may safely, and indeed with good reason, despise such peo* 

Digitized by 



Hidden spoils^ and morci triumpfa3 frpm.ppace, [of niare^ 

Now the associates have a few yokes .of ox^en, and a small hera 
And the father of the herd will be taken away from the captured 

field. ' . 

Then the very household cods, if any remarkable image, 1 10 
If any one single god be in me small shrine. But ttfese (crimes) ara 
For chiefs, for these are greatest.— You may despise. 
Perhaps, the vfeak Rhodians, and anointed Corinth : [youth^ 
You may deservedly despise them: what can an effeminated 
And the smooth legs of a whole nation do to you ? 1 15 

Rough Spain is to be avoided, the Gallic axis. 
And the coast of Illyria : spare also those reapers 
Who supply the city, intent upon the circus, and the theatre. 
But how great rewards of so dhre a crime will you bring from 

thence, ai-- 

Since Marius has lately stripped the slender Africans ? 120 

pie as these ; for you hare fear, either from their resisf- 
ance, or from their reYcnge. 

114. An effeminated youth,'] A race of youth, or young men, 
wholly sunk into eflfeminacy . Resinata juventus — ^literally, the youtii 
(of Corinth) who are resined — f . e. bedaubed all over with perfumes 

and essences of aromatic resins or gums. See Ainsw. ReSinatus. 7 , * h 

115. Smooth kg&y <S:c.] Tl was customary for the delicate young , , , 
men to remove, as much as possible, the hair which grew ort their 
limbs, and indeed from every part of the body, to make them lovely 
in the eyes of thv4r beastly paramours. The poet here means, that 
an oppressive governor could have nothing to fear from such people 
as thMc» who could not have spirit^ or courage enough, to attempt 

any resistance. , , , i u »^ 

1 1 6. Rough Spain.'] Then a hardy and brave people, who would 
not tamely submit to injuries d(Hxe them by the Roman prefects. 

Gallic axis.'] The Gauls fought from chariots. 

117. The coast of Illyria.] Latus— lit. the side.— The Illyriaiis in- 
wnia ; a h wdy race of people. Their country was over against Italy. 

Those reapers^ S^c] Meaning the people of Africa, who 
Sirpplied R<»»e with corn. 

118. The city.] Rome. * „ ^t. i _ * 
Intent y *c.] Vacantem— empfy of afl other employment, 

and n*uUng nothing else but the public diversions of the circus, and . 

of the theatres^ ^ ,. xi. 

119. Mom great rewards^ S^c.^ But suppose you oppress the 
poor Africans, what can you get by it ? , ^ .-• -ii^ > 

120. MarmA Priscus, who being proconsul of Africa, pil^ecl 
the people of the province, for which he was condemned and ban- 

labed. See sat i. 1. 40. , ^ ^ ^ ,. . » 
Siriim'd.'l Dischiixerit--*lit ungirded— a metaphorical ex. 

pression, alluding to the act of those who take away the garments 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

/:/*'^«-' - 

-'J'.yif - 


Curandum imprimis, ne tiiagna injuria fiat 

Fortibus et miseris, tollas licet omne quod usquam est 

Auri atque argenti ; scutum gladiumque relinques^ 

Et jacula, et galeam : spoliatis arma supersunt. 

Quod modo proposui, non est sententia ; venim 125 

Credite me vobis folium recitare Sibyllas. 

, Si tibi sancta cobors comitum ; si nemo tribunal 
Vendit acers^omes ; si nullum in conjuge crimen ; 
Nee per conventus, et cuncta per oppida curvis 
Unguibus ire parat mimmos raptura Celapno ; 130 

Tunc licet a Pico numeres genus ; altaque si te 
Nomina delectent, omnem Titanida pugnam 
Inter majores, ipsumque Pron^|thea ponas ; 
De quocunque voles proavum tibi sumito libra. 
Quod si praecipitem rapit ambitus atque libido, l'S5 

Si frangis virgas sociorum in sahguine, si te 
Delectant hebetes lasso lictore secures ; 

of others, and wto begin by loosening tBe girdle by whicb €hey are 

122. The brave and miserable^ Sfcli Beware of provoking snch 
by any unwarrantable oppression ; they will certainly find some 
way to revenge themselves. Though you pillage them of all thtir 
money and goods, yet remember they have arms left, with which 
they can revenge their wrong. 

Entirely.'] Omne quod nsquam«— Itt. every thing which 

(is) any whei^e. * 

126. Leaf of a Sibi/L'] The Sibyls were Sfq)posed to be inspired 
with knowledge of future events, which came to pass as they fore-* 
k>ld. See sat. iti. 1. 3, and* note. 

Don't think, says JuvenaF, that I am here gtvlvg yon a mere ran- 
dom 'opinion of my own — No ; what I say is as true as an oracle^ 
as fixed as fate itself, and will certainly come to pass ; therefore re. 
gard it accordingly • 

127. ji virtuous set, S^c/^ CoHors here signifies cohors praetoria— 
those that accompanied the magistrate who went into a province. 
See AiNsw. Cohors, No 5. — q, d. If the persons of your retinue, 
who attend yon as your officers and ministers within your province, 
are virtuous and ^ood. 

If no favourite^ ^c] AccrsecoffiQ5 tras afff epithet of ApoHo, 

(6r. axc^<rexojuti;, intonsus,) and was transferred to the Hnooth'-faced 
boys, which great men kept for their unnatural purposes^ 

These favourites h^d great interest and influence with i^^twi iBttsters, 
and people used to give them bribes to obtain their interference with 
the prefect when he sa;t in judgment, so as to incline kis to faTour 
their friends in his decisions. 

128. No crime be in your ToifeJ] It was too frequent for the ^€h^ 
Ternors of the provinces to be influenced hy their wivts in their de- 
terminations of causes. 

Digitized by 


tiT. yvx. JUVENAL'S SATIRES. «t 

First care is to be taken, lest great injury be done f every tbin^ 
To the brave and miserable ; tho* you may take away entirely 
Of gold and silver, you will leave, the shield and sword, 
And daits, and helmet : — arms remain to the plundered. 
AVhat I now have proposed is not a mere opinion, but 125 

Believe me to recite to you a leaf of a Sibyl. 

If you have a virtuous set of attendants ; if no favourite 
Sells your seat of judgnaent ; if no crime be in your wife ; 
Nor thro' the districts, and thro* the towns, with crooked 
Talons, does she, a Cel^eno, contrive to go to seize money ; ISO 
Then, you may reckon your lineage from Picus, and, if high names 
Delight you, you may place the whole Titanian battle. 
And Prometheus himself, among your ancestors : [please. 

Take to yourself a. great grandfether from whatever book you 
But if ambition, and lust, hurry yoii headlong, 135 

If you break rods in the blood of the allies, if t!hee 
Blunt a^es delist, the lietor being tirjed» 

129. Districts,^ See AiNsw. Comrentus, No. S. It being put 
liere with oppida seems to mean ^hose districts into which the pro* 
Tinces were divided, like ourrouaties, wherein the people were sum- 
moned by the magistrate to meet for the dispatch of judicial busi« 
ness. In each of these the prefect held a court, something like our 
jadges on the circuits, to try criminal and civil causes. So likewise 
in the cities, which were districts of themselves, like some of ours. 
This custom is very ancient — see 1 Sam. vii. 16. On these occasions 
the prefect's, or judge's wife, might attend, with no small advantage 
to hesself, if she were inclined to extort money from the suitors, to 
influence her husband in their favour. 

120—30. Crooked talons, Sfc.'] like an harpjr, seizing on all sh« 
could get. Of Celaeno, and the other harpies, read JEiu iii. 
1. 211—18, 245, 365, 703. 

131- Picus.'] The first king of the Aborigines, an ancient people 
of Italy, who incorporated Siemselves with the Romans. He wa» 
said to be the son of Saturn. 

132. 2%iMtttf» battie."] AH the Titans, who were set in battle. 
Iirray against Jupiter, these were sons of Saturn also. 

133. Prometheus himself .li The son of lapetus, one of the Titans, 
and Clymene, whom the poets feigned to have been the first former 
of men out of clay, and then to have animated them by fire stolen from 
heaven. See sat. iv. 133. - 

134. Whatever book, (^c] i. e. From whatever history of greit 
^nd famous men you please.-*-^. * You are welcome to this if you 
are yourself a worthy man and a good magistrate. 

136. Break rods, ^-c] If you bcieak the rods, which you prepare 
for the allies over which you pm4<^«B their bloody backs— f. e. if 

y 3 

you cruelly torment them with ^Msourges. 

X37. The lietor^ ^c] If jou delight in putting the poor people 


Digitized by' 


Incipit ipsorum contra fe stare parentum 
Nobilitas, claramqiie facem praeferre pudendis. 



Quo mibi te solitum falsas signare tabellas 

In templis; quae fejzxt aviis ; statuamque parentis 

Ante tfiumphalem ? quo, si noctumus adulter 

Tempora Santonico velas adoperta ciicuno f 145 

Praeter majomm cineres, atque ossa volucri 
Cargento rapitur pinguis Damasipp iis y et ipse, 
Ipse rotani stringit muUo sufHamine Consul : 
Nocte quidera ; sed luna videt^sed sidera testes 
Intenduut oculos. Finitum te»Tip^?« ho^^pria 150 

Ctim^fyerit, clar^ Dauiasippus luce fiagelium 
Gurnet, et occursum nusquam trepidabit amici 

to death, till tbe rery Axes are blunted by frequent use, and the exe. 
cutioncr hio^lf be tired out with the number of executions. 

' 138. The nobUity^ S^c.'] So far from the nobility of your family's 
teflecting any honour upon you, it rises, and stands in judgment, at 
it were, against you, and condemns you for yonr degeneracy. 

139, A dear torchy ^c] Makes your foul deeds the more con- 
spicuous, and exp6ses your shame in a clearer light. ' 

140, Every vice,'] Such as cruelty, atarice, and tbe Kke. Prayi. 
tates animi, ritia rccte dicuntur. Cic. 

More conspicuous y 4^c.] So far from derinng atty sanctiott 

from high and noble birth, the rices of the great are the more blame, 
able, and more eridently inexcusable in proportion to the greatness of 
their quality — their crimes are the more notorious, their examples 
tiie more malignant. 

142. Wherefore^ ^t.] Jactas is here understood — Quo mibi jactai 
te soUtum, &c. — q, d. '^ It is of very little consequence, that you, 
^' who are in the habit of forging wills, should be boasting to me 
** your nobility — ^to what end, intent, or purpose, can you doit?** 
Quo, here, has the sense of quorsum. 

143. In the temples,'] It was usual to sign, as a witness to a will, 
in the temples of the gods, to put men In mind that they were obliged 
by religion to be true and faithful. See sat. i. 1. 67, 8. 

— — ^ Your grandfather built.] Fecit — ^lit. made. The piety of 
your ancestors reflects no honour upon you. 

144. l^he triumphal statue ^ 4'c*] Which being set up in the tern* 
pie, is, as it were, a witness of yourTillainy. 

A nightly adulterer.] 'faking advantage of the night to con* 

ceal your deeds of darkness. See Job xxiv. 15 — 17. 

145. Your temples.] Your head and face, of which tbe temples 
are a p^rU Synec. 

A Santonic hood.] The San tones were a people of Acqnitatn^ 

a part of Franco, from y\rhom the Roummis deriYod the use pf hoods. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


The nobilitj of your ancefttoi^ themselves begini td statitl 
Against you, aiid to carry a clear torch before your ^hamdful de^s. 
Every vice of the minb has av 6d much more cdi«^- 
spicuous 140 

Blame, by how MtcH he tH At of^-ends is agcountbJi 


Wherefore to me boast yourself *teflst<>ttied to sign fai^e tvills 
In tlie templesy which yoar graodfather built} and before 
The triumphal sttftue of your father? tvhat^ if a itightly adulterer, 
You veil your cover'd teniptes with a Santonic hood f 14i 

By the ashes of his ttieestors, atid their b^ties^ in a swiffc 
Chariot, fat Daniasippus is whirled aldu^, atid he, 
JHimself) the consul, binds dte wheel with many ft drug. 
By>jiight indeed, but the moon sees^ but die Consdious stars 
Fix their eyes upon him : when the ti^e of honour is finished^ 1 50 
Damasippus, in the clear light, the whi|) will 
Taj^, and no where tremble at the meeting of a friend 

fkt eowls, wl^h ^eovarsd the bdad aad faee« Comp. sat* ru 
L 328, 9. . 

V 146. % tk^ itiheij ifc'] The fvo^t b^e invdghs agakiM th^ low 
iUi4 dat^ravfld tasle of the aoblenien in Rome^ whose {Passion it was 
to become charioteers. The aame DamasippUs (from Or. htfjest^, 
ie taate^ and khr^^, an hors«) signifies an horse-tamer, dnd is appli^ 
€tM^^ not merely^ to 9Af shigle pevsoa, bat to mi of the same fasftcfw 
JOamasippus, sajs he, drives furiously by the askas and bones of hk 
great progenitors ; so totally uniniacmced bj their exatoples of true 
greatb^s, as to sink lato the mean character of a cOachnlan, ot 
charioteer. The ei^fieror Nero affected this, and was followed in it 
by tniny, by way of pkyhig court to him ; and iodeod the poet here 
must be anderstood to glance at this, 

148^ Binds ihe zoheel, 4r<?«l The salRamen iTas what they pat ot 
the wheel of a carriage to stop or stay it, that it should not go too 
fast down hUl, or run bad wfaeA going up htlh The person who 
attended to put this ott was some slave ; bnt Damasippns, though 
consul, subadts to this offiee hunsdIf.r^Midto svfflamiiie hnf^iosl his 
jof ten doing this. 

149. % nigke^ ^c] This indeed he does in the night, when he 
tilths nobody toes him ; bai flMl ffiooia and stars are witnesses 
of the fact, which is so degrading to a man in his situation, and ^bieh 
would not happen had he a due regard to his o^n dignity. Testis 
signifies, lit. a witneis. Henee, Biet. that is privy to a thing-^^^on. 
«cious. Sat. lii. 49 ; and sat. tin* 75. 

160. The time of honour is jMishBi.'] When he goes out of ofieis 
iA Ihe end of the year. 

• 151. In the dear Ughty S^cJ] In open daylight he'll appear as e 

y 4 

Digitized by 



Jam senis, at virg& prior innuet, atque tnaniplos 

Solvety et infundet jomentis hordea lassis. ^ 

Interea dum lanatas, torvumque juvencum 155 

More Numte csedit Jovis ante altariay jurat . 

Hipponam, et facies olida ad pnesepia pictas.y^ 

Sed cum pervigiles placet instaurare popinas^ 

Obvius assiduo Syrophoenix udus amomo 

Currit, Idumseae Syrophoenix incola pbrtse, l60 

Hospitia a£fectu Dominum, Regeroque salutat^ 

£t cum venali Cyane, succincta lagend. 

Defensor culpse dicet mihi : fecimus et nos 

H'£c juvenes. Esto ; de^jjsti nempe, nee ultra 

Fovisti errprem. Breve sit, quod turpiter aiides. l65 

Quasdam cum prim& resecentur crimina barb&. 

Indulge veniam pueris : Damasippus ad illos 

Thermarum calices; inscrigtaque lintea vadit^ 

153. Now old.'] And therefore gra?e and sedate ; yet Damasip- 
pus will feel no shame at meeting him. 

Make a sign, <^c.] Salute him with a dexterous crack of hb 

whip. Seesat. iii. 317, 18. - 

154. Loosen the trusseiy Sfc."] Will feed his horses himself, 
eoachman like. Manipulum is an handful, armful, or bundle ; here 
we may suppose it to mean a truss of hay. 

155. Kills sheep, Sfc."] When he goes to offer sacrifices, accord- 
ing to the rites established by Numa, the successof of Romulus, at 
the altar of Jupiter. 

156 — 7. Swears by Hippona^ S^cJ] Ilippona (from Urwoi an 
horse) is the goddess he swears hy, and in whose name he makes 
bis Yows. She was the goddess of horses and stables ; her image 
was pfaiced in the middle of the stalls^ and curiously bedecked with 
chaptetsof fresh roses. — By et facies pictas, we may suppose that 
there were other deities, of a like kind, painted on the walls of the 

' 158. To renew the watchful taverns, "] To renew his Tisits, and 
repair to the taTcrns, where people sat up all night. 

159. A Syrophcenidan, <^c.] A name of Syria and Phoenicia, 
from whence the finest perfumed ointments came,. as did also those 
who prepared them best. 

— Wet J 4rcO Greasy by continually busying himself in his 

160. Inhabitant of the IdumcBan gate,] The Iduma&an gate at 
Rome was so called from Vespasian's and Titus's entry through it, 
when they triumphed over the Jews — Idumaea is a part of. Syria, 
bordering on Judaea. This part of Rome, which was called the 
Idumaean gate, was probably much inhabited by tliese Syrian per- 

161. With the affectation^ ^'c] The innkeepers at Rome were 

Digitized by 



Now old, but will first make a sign, with his whip ; and trnss^ 
Of hay will loosen, and pour in barley to his tired beasts. 
Mean time while he kills sheep, and the fierce -bullock, 155 
After the manner of Numa, before the altars of Jove, he swears by 
Hippona, and faces painted at the stinking mangers : 
!But when he pleases to renew the watch^l taverns, 
A Syrophoenician, wet with a constant perfume, runs to 
Meet him, a Syrophoenician inhabitant of the Idumsean gate ; 1 60 
With the affectation of ^n host, he salutes bun lord and king ; 
And nimble Cyane with a venal flagon. ['' these things 

A defender of his fault will say to me, " We also have done 
''When young men.*' " Be it so — but you left off, nor farther 
^* Cherish'd your error. — Let that be short which you shamefuUj 
« adventure." l65 

Some crimes should be cut off with the first beard. 
Indulge favour to boys. Damasippus goes to those 
Cups of the hot bathis^ and to tlie inscribed linen, 

'Very lavish of their flatteries and ciril speeches to people who canift 
to their houses, in order to engage their custom. This perfumer af- 
fects the same, in order to bespeak the custom of Damasippus^ and 
flatters him with the highest titles that he can think of. 

102. Nimble Cyane^ Sfc."] The woman of the house loses no 
Ame in. setting a bottle of liquor before him. Snccinctus cursU 
tat hospes. Hon. lib. li. sat. vi. 1. 107. — Succinctus^ — ^lit. girt, 
trusfi^, tucked up, for the greater etpedition. 

A vefud ftagon."] Of wine, which was sold at the ia« 


163. A defender^ 6(c.'\ Some person may perhaps say, bjr 
way of excuse. 

195, Let thai be shorty 4*^0 <*• ^* ^^P short, and never per« 
Sifit in doing ill. 

166. Should be cut offyifc.'] Left off* when we come to man. 

167. Indulge favour^ ^c."] Make all proper allowance for the 
errors of youdi. 

DamasippuSy SfcJ] True, one would make every allow. 

ance for the follies of young men ; but Damasippus is of an age 
to know, and to do, better. See 1. 169 — 71. 
. 168. Cups of the hot baths,'] The Thermas, or hot baths at 
Rome, were places, where some, after bathing, drank very 
hard. Hence Epigrammatogr. lib. xii. epigr. 71. cited by Gran* 
gitiSj in bis note on this passage. 

Frangendos.calicesi effnpdendumqne Falerniiiii» 

Clamabat, biberet, qui modo lotus eques. 
A sene sed postqyam nummi ventre trecenti, 

Sobrius a Thermis nescit abire domum. 

^hey al^o. drank hot wine^ while bathing, to make them sweat. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

930 JUVENALIS SAtlRaC. mt. tiuv 

M^^turud bello AriAenias, Syri»que tmendls 

Amnibu^y et Rheno, atque Istro. Prnstare Neroneln 170 

Securum valet hcec mtas. Mitte Oslia^ CteiMk'^ 

Mint ; sed in mugti^ legntum qiuere popM* 

Invenies aliquo cum percudsore ja<:entem7 

Permistum nautis, aut furibus, aut fugitivis^ 

Inter camifices, et fabros sandapilMTiiii^ * IfS 

£t r^supinati cessantia tympana Galli. 

iBqua ibi libertas^ comtnunia poettla^ lecttia 

Non alius cuiquani,|nec mento r^motiOiMiiK«| 

Quid i^cias, talem sojrtitu^, Pontic^, servum i 

Nempe in Lucanos, aut Thu^a ergastUla miftafii. 180 

At vos, Trojijgente, vobid ignoscitis, et quae 

Turpia cerdoni^ Voksos Brutosque decebunt^ 

168. The inscribed Unen.^ Alluding to the brdthet^, Orer ihh 
doors of which the entertainment which the gnestd might expeet 
was set forth on painted luien. See sat. vi. I. 123, and note. 

169. Mature for the par^ 4rc.] Damasippns is now grown np 
to manhood, and ripe tot enietiag upon the tenrice of kis couti. 

-*— -^rweniA.] Ift the reign of NierOj Xrmeata exdteA fieur 
and dangerons tumults* 

lfig-^70. lUr^ers of S^riA^ gfeT] As the Buphfates, Tigris, 
and Orontes, which were to be well defended, to prOteat tiie utcur*. 
eions of enemies into Syria. 

170. The Rhine md Ister.'] The fdtmet andently divided GOi^. 
many and Frances the latter means the Danube, the largest rirer 
in Europe ; as it passeth by Illyricum, it is called the Ister. Oft 
the banks of both these rivers the Romans had many conquered na« 
tions to keep in subjection, and many others to fear« 

171. Tliis age isMUu] Persons, at the time of life tO Whioh Da- 
masippus is arrived, are capable of entering into the Armies, whiek 
Itfe to protect both the emperor and the emptre« fiy NerOn^n aiiy 
emperor may be meant — perhaps Domitian. Sat. iv. 38. 

— ^ Sendj Cofsof^ 4c.] g. rf. Hav^ you fk^eaeiofi, O Ceesar, for 
an ambassador to dispatch on business of state to OtUt^ 0r to tte 
coasts of the Roman provhice^ ? O^tia WHd a i^ty bnill by Ancua 
Martins, at the month of the riyef Tiller. Ostia^ie^ sing* dr OtHMu 
orum, plur. 

172. Seekpottf kg&iBi 4rc.] t^yon ^Bdutd choesc^ io emj^loy Da* 
ftyasippus, you must took for Mm in B($iht tavern, add dMbong tk« 
lowest and most profligate edmpany* 

175. Makers of coffins.'] Saitditp^ wa«r si biet^ OV ^ofki^ tm 
the poorer sort, espmally for those who were executed. 

176. The ceasing dmm^y SfH.'] The priests of Cybelc, in theur 
frantic processions, uSed to beat drum^. Here is an account of 
one asleep on hk back, perhaps dead drunk, with his drums by 
idm quite sUent Tiirey were called OaUl^ from QOitss^ a river in 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Mature for the war of Armenia, and for defending the rivers 
Of S>ria, and for the Rhine and later. To make Nero 170 
Safe, this age is able. Send, Casar, send to Ostia, 
But seek your legate in a great tavern. 
You will find him lying by some cut-throat, 
Mix'd with sailors, or thieves, or fugitives. 
Among hangmen, and makers of coffins, \7S 

And the ceasing drums of a priest of Cybele lying on his back. 
There is equal liberty, cups in common, not another couch 
To any one, nor a table more remote to any. 
What would you do, Ponticus, if you had such a slave? 
You would surely send him among the Lucani, or the Tuscan 
workhouses. 180 

But you, sons of Troy, forgive yourselves, and what things 
Are base to a cobbler, will become the Volesi or Bruti. 

Phrygia, in which coantry Cybele was peculiarly worshipped. 
For « description of these, see sat» vi. 1. 511 — 16. 

177. There ii equal lUferty, ^c.'] All are here upon one foot* 
ing — they drink out of the same cup. 

Another eau€h^ S^cJ] The Roroans, at their entertain. 

mentsi lay upon couches^ or beds ; and people of disdoction had 
their couches ornamented, and some were raised higher than others 
.—but here all were accomodated alike. 

178. TabU mere remfiie, Sfc,'] No table set in a more or lesi 
honourable place — no sort of distinction made, or respect shewn, 
ta one more than another.. They were all '^ Hail fellow ! wdl 
*' met !" as we say. 

179. Such a slave, Sfc,"] If yon had a slate that passed his time 
in such a manner, and in such rascally company — if such a one had 
fallen to your lot, what would you do with him ? 

180. ifie Lacani.'] Lucania was a country of Italy, belonging 
to Naples^ where the (laves were punished by being made to dig in 

, -.-^^ 7\iscan workhausei.'] JErgastula— places of punishment for 
alaves, where they were made to work in chains. These were very 
frequent in Tuscany. 

181. Sens of Troy."] ^ A sneer on the low-minded and profligate 
nobility, who were proud of deriving thdr families from the ancient 
Trojans, who first settled in Italy. See sat. i. 100. 

-*-— Forgive t/oursehei.'] Easily find out excuses for what you 

182. WtU become the Volesi or Bfuii.'] By these he means th6 
soMes of Rome, the most ancient families being derived from Vale- 
rius Volesns, who came and settled at Rome, with Tatius king of 
the Sabines, on the league of amity with Romulfis.^*^Brutv8 also 
was a name highly reverenced, on account of the noble acts of some 
who h^ borne it.r — Janios Bmtus was the first consul after the ex. 
{pulsion of the kings 3 Doaitbis Jun, Bmtus was one of the coa« 

Digitized by 


Ui JWENALIS SATIRiE.^ ^A.r. tm* 

Quid, si nunquam adeo foedis, adeoque pudendiff 
Utimur exemplis, ut iion pejora supersint ? 
Consumptis opibus vocem, Damasippe, loc&sU 18J 

Sipario, clamosum ageres ut Phasma CatulG. 
LaureoluiD Velox etiam bene Lentulus egit, 
Judice me, dignus ver^ cruce. Nee tamen ipsi 
I^oscas populo : populi frons durior hujui^, 
Qui sedet, et spectat triscurria patriciorum: ]g(| 

Planigedes audit Fabiosrridere potestqui' 
Mamercoium alapas. Quanti sua funera vendant. 
Quid refert ? ve'hduiit nulio cogente Nerone, 
Nee dubitant celsi Praetoris vendere ludis. 
Finge tameh gladios inde, atque hinc pulpita pone : 195 

Quid satius ? mortem sic quisquam exhorruit, ut ait 

cpirators against Jul. Caesar ; these were the chiefs of a noble fa« 
inily in Rome, who bore the name of Brutus. 

The poet here observes, that the Roman nobility were got to suck 
A state of shameless profligacy, that they gloried in actions aad 
practices, which a low mechanic would have been ashamed of, ancl 
which would have disgraced even a cobbler. 
. tS3> If we never, Sfc,'] q. d. What will you say, if after the 
examples which I have produced, so infamous and . shameful, there, 
should remain yet worse? 

185. DamasippiAs.'] See his character, I. 147r-180i . At last 
lie is supposed to hare ruined himself, and to go upon the 

166. The stage."] Siparium, properly, is the curtain of a tfaea« 
tre : here, by synec. it denotes the theatre itself. 

Phafsma,'] CatuHas wrote a play, in titled Phasma, or the 

Vision ; so called from Gr. ^vo^ou, appareo. Probably the wock 
of some scribbler of that name, full of noise and rant 

187. Velox LentulusJ] Another of these profligate noblemen. 

Laureolus.'] The name of a tragedy, in which the h&t9 

Laureolus, for some horrid crime, is crucified- 

• 188. Worthy, fycJ] Richly deserving to be crucified in earnest^ 
for condes<;ettding to so mean a thing as to turn actor upon a piiblie 

• / being Judged] In my opinion-— in my judgment. 

189. The very people.'] firen the commonalty who attend at those 

' — ■■ — ne front of this people, Sfc] The spectators are still, if 
possible, more inexcusable, who can impudently sit and divert them* 
selves with such ^ prostitution of nobility* 

il90. Buffooneries.'] Triscurria, from tris (Gr* Tf»«) three times^ 
and scurra, a buffoon — the threefold buffooneries of .persons actipg 
10 out of character. 

• Patricians.] Noblemen of t}ie highest rank. 

191. Barefooted Fabii.] Planipes-sr-an actor^ bt mimic^ tliai 
acted without shoes, or on the plsin grpii&d* 

Digitized by 


•kr.rut: jrUVENAL'S SATIltES. J» 

What, if we never use so foul, and so shameful 
Examples, that worse can not remain ? [185 

Thy riches consumed, thy voice, Damasippus, thou hast hired to 
The stage, tliat thou nrightest act the noisy Phasma of Catullus. 
Velox Lentulus also acted well Laureolus, 
Wortliy, I being jud^e, a real cross. Nor yet can you 
Excuse the very people : the ft-ont of this people is still harder. 
Who sits, and beholds the buffooneries of patricians : 190 

Hears barefooted Fabii--Twbo can laugh at the slaps 
Of the Mamerci. At what price they may sell dieir deaths 
What does it signify i they sell them, no Nero compelling^ 
Nor doubt to sell them to the shows of the haughty pretor. 
But imagine the swords there, and put the stage here : 195 

Which is best ^ has any one so feared death, that he shou'd be 

A fine piece of divernon, for the spectators to behold a man, dew 
BDended from one of the first families, acting so low a part ! 

19^ Of the Mamerci.^ A great family in Rome, descended from 
Mamercus il!dnilitt8, who, when dictator, subdued the rebels at Fi- 

A curious entertainment, truly, to see a descendant of thisVa* 
•sniy, suffering kicks, and slaps on the face, like a merry-aadrew, oa 
a public stage, for the diversion of the people ! 

Sell their deathsj Sfc,"] t. e. Expose their persons to be put 

to death. — q. d. No matter for what price these nobles run the ha*, 
said of their, lives; they do it voluntarily, therefore nobody will 
pity them if they be killed.-^He now proceeds to satirize the noble 

1 93. No Nero compelling^ Sfc,"] Alluding to the cruelty of Nero, 
who commanded four hundred senators, and six hundred knights, to 
fight in the amphitheatre : these were excusable, for they could not 
help it; but this was not the case with those the poet is here writ- 
ing of, who, of their own accord, exposed their lives upon the stagje 
for hire, like common gladiators; which we may understand by 

194. Nor doubt J ^c] They make no scruple to engage in the 
ahows. of Radiators gi^ttj^by the pretor, who sat on high, exalted in 
a car, to direct and siq^^teud the whole. See sat. x. 1. 36, — ^Thej 
hire themselves, as it were, fpr this purpose. 

' 195. Imagine the swords^ Sfc,"] Suppose you were to choose, put 
the lists for sword-playing on one hai^d, the stage on the other, which 
•should you think best — which would you choose ? 

196. Has any one, Sfc."] Has any one known the fear of death 
iro much, as not to risque his life in ^ combat, rather than to 
play the fool as an actor. 

We are to understand the poet here to say, that it is more 
shameful to act upon the stage, than to fight as a gladiator, though 
at the hazard of life; for who would not detest to play the part 

Digitized by 


Zelotypus Tli jweles ; ' stupidi cdlkfa Corinihi i 

Kes baud niira tamen, citbttraedo princip^, miiuus 

Kobitis : hsc ultra, quid erit nisi ludua t et illic 

Dedecus urbia babes : nee mirmilionis ia krmis, 90Q 

Nee clypeo Gracchuoi pugnanteSiy aut ialce sugin^, 

(Damnat enim tales habitus, sed danuiat et odit^) 

Kec gale4 frontem abacondit : wove^ ecce trideiile«Ay 

Postquani librata^ pendentia retia dextrin 

Kequicquan effudit, nudum ad spectacula vultunir 2CKI 

Erigity et tot& fugit aguosceodus area4« 

Credamus tunics^ de faucibus aurea cum se 

of the cuckold Latinu^, the jealous kusbaud of Tirfmclle, or Be 
a fellow-actor with that stupid fellow Corinthus — a low mimic 
and buffoon. 

197. Thymele.'] See sat; L 1. M^ and note 

198. Prifue a harper J] No wonder a nobleman, bom nodeff 
the reign of Nero^ who tumed actor and faaiper faimsdf, should 
be influenced hjy and follow the example of, tba emperor.. 

The poet is here shewing the mischief which accrues front tbt 
evil example of princes; & before, sat. Ti. 616. 

199. Jfier ihes9 things^ ^c] After this, what can jou expect^ 
but that it should become a general fesUiMi, and that nothing should 
be found, in the polite world, but acting plajFS and pii^e^htiag. 
Ludus stgrafies both. 

ThereJ] t. e. In that manner of employment, so unwortibj 

the nobility of Rome, you hare Graeekus, &c.-^ome read illod, 
agreeing with dedecus — q, d. You hare Gracchus, that disgrace^ 

200. Hie disgracey Sfc,"] A serere rebuke of Graccltns, a noble* 
man of one of the greatest familiev in Rome^ who debased himself 
to the scandal of eren the city itself, in ighting upon the sta^ Ju« 
Tenal censures him for three enormities at once. 

1st. For his baseness, in such a condescension* 

2ndly. For his impudence, in not choosing an habit whidi might 
haye disguised him. 

Snlly. For his cowardice in runniDg away^ aad meanly sthcwiag 
himself to the people to obtain their foroui^ 

Gracchus,! See eat. ii. 143, &e. 

— ^ MtrmiihJ] There were two sorts U gladiators among the 
Romans, which had diffisrent names according to tlie arms and hsdiit 
which they appeared in. One fought with a sword, or fiildiion^ 
ehaped Kke a scythe (falce) in his right hand, a ta^et on Us left 
arm, and an helmet en his head; he was called Minnillo, (frooa 
t^il*^ an ant, which is cohered with scales like armour. See 
Aiifsw.) or Secutor : the oihdr wore a short coat without sleeves, 
called tunica \ a hat on his head ^ he carried in his right-hand a ja* 
▼din, forked like a trident, called fuscinaj on his leftarm a net, im 

Digitized by 



Jealous of Thymele ; the colimgue of ttupid Cbrinthus i 

Yet it is not surprising, when the prince is a harper, that the nobU 

Is a mimic : after these things, what will there be but a play i 

and there 
You have the didgrace of the city; Gracchus, neither in the arms 

of a Mirmillo, , 200 

Nor fighting with the shield, or held*up scythe, 
(For he condemns such habits, but he condemns and hates them,) 
Nor hides his forehead with an helmet : behold he moves a 

After the nets, hanging from his balanced right-hand. 
He has cast in vain, his countenance naked to the scaffolds 205 
He erects, and flies to be acknowledged over the whole arena. 
Let us trust to his tunic, siace a golden wreath from his jaws 

which he endeavoured to caich his adversary, and from thence was 
called ReHarius. Sat. u. 1. 143, note. 

Now Gnicchus dii not take the arms of the Mirrailloj which 
w^nld have covered him from being so easily known, bat took the 
habit of the Retiarius, and impudently exposed his person to th^ 
knowledge of the beholders. 

203. A trident.'\ The fuscina. Sec note on 1. «00. 

t04. Jfter ike neU^ d^cJ] It was the play of the Retiarins to 
throw his net over the Mirmillo^ and so, confining him, to have him 
in his power ; to this end he took the best aim he coald, balancing 
the net as exactly as possible, that it might cover his mark. But 
Gracchus missed it, and tiien fled to eacape his antagonbt. 

20d. l%e $caffhUbJ\ SpectacnbK^the scaffolds on which the 
spectators sat to behold the shows. Spectacuhim sometimeii signifies 
a beholder. Ainsw. No. 4* 

206. Acknatcledgedy Sfc.'] Be known by the spectators, that^ 
seeing who he was, they might not make the signal for his being put 
to death, as a bad and cowiudly gladiator. See sat. iii. 1. 36, note 2* 

Arena,'] LUerally, signifies sand; but, by metonymy, the 
part of ^e amphitheatre where ^ gladiators, fou^t, because strewed 
with sand, to keep them from slipping^ and to drink np the blood* 
See sat. ii. 1. 144. 

207. Trust to his ttmiB.'] The R^etiarms wore a sort of coat with, 
out sleeves, ealled tunicsr-^heaee Gracchus is called tunicatus. Sat. ii. 
143. — his wa^ so rich npd magniicent, as platnly to shew what he 
was. Some, instead of credamus read cedamas, let as yiekU-^*. e« 
to the evidence of his habit, to prove his sank. 

Since^ ^c] Cum — ^here used as quandoquidem-— forasmuch 

A golden wreath."] The spira was a band, or twisted lace^ 

which was fastened to ths hat, and tied under the chin, to keep it 
»pon the head.. This ban^ o» hM;e^ also^ being of goM, phiUily 
shewed that he was no common gladiator. , • 

Digitized by 



Porri^aty et longo jactetur spira galero. 

Ergo ignominiam graviorem pertulit omni 

Yulnere, cum Graccho jussus pugnare secutor. £10. 

Libera si dentur populo suffragia, quis Tarn 
Perditusy ut dubitet Senecam prsferre Neroni i 
Cujus suppUcio non debuit una parari 
Simia, nee serpens unus^ nee culeus unus. 
Par Agam^uonidae crimen; sed causa facit rem ^1^ 

Dissimilem.: quippe ille Deis auctoribus ultor 
Patris erat caesi media inter pocula : sed nee 
Electrae ju^o se poUuit^ aut Spartani 
Sanguine coujugii : nuUis aconita propinquis 
Miscuit : in sceua nunquam cantavit Orestes : $120 

Troica nou scripsit. Quid enim Vii^inius armia 


" His coat and hat-band shew his quality.'* Stepnbt. 

208. Stretches itself y Sfc,"] Being untied, hangs down on each side 
of his face— porrigat de faacibas — loosely from the hat, or cap, 
which, haring an high crown, appeared of a considerable length 
from the base to the top — ^longo galero. 

Is tossed.'} Blown to and fro by the air, in his running from 

the Mirmillo. 

209. The Secutor,'] Or follower.— The Mirmillo was so called 
. from his following the Retiarius to kill him, after the latter had 

missed with his net, unless his life were begged. 

r An heavier ignominy^ ^c} The gladiator who fought with 

so inexperienced and cowardly a fugitive, got more dishonour in 
fighting with him, though he overcame him, than if he^had himself 
received a wound from a brave and experienced antagonist 

211. If free suffrages^ S^c,'] If the people were allowed to give 
their votes freely. See sat. x. 77 — 81. 

212. Seneca to NeroJ] Lucius Seneca, uncle to Lucan the poet, 
and appointed tutor to Nero by Agrippina, who recalled him from 
banishment. He was an orator, poet, philosopher, and historian. 
He was put to death by Nero — 9. </. Who is so lost to all sense 
of virtue — who so abandoned, as even to doubt whether he should 
prefer Seneca to Nero ? 

. 213. For whose punishment.! i. e. For Nero's. 

213 — 14. Not one ape^ Sfc] A parricide, by the Roman law, 
was sewn up in a sack, with a cock, a serpent, an ape, and a dog, 
and throvm into the sea. 

The poet means, tiiat Nero's many parricides deserved more than 
one death. 

215. Of Orestes.'] Agamemnonidas, the son of Agamemnon and 

— ^ Crime equal.] He slew his mother, and therefore was a par- 
ricide as well as Nero, who slew his mothei^ Agrippina, by whose 
means he got the empire. 

Digitized by 



Stretches jitself, and is tossed from his long cap. 
Therefore the Secutor bore an heavier ignominy than any 
Wound, being commanded to fight with Gracchus* £10 

If free suffrages were allowed the people, who is so 
Lost, as that he shoidd doubt to prefer Seneca to Nero ? 
For whose punishment there ought not to be prepared 
One ape, nor one serpent, nor one sack. [2 1 5 

The crime of Orestes was equal; but the cause makes the thing 
Unlike, for he, the gods being commanders, was the avenger 
Of a father slain in the midst of his cups : but he neither 
Polluted himself with the throat of Electra, nor with the blood 
Of Spartan wedlock : poison for none of his relations 
Did he mix. Orestes never sang upon the stage : 9,20 

Never wrote Tro'ics : for what ought Virginius with his arms 

215. The cause makes, SfcJ] The occasion and the motive from 
which Orestes acted were very different from that of Nero^ and 
therefore make a great difference as to the act itself* 

216. Was Ike aoenger, Sfc.'] Orestes killed his mother Clytem« 
nestva, because she^ with her paramour .£gysthus, had murdered his 
father Agamemnon ; therefore Orestes might be looked upon as » 
minister of divine justice, to execute the vengeance of the gods^ and 
to act, as it were^ by their command. 

217. In the midst of his cups."] Homer^--Odyss. J. and X.— isof 
Juvenal's opinion, that Agamemnon was slain at a banquet, when 
he little expected such treatment. 

Homer, as well as Juvenal, justifies this revenge, as being under- 
taken by the advice of the gods. 

218. Throat of Electra^ Orestes did not kill his sister Electra, 
as Nero did his brother firitannicus. Hon. lib. ii. sat. iii. 1. 137 

219. Sp€tri€tnT6edlock.'] He did not kill his wife Hermione, the 
daughter of Menelaos king of Sparta, as Nero murdered his wives 
Octa?ia, Antonia^ and Poppasa« 

Poison for none, ^c] As Nero did for his brother Britan« 

nicus, and for his aunt Domitia. 

220. Never sang^ 4>c.] Orestes, (see sat i. L 5, note,) mad as he 
was, never sang upon the stage, as Nero did, who not only sang 
ugon the theatre among the ordinary comedians, but took a journey- 
to Greece, on purpose to try his skill among the most famous artists, 
from whom he bore away the garland, and returned to Rome in 
triumph, as if he had conquered a province. 

221. Never wrote TroicsJ] Nero had also the vanity of being 
thought a good poet, and made verses on the destruction of Troy, 
called Troica ; and, it is reported, that he set Rome on fire, in order 
to realize the scene better. It is also said, that' he placed himself, 
dressed in a theatrical habit, on an eminence in Rome, and sang a 
part of his Troica to his harp, during the conflagration. 

What ought Vitginiusy ^'c] Nero's monstrous frdicks and 

VOJL. I. z 

Digitized by 



Debuit ulcisci magiay ant cum Viodice QaUbal? 

Quid Nero tarn seevi, crudsUiue tyranoiide fecit i 

Hasc opera, atque hae sunt genorosi pxiaciphwfteB, 

Gaudentid foedo peregrina ad pulpka cantu QlQ,5 

Prostitiiiy Graiasque apium meruisse coronae^ 

Majorum effigies habeant insignia vocis, 

Atite pedes Domitt longuia tu pone Thyesta^ 

^jroKiy vel Antigonesy seu p^sonam Menatippes^ 

£t Tie marmoreo citharam anspende coloMo^ fiSO 

Quia, Catilina, tnis natatibus, atque Ce^egi 
Inveniet quicquam sublimius ? arma tameu voe 
Nocturna, et flammas domibus tanplisque par&stisi 
Ut Braccatorum pueri, Senonumque minores, 

cruelties could not but make the people weary of his gOTemment. 
Virginius Rufus, his lieutenant-geoeral in Gaul, by the assistance, of 
Junius y index, (a nobleman of that country.) soon persuaded the 
armies under his command to fall from their allegiance*, and solicited 
Sergius Galba, lieutenant-generarin Spain, to do the fike, by offer. 
}ng him the empire in favour of mankind, M(hich he at last aci^^eptcd^ 
t pen intimation that Nero had issued secret orders to dispatch him, 
and marched, with all the forces he could gather, towards Rome. 
Nero, not being in a condition to oppose such troops, fell into de- 
spair, and endeavoured to make his escape ; he put himself in dis- 
guise, and crept, with four attendants only, to a poor cottage, wher% 
perceiving he wUs pursued, as a sacrifice to public vengeance, and 
fearing to fall into the hands of the people^ with much ado he re- 
solved to stab hbnself. ^ 

223. What did Nero^ <^c.] What, among all his acts of cruelty 
and tyranny,' has he ever done worthy a prince? — what has he 
stchievcd by them ?— -or, ihdeed, what beside these can be said of 
him? . ^ . 

224. Tliese are the works ^ ^c] If you ask me, says an answerer, 
I will tell you all that can be said of him \-^viz. That it was his de- 
light to prostitute the d^nity of a prince, to the meanness of a 
common fiddler, by exposing himself on the public stages of Greece 
- — that, instead of glorying in real crowns of triumph, his ambitjon 
was to get a garland of parsley (the reward of the best fiddler) in 
the Nemaean games, from the Grecian music-masters. — ^These games 
were celebrated to the memory of Archemorus, the young son -of 

227. " Let the statues ^'^^ <5rc. J As such were your exploits, Nero, 
and you have no other trophies wherewith to ornament the statues 
of your ancestors, let the parsley-crown, which you won by sing. 
ing, be placed before them. Insigne — plur. insignia — signifies all 
marks and tokens of honour, such as crowns, robes, &c, 

228. ^' Of Domitius.'''] Thy grandfather and father, botb of 
which were named Domitius# His father was Caius Domitius Ahel 
Bobarbus, consul, and afterwards governor of Transalpine Gaul^ 
lie was slain iii the war with Fompey. 

Digitized by 


•JW. Ylrts JUTENAL^S SATIRfiS, «j» 

Rather avenge, or Galba wiA Vindex ? 
What did Nero in a tyranny 96 savage and bloody ? 
These are the woi4«, and these the arts of a noble prince, 
Hejoicing, with shameiess song, on foreign stages to be Q^5 
Prostituted, and to have deserved the parsley of a Grecian crown. 
^ £et the statues of your ancestors have the tokens of your voice, 
'* Before the feet of Domitius do thou place the long garment 
*' Of Thyestes ; or of Antigene ; or rtie mask of Menalippe ; 
^* And suspend an harp ffom a marble colossus." 230 

Who, Catiline, will find out any thing more noble than your 
Or than that of Cethegus ? but yet, nocturnal 
Arms, and flames, for the houses and temples ye prepared, 
As sons of the Gauls, or the posterity of the Senones, 

22p. " Of Tfti^st&s; or qf JtntigoneJ*^'] i, e. The dress which you 
wore when you played ia the tragedies so called. Syrma, a long 
garment which tragic players used. 

" The mask of Menalippe.^^'] The mask which you wore 

when you acted the part of Menalippe, the sister of Antiope, queen 
of the Amazons, in the comedy of Euripides, written on her story. 
She was taken captive by Hercules, and given Theseus to wife. 

230. '' Suspend an karp^^^ «5rc-] Nero, according to Pliny, erected 
a coiossai statue of Augustus, one hundred and ten f^et high, (ac. 
cording to Suetonius, one hundred and twenty). Suetonius, de 
Ner. ii. 10. says, that Nero honoured liighly a harp that was given 
him by the judges^ (in his contest with the Grecian musicians,) and 
commanded it to be carried to the statue of Augustus. This the 
poet allndes to in this place. 

*■ The apostrophe to Nero, in the above four lines, is conceived 
with much humour, and at the same time with due severity — these 
are greatly heightened by the ironical use of the word insignia^ 
1. 227. 

^\. Catiline.'] The conspirator, whose plots and cantri?ances 
were found out and defeated by Cicero, lie was so debauched and 
profligate, that his name is frequently used to denote the vilest of 
men. — So Juvenal, sat. xiv. 41, 2. 

Quocunque in populo videas, quocunque sub axe. 

Yet he was well born. 

^3% Cethegus,'] Caius, one of the conspirators With Catiline, a 
)&an of senatorial dignity. 

232 — 3. Nocturnal arms.] Meditated ihe destruction of th« 
people of Rome by night, and armed yourselves accordingly, with 
torches, and other instruments of mischief. 

234. Sons of the Gt/Luls.] Braccatorum. — ^The Grauls were called 
Braccati, from the breeches, or trowsers, which the people of Nar- 
)>omie and Provence used to wear. See sat. ii. 16Q, note. 

z 2 

Digitized by 


340 JUVENALIS SATIRiB. mat. rm. 

Aun ^uod liceat tunicft punire mofestft: ^^ 

Sed vigilat consul, ve3LiUa<|ue vestra coercet. 

Hie novus Arj^uiasy ignobiiis, et modo Romas 

Municipalis eques, galeatum ponit ubique 

Prsesidium attonitis, et in omni gente laborat. 

Tantum igitur muros intra toja contulit illi 240 

Nominis et tituli, quantum non Leucade, quantum 

Tbessaliae campis Octavius abstulit udo 

Csdibus assiduis gladio. Sed Roma parentemj 

Roma patrem patri% Ciceronem libera dixit. 

Arpinas alius Vplscorum iu monte solebat 245 

Poscere mercedes alieno lassus aratro ; 

234. Senones.'] A people of the ancient race of the Celts, inha- 
biting the Lionnois in Gaul. 

These people, under Brennus their general, sacked and burnt 
Rome, and besieged the capitol, but, by the conduct and Talour of 
the dictator Camillus, were defeated. 

23d. A pitched coat.^ Tunica molesta. This was a coat, or gar- 
ment, bedaubed and interwoven with pitch and other combustibles, 
and put on criminals, who were chained to a post, and thus burnt 
allYe. See Ainsw. Molestus. This instrument of torture was ex- 
pressed by the phrase — tunica molesta. 

The emperor Nero, after charging the Christians with setting 
Rome on fire, publicly tortured and slew them on the stages in the 
day.time, and at night put tunicas molestae on thdr bodies, and 
lighted them up, by way of torches, in the night-time. Comp« 
sat. i. 1. 155, note 2. 

236. The cons^l,^ Cicero was then consul. 

Restrains if our banners.'] Under which many wicked and 

despefate men had inlisted : but the fury of their arms was re- 
strained by the vigilance of the consul, who watched all their mo- 

237. New man,'] The Romans gave this name to those who were 
the first dignified persons of their family, and who themselves were 
of obscure birth. Catiline, in derision, urged this name in contempt 
against Cicero. 

Arpinum.'] An ancient town of the Vohci in Italy, famous 

for being the birth-place of Tully. 
Arpinas signifies one of Arpinum. 
Ignoble.'] Of mean extraction. 

238. A municipal knight.] Municipalis signified one who be« 
longed to a town free of the city of Rome ; this was the case with 
Tally, who \^as born at Arpinum, and had been, soon after his com- 
ing to Rome, admitted into the equestrian order. Cataline caUed 
him therefore municipalis equcs, in contempt. 

^ Helmeted.] Armed. — Synec. like galeatus, sat i. 169 j and 

caligatus, sat. iii, 322. 

Digitized by 



Attempting what it would be right to punish \vith a pitched 
coat : 235 

But the consul is vigilant, and restrains your banners. 
This new man of Arpinum, ignoble, and lately at Rome' 
A municipal knight, puts every where an helmeted 
Safeguard for the astonished people, and labours every where. 
Therefore the gown conferr*d on him, within the walls, more 
fame 240 

And honour, than Octavius brought away from Leucas, or from 
The fields of Thessaly, by his sword wet 
With continual slaughters : but Rome, the parent, 
Rome set free, called Cicero the father of his country. 
Another Arpihian, in the mountain of the Volsci, used 245 
To demand wages, tired with the plough of anotlier man ; 

U9. Astonished people,"] Who were dreadfally terrified by the 
(designs and attempts of the conspirators. 

Labours ever^ where.'] Bestirs hunself in all quarters^ for 

the security of the city. 

I take — ^in onuii gente — ^in this place, to mean something like 
ubique gentium, which signifies every where, in what part of the 
world soever. 

And indeed Tully not only shewed his activity within the city, 
but he disposed guards and spies throughout all Italjr, as well as 
among every tribe of the Roman people — ^finding out, by the Alio* 
broges, and others, the designs of the traitors. 

240. The gown,] His robe of office ; but here, by metonym^ 
his prudence and wise counsiels. Toga here h opposed to gladio, 
1. 243. 

241. Octavius,] Cssar, afterwards called Augustas. 

I^eucoi^] A promontory of Epirus, called also Leucate, 

near which Octavius Caesar defeated Aiitony and Cleopatra, in a 
bloody naval battle. 

242. Fields of Thessaly y ^c] Philippi, in Thessalia, where he 
defeated Bmtns and Cassius. 

244. Rome set free,] Delivered and set free from the dangers 
that threatened it, and rcstared to its laws and liberties, whkh for a 
nrhiie had been suspended by the public troubles. 

Father of his country J] This honourable title was given to 

Cicero, after the defeat of GatiUne's conspiracy, fle was the first 
who bore it. It was afterwards given to some of the emperors ; 
Jbut much more from flattery, th&n because they deserved It. 

245. Another Arpinian.] C. Marios, who also eame from Arpi. 
Aum, was a poor ploughman ther^ who Idred himself out to plough 
the ground of others. 

'< Of the Volsd,] Arpinum was an andent city in the country 

of the Volsci, now called Arpino, between Tuscany to the west, and 
Cam^pania; to the east. 

z 3 

Digitized by 



Nodosam post h»c frangebat vertice vitem, 

Si lentus pigr& muniret castra dolajbrfi : 

Hie tamen et Cimbros, et summa pericula rerum 

Excipity et solus trepidantem protegit urbem. 250 

Atque ideo postquam ad Cimbros, stragemque volabant. 

Qui nunquam attigerant majora cadavera, corvi, 

Nobilis ornafur lauro coUega secund^. 

Plebeiae Deciorum animae^ plebeia fuerunt 
Nomina : pro totis legiouibus hi tamen^ et pro 255 

Omnibus auxiliis, atque omni plebe Latinii 
Sufficiunt D!s infernis, Terrxque parenti : 
Pluris epirn Decii^ quam qui servantur ab illis^ 
Ancilla natus trabeam et diadema Quirini, 
Et fasces meruit, regum ultimus ille bonorum. 269 

Prodita laxabant portanim claustra tyramiis 

247. He broke a knotty vine^ J^c] The Rom&n centurions used 
to carry a piece of tough Tme*branch in their hands, with which 
they corrected the soldiers wh«i they did amiss. Marias was once 
a private soldier, and had had the centurion's stick broke upon hb 
head, for being lazy at his work, when set to chop with an axe the 
wood used in fortifying the camp against the enemy. See sat. v*. 
154, 5. 

149. The Cimbri.^ The Teutones and Cimbri, neighbouring na- 
tions, joined their forces, and marched towards Rome, by whicli 
they struck a terror throughout Italy : but C. Manns, with Q. Ca- 
tullus the proconsul, marched out against them, sustained their at> 
tack, and totally defeated them. 

— — Dangers of affairs/] When the affanrs of Italy, of Rone 
especially, seemed to be in the utmost danger from these powerful 

250. Jnd ahne, Sfc.] Though Q. Catullus Was with Marius in 
this victory, yet Marias was the commander in chief in the Cimbriaa 
war, therefore the whole honour of the victory was ascribed to bim. 
Comp, 1. 253» 

251. After — the crozosy Sfc.'] And other birds of prey, which, after 
<lie battle, came to feed upon the slam. See Hom. li. i. 5. iL 393, 
«t aL — 9. d. After the battle was ended. Sea sat. ir. 1. 1 1 1. 

252. Greater carcases.] The Cimbri were, in general, men oi 
large stature. 

253. His noble colleague.'] Q. Catullus^ who had been seoond in 
eommand, and was of noble birth. 

— — Is adorned with the second laurel.'] Recetved only the second 
lionours of the day. 

254. The DecHj Sfc.] These, though originally of low extractioQi 
yet gained immortal honours, by sacrificing their lives for their 
country — the father in the Latin war, the son in the Hetruscan^ and 
4he grandson in the war against Pyrrhus. 

255« fVhole legions, Sfc] The Romans had awperstition^ tbat If 

Digitized by 



After this he broke a knotty vine with his head^ 

If, idle, he fortified jtfae camp with a lazy axe. 

Yet he both the Cimbri, and the greatest dangers of affairs, 

Su^ains, and alone protects the trembling city. Q50 

And so, after to the Cimbri, and to the slaughter, the crows 

Flew, who had never touched greater carcases, 

His noble colleague is adorned with the second laurel. 

The souls of the Decii were plebeian, their names 
Plebeian : yet these, for whole legions, and for all 255 

Our auxiliaries, and for all the Latin common people. 
Suffice for the infernal Gods, aud parent Earth : [by them» 

For the Decii were of more value than thojse who were saved 
Born from a servant maid, the robe and diadem of Romulus, 
And the fasces, that last of good kings deserved. 26Q 

The youtlis of the consul himself were opening the fastenings 

, - '' 
their general would consent to be d« voted to death, or sacrificed ta 
Jupiter, Mars, the Eardi, and the infernal Gods, all the misfortunes 
of his party would be transferred on th^ enemies. This opinion 
was confirmed by several successful instances, particularly two, in 
the persons of the Dedl, father and son. The first being consul 
with Manlius in the wars against the Latins, and perceiving the left 
w^ing, which he commanded, give back, called out to Valerius the 
fcigh priest te^perform on Mm the cer^nony of consecration, (Livt, 
lib. viii.) and immediately spurred Jiis horse into the thickest of the 
enemies, where he. was killed, and the Romans gained the battle* 
His SQU afterwards died in the same manner in the war against the 
Gauls, with the like success* 

257. Si^ce."] u e. To appease, and render them propitious to 
tiie Roman arms. 

258. More vaiue^ S^c.'] Such men as these ajre to be more highly 
prized than, all the army and people for whom they thus nobly sa» 
crificed their lives. 

259. Bom from a servant maid.'] Servius TulHus, born of the 
captive Oriculana. But Livy supposes her to have been wife to a 
prince of Cgrniculum, (a town of the Sabines in Italy,) who was 
XUled at the taking of the town, and his wife carried away captive 
Iiy Tarquinius Prlscus, and presented as a slave to his wifeTanaquil, 
in whose service she was delivered of this Tullius. 

. ' Therobe^ Sfc,"] The ensigns of royalty ate here put for the 

jLingdom, or royalty itseUU-^so the fasces, for the highest ofiStces in 
"the state. See sat. iii. 128, note. 

Romulus.^ Called Quirinus. See sat. iii. 1. 67, note on 

.** O Quirinus." • i 

260. Lout of good kings.'] Livy says that, with hun, justa ac 
legitima regna ceciderunt. 

261. Fouths of the consul, Sfc] The two sons of L. Junius 
Brutus, Titus and Tiberius, who, after their father had driven Tar. 
^uin, and his whole race, out of Rome, and taken an cath of tha 


Digitized by 


J44 JUV£NALIS SATIRE iiT. txii. 

X)xulibus juvenea ipsius consulis^ et quos 

Magnum aliquid dubisL pro libertate deceret, 

Quod miraretur cum Coclite Mutius, et quas 

Imperii fines Tiberinum virgo natavit. 665 

Occulta ad patres produxit crimina servus 

Matronis lugendus : at illos verbera justis 

Atficiunt poenis, et legum prima securis. 

Malo pater tibi sit Tibersites, dummodo tu sit 

iEacidae similis^ Vulcaniaque arma capessas, 279 

Quam te Thersitae similem producat Achilles. 

Kt tamen, ut longe repetas^ longeque revioivas 

Nomen, ab infami ^entem deducis asylo. ' 

Majorum primus quisquis fuit ille tuorum, 

Aut pastor fiiit^ aut iUud^ quod dicere nolo. £75 

Aomans nerer more to suffer a king, entered into a conspiracy to 
restore the Tarqnins ; the sum of which was, that the gates of the 
Gty should be left open in the night-time for the Tarquins to enter : 
to this purpose they sent letters, under their own hands, with pro- 
mises to this effect. 

261. The fastenings^ Sfc,"] The bars of the city gates, which were 
to be betrayed to the Tarquins. 

269. Exiled tyrants.'] The Tarquins. 

263. Some great things S^cr\ It would have been bll;oming these 
sons of the patriot Brutus to have stricken some great stroke,* that 
might have tended to secure the public liberty ; which, under the 
new gOTemment, after the expulsion of i|ie kings, must have been 
in a doubtful and uncertain state — not as yet established. 
< 264. Mutius.'] ScasTola, who, when Porsenna, king of Tuscany, 
bad entered into an alliance with the Tarquins, to restore theAi by 
force, went into the enemy's camp with a resolution to kill their 
king Porsenna, but, instead of him, killed one of his guards ; and, 
being brought before the king, and finding his error, burnt off his 
right hand, as a penalty for his mistake. 

— '- — Codes,~\ Horatius, being to guard a bridge, which he per- 
ceiTcd the enemy would soon be master of, he stood aiid resolutely 
opposed part of their army, while his own party repassed the bridge, 
lind broke it down after them, ' He then threw himself, armed as he 
was, into the Tiber, and escaped to the city, 

265. Who szcam^ Sfc,"] Clelia, a Roman virgin, who was given 
to king Porsenna as an hostage, made her escape from the guards, 
and swam over the Tiber. King Porsenna was so stricken with 
these three instances of Roman bravery, that he withdrew his army, 
and courted their L . jndship, 

266. A slave,"] Vindicius, a slave who waited at' table, overhear- 
ing part of the discourse among the conspirators, went strait to the 
consuls, and informed them of what he had heard. The ambassadors 

• from the Tarquins were apprehended and searched ; the letters abovQ 
mentioned were found upon them^ and th^ criminals seized^ 

Digitized by 


f AT. rin. J UV£ NAL • 8 SAT I R ES. 941 


Oif the gates, betrayed to the* exiled tyrants, and whom 

Some great thing for doubtful liberty might have become. 

Which Mutius, with Codes, might admire, and the virgin 

Wht) swam the Tiber, the bounds of our empire. ^65 

A slave, to be bewailed by matrons, produced their hidden crime» 

To th^ fathers : but stripes affected them with just 

Punishment, and the first axe of the laws. 

I had rather thy father were Thersites, so thou art 

Like Achilles, and take in hand the Vulcanian arms, £70 

Than that Achilles should produce thee like Thersites. 

And yet, however far you may fetch, and far revolve 

Your name, you deduce your race from an infamous asylum. 

Whoever he, the first of yoiir ancestors, was, [275 

Either he was a shepherd^ or tliat which I am unwilling to say. 

266. Bezoailed btf matrons^ ^-c] By tie mothers of such of the 
conspirators as were put to death, as the sad cause of their destmc* 
tion, by accu9ing them to the senate, 

Produced.^ Produxit — brought out— discovered, 

267. But stripes, 4*^0 '^^^ proof being evideirt-f^alnst them, 
they suffered the punishment (which was newly introduced) of being 
tied naked to a stake, where they were first whipped by the lictors, 
then beheaded : and Brutus, by virtue of his office, was unhappily 
obliged to see this rigorous sentence executed on his own children. 
See Mn. vi. 817—23. 

268. First axe of the laws."] u e. The first time this sentence had 
been executed since the making of the law. 

269. Thersites,'] An ugly buffoon in the Grecian army before 
Troy. See Hom. 11. C. 1. 216—22. 

270. Achilles.'] iBacides-se, or -is, so called from his grandfather 
£acus, who was the father of Peleus, the father of Achilles. 

T*he Vulcanian arms J] Or armour, that was made by Vul- 
can, at the request of Thetis, the mother of Achilles, which could 
be pierced by no human force* 

271.. Than thai Achillesy S^cJ] The poet here still maintains his 
argument, viz. that a Tirtuous personi, of low and mean birth, may 
be great and respectable : whereas a vicious and profligate person^ 
though of the noblest extraction, is detestable and contemptible. 

272. Hotoever far, ^c] Juvenal here strikes at the root of all 
family.pride among the Romans, by carrying them up to their ori. 
ginal. — Revolve, roll or trace back, for however many generations. 

273. An infamous asylum.] Romulus, in order to promote the 
peopling of the city, in its first infancy, established an asylum, or 
sanctuary, where all outlaws, vagabonds, and criminals of all kinds^ 
who could make their escape thither, were sure to be safe. 

275. Either he was a shepherd.] As were Romulus and Remus, 
and, their bringer up, Faustulus. 
^. Unwilling to sai^.'] As the poet does not speak bis own 

Digitized by 



meaningy it rnnjr not be very easy to determiae it : but it is likdjr 
that he wouid insinuate) that noDe of the Romans had much to bra^ 
of in point of family grandeur, and that none of them could tell bat 
that they might hare come from some robber, or cat- throat, among 
the first fugitlres to Rome, or even from something worse than that^ 
i^ worse could be i and indeed Romulus himself, their founder, was a 
parricide^ for he is said to have killed his brother Remus*. 

Digitized by 



Thus JuTenal concludes this fine Satire on familj-pfide) whicli he 
takes every occasion to mortify, by shewing, that what a man is in 
himself, not what his ancestors were^ is the great matter to be consl* 

« Worth makes the man, the want of it the fellow j 

" The rest is all but leader or pnmello.'' Pope* 


Digitized by 





Juvenai^ in this Satire^ exposes and censures (he detestable vice then 
practised at Rome. Some have thought that this is done too openli/. 
So Farndby — Obscamam dncedorum et pathicorum turpitudinem 
acritery at nimis aperte insedatur, Marshall says^ thai on ac* 
count of certain expressions in this Satire j JuL C. ScaUger advised 
ever^ man of probity to abstain from the vohole mork ff Juvenal. 
Bui J surely^ this is greatly mistaking the matter^ and not advert^ 
ing duly to the difference between such writers as exert their genius 
in the cause of vice j and so write upon it, as if they wished to re* 
commend it to the imagination, and thus to thepract^ice of mankind^ 
{as Horace among the Romans, and Lord Rochester among us,) 

oCIRE velim, quare toties mihi, Naevole, tristis 

Occurras fronte obduct&y cey Maj sya victus. 

Quid tibi cum vultUy*qualeni depr^nsus habebat 

Ravola, dum Rtiodopes ud& terit inguina barb^ ? 

Kos colaphum incutimus lambenti crustula servo* § 

Non erat liac facie miserabilior Cregereius 

Poilio, qui triplicem usurani praestare paratus 

.Circuity et fatuos non invenit. Unde repente 

Line 1. Nasvolus.'] The poet, as an introduction to this Satire, 
in which he exposes and condemns the monstrous impurities then 
reigning in Rome, brings to yiew, as an example of their evil conse- 
quences, one NsbtoIus, a monster of rice, who appears in a most 
shabby and forlorn condition, more like an outcast than a member 
of civil society ; ruined by those very rices by which he had thought 
to bare enriched himself. Juvenal is supposed to hare met him of* 
ten, lately, in a state of the utmost dejection and misery, and now he 
asks him the reason of it. 

2. MarsyasS] A Phrygian musician, who challenged Apollo, but 
was OTcrcome by htm, and flayed alive. 

4. RavolaJ] Some impure wretch, who, being detected with his 
mistress, in the situation here described, was confounded with shame 
at the discovery. 

5. Biseuits.\ Cms tula — ^wafers, or such-like things; or little 
ffweet cakes, which used to be given to children. So Hob. sat. i. 
I. 25, a. 

Digitized by 





end such a writer as Jieoenal^ who exerted a fine genius^ and an 
itblepeuj against vice, and, in particular, against that which is the 
ehief objed of this Satire ; in which he sets it forth in such terms as 
to create a Ssgust and abkorrencey not onfy of those monsters of 
lewdness who practised it, but also of the vice itself: so that both 
might be avoided by the indignant reader, and be held in the high* 
est detestation and horror. Such were our Poets views in what he 
wrote, and therefore the plainness of his expressions he, doubtless^ 
thought much more conducive to this desired end, as tending to ren* 
der the subject the. more shocking, than if he. had contented him* 
self with only touching it mth the gentler hand of periphrasis^ or 

I WOULD know, why so often, Naevolus, you meet me, 

Sady with a clouded brow, like the conquered Marsyas. 

What have you to do with a countenance, such as Ravola had 

Discovered in his lewd commerce with Rhodope ? 

We give a box on the ear to a servant who licks biscuits. S 

Not more miserable than this face was Crepereius 

PoUio, who, ready to pay triple interest. 

Went about, and found not fools. — Whence on a sudden 

Ut pueris oUm dant cnistula blandi 
Doctores, elementa velint ut discere prima. 

As masters fondly sooth their boys to read 

With cakes and sweetmeats. Francis* 

Crnstula may here be understood of sweetmeats in general. 

The thought seems to be — If a slave be beaten because he so far 
indulges his Kquorbb appetite, as to lick the cakes, or sweetmeats, 
as he brings them to table, how much more worthy of punishment 
are such wretches as Ravola, who indulge, without restraint, in tfa* 
inost shameful impurities ? 

6 — 7. Crepereius PolWo,'] A noted spendthrift, who could not 
borrow any more money, though he offered triple interest for 

8. Went about.'] Hunting after money-lenders. 

. Found not fools."] Could not meet with any who would bf 

fools enough to trust him with their money. 

Digitized by 



It'ot rugae ? certe modico contentus agebas 

Vemam equitem, conviva joco mordente facettis, 10 

Et salibus Tehemens intra pomoeria natis. 

Omnia nunc contra : vultus gravis, horrida siccas 

Sylva comae ; nuIUu totft nitoc in cute, qualem 

Pnestabat cdidi ^ircinnlita £eMcia Tisct ; 

Sed iruUcante pilo n%lecta et aquallida crura. ' 15 

Quid maciea aegri veteris, qdem tempore longo 

Torret quarta dies, olimque domestica febris f 

DeprSndas animi tormenta ktentis in^ aegro 

Co^re, deprfindaa et gaudia : sumit utrumqus- 

Inde habitum £icies : igitur flexisse ^eris • .20 

Propositum, et vitae contrarius ire priori. 

Nuper enim (ut regeto) fiEinum India, et Ganymedem: 

Paeis, et advectae secreta palatia matris, 

£t Cererem^nam quo non pirostat fcemina templa?) 

10. The kntght-Wte slaoeJ] t. e. Though an home-bom ^ve, 
yet thou didst lire as jolly and happy as if thou hadst been a knight. 

Vema eques was a jocose phrase among the Romans, to denote 
ilayes who appeared in a style and manner above their condition ; 
these they ludicrously called remae equites, gentlemen-slakes, as wa 
ihould^y. — ^The phrase seems to be something like the French bour« 
geois ffentilhomme — ^(he ctt-gentleman. 

In FalstalTs humorous account of Justice Shallow and his serrants, 
lie says, <^ they, by observing him, do bear themselves like foolish 
^ justices; he, by conversing with them, is turned into a jusdce-like 
** serving man.** 

11. Witticisms^ Sfc."] Pomcerium (quasi postmurum) was a space 
about the walls of a city, or town, as wdl within as without, where 
it was not lawful to plough or build, for fear of hindering the defence 
of the city — Whence, meton. a limi^ or bound. 

By witticisms bom, or brought forth, within the pomoeria^ or 11. 
mits of the dty, Juvenal means those of a polite kind, in contradis- 
tinction to the provincial, coarse, low-bom jests of the common 
ihives. Hence urbanitas, from urbs,* a city, means courtesy^ civility^ 
good manners, or what we call politeness. 

IS. Of dry hair.'] Instead of your hair being dressed, and moist- 
ened with perfumed ointments, it now stands up, without form or 
•rder, like trees in a wood. 

• 14* Warm glue."] This viscus was a composition of pitch, wax^ 
resin, and the like adhesive ingredieints, which, being melted together 
tad spread on a cloth, were applied warm to those parts of the body 
where the hair grew. After remaining^ some time, the cloth, which 
had been rolled round the part in form of a bandage, was taken ofl^ 
bringing away the hair with it, and leaving the skin smooth. This 
imcitiee was couunou among the wretches whom the poet is here sa^ 

Digitized by 


Sq many wrinkles ? <;ertaiftly, cowCeiit willi a Iktle^ you aeted 
The knight-like slave, a facetious guest with biting jest, 10 

And qi^k with witlicisnis bom within the limits of the city. 
All is now contrary : a heavy countenance, a rough Wood 
Of dry hair : no neatness in all your skin^ such as 
A bandage of warm glu^ daubed about you procured; 
But your l^s ^e n^Iected, and filthy with hair growing. 15 
What means the leanness of an old sick man, whom foir a long time 
A fourth day ps^hes, and a fever, long since familiar f - 
You may discover the torments of a mind lurking in a sick 
3ody, and you may discover joys : each habit the face 
Assumes from thence. Tlierefore you seem to have turned 20 
Your purpose, and to go contrary to your former Hfe.' 
For lately (as I recotlecQ the temple c^ Isis, and the Ganymedtf 
Of (the temple of) Peace, and the secret courts of JCybele, 
And Ceres, (for in what temple does not a woman stand for 

- 16. The leanness^ Sfc.^ What is the meaning of diat lean and 
sick appearance which thou dost exhibit ? like that of an old inyia^ 
Ud) who has long been afflicted, and consmning with a quartan 9gfm 
s^d fever ; so loiig, that it may be looked Upon as domesticatedy and 
as become a part of the family. 

, 18. Fqu ma^ discover, 4fc.] The body is an index to the mind— 
a sickly, pale, languid countenance, bespeaks vexation and unhapi* 
piness within. 

A cheerful, gay, and healthy look, bespeaks joy and peace. 

Sorrow ttor j<iy ,cim he dMgais'd by art ; 

Our foreheads blab the aecreto of our, heart Haktev^ 

20. From ik^nce.'] From the miiid*--i5r. d. The counle^aiice as* 
^mcs the appeanmce of sorrow or joy, from the state of tho 

— r-TVrwerf, dfe/] By thy sad and miserable appearance, I do Sttpu 
jpose that some turn or change has hkppeaed, and that your former 
way of life is quite altered. 

2i. The temple of Im.) See sat. vi. 1. 488, and note. ^ 

• The Ganymede^ i^c.'] The statue of Ganymede, iqpfjil 

temple of Peace, was lilflo a place of reiidegYous for all mai^ef Of 
lewd and debiauched persons. 

23. Cybele.'] Is described in the iext by the phrase advectai 
Inatris, because the image of this mother of the gods, as she was 
called, was brought to Rome from Phrygia. See sat. iii. I. 13% 
and note. 

24. Ceres.'] In former times the temple of Ceres was not to be 
approached but by chaste and modest women ^ but as vice and lewA- 
ttess increased, all reyerence for sacred places decreased, and now 
even the temple of Ceres (see sat. vi. I. 60, and note) was tha resort 
of the ipipure of ati detiominationsr -" 

Digitized by 


S6t JUVENALIS SATIRiB. sat- fx. 

Notior Aufidio moecbiis c^lebntfe solebas, ^5 

(Quod tacdS) atque ipsos etiam incUi^are maritos* 

NiBv. Utile ethoc multis vitae genus : at mihi nallom 
Iiide operae pretium : pingues aliquando lacernas^ 
Munimenta t<^ae, duri crassique colorisy 

£t male percussas textorid pectine Galli, 3^ 

Accipimus. Tenue argentuiH, venaeque secttndtf. 
Fata regunt homines. Fatum est in partibus illis 
Quas sinuis abscondit : nam si tibi sidera cessant. 
Nil faciei longi mensufa incognita nervi : 
Quamvis te nudum spumanti Virro kbelb 85 

Viderity et blandae, assiduae^ densaeque tabellaf , 

SoUicitent : Auto; yet^ E^XxiTflM w^^a x&4»^. 

Quod tamen ulterius monstrum^ quam mollis afarus i 

Hacc tribui^ deinde ilia dedi, mox {Jura tulisti, 

Computaty et cevet, Ponatur calculus^ adsint ^ 40 

Cum tabuls^ puen ; numera sestertia quinque 

d5. AufitHus."] Sotne most notorious debaacbee. 

It is but lately, says Juvenal, that you used to haunt all these 
famous abodes of lewdness and prostitution, and so to play your 
part, as to render yourself more noted than any body else-^how 
corner tt, Naevolus, that I perceive sush a wondeiful change in your 
looks and behaviour ? • ' 

27. 7%i8 kind of hfe, SfcJ] Here Nsevolus b^ns his answer to 
Juvenal's inquiries, and accounts for the shabby and miserable ap^ 
pearance which he made, by shewing what poor wages such wretchea 
worked for, unless highly favoured by thdr stars.. 

28. Coarse^ Sfcl Pingues here means coarse, made of the wool 
as it came off the sheep's back, full of grease and filth ; not washed 
and combed, like that of which the finer cloths were made. 

Garments.'] Lacernas here signifies doaks to keep off tlM| 

rain and wind in bad weather ; they were (like our great coats) put 
over the other garments, to keep them dry ; hence he calls them, in 
the next line, munimenta togas— defences of the gown, or upper 

30. Jlie slaij!, Sfc.'] A weaver's slay is that part of the loom 
which is drawn with force against the threads of the woof, to drive 
them close together, and to consolidate them with the warp* The 
cloth here described hail had vdry little pains taken in the making of 
it, and therefore was very coarse and bad. This sort of cloths was 
made in Gaul, and from thence carried to Rome, probably for th* 
cheap and ordinary wear of the common people. 

31. TTun monei/^'] Light, not of due weight. 

•^ — Tlie second vein*"] In mines there are finer and coarser veins 
of silver; the former less mixed with other bodies; the latter, 
more : hence this is called silver — venae secuudae, or of the jecond 
vein, being less pure, and, of course, less valuable than the other s 
qf this the smaller and less valuable coins were made* 

Digitized by 



An adulterer ; more known than Aafidius, you used to frequent, ^ 
And (which not to mention) to intrigue even with the very hus- 
N-ffiv. And this kind of life is useful to many, but I have no 
Reward of my pains from thence. Sometimes coarse garments^ 
Defences of the gown, of an harsh and homely colour, 
And badly stricken with the stay of a Gallic weaver, SO 

We receive. Thin money, and of the second vein. 
The fates govern men. Fate attends even our 
Bodily accomplishments, for, if your stars fail you. 
The greatness of these is of no service : 

Tho' Virro himself should view you with the utmost 3& 

Desire, and kind, assiduous, and numerous letters should 
Solicit : — ^for such a man entices others. 
But what monster can be beyond an effeminate miser ? — 
^ These things I bestowed, then those I gave, soon you received 

He computes, and sins on — ^^ Let a reckoning be made^ let the 
" slaves 40 

'' Come with the ledger : — ^number fiv^ sestertiums 

5^. Thefaies^ 4*^0 By putting this dogma of the Stoics into thi| 
mouth of Naevolus^ the poet artfully insinuates, that many profes- 
sors of stoicism, with all its austerities, practised the vice which, vx 
this Satire, is so stigmatized. See sat. ii, 1. S^-^ld, and notes ; also 
sat. ii. 1. 65, and note. 

35. Virro.'] We often meet with this name in sat. v. and if the 
same person be here meant, he was not only a very rich man, but a 
sensualist of the basest and most unnatural sort. I should think it 
most probable, that here, as in many other places, Juvenal, though 
he makes use of a particular name, yet means to express the whole* 
tribe of delinquents in the same way. 

7%o* Virro himself should^ ^fc] The poet proceeds in his ri- 
dicule of the Stoicidse, (as he calls them, sat. ii. 1. 65.) supposing 
them to make their doctrine of fatalism subservient even to theit 
enormous vices. 

36. Numerous letters.] Densae tahella9.<-^ee sat, I. 1^, note on 
densissima ; and sat. ii. 50, note on tabulas. 

39. " These things^" Sfc] Here Naevolus represents Virro as up- 
braiding him for demanding a recompence, and computing what Nse- 
Tolus had received of him from time to time. 

40. " Let a reckoning^^^ ^c] " Let an account be stated between 
\is, says Virro — ^let one of the slaves come with my account-book, 
tabula — /. e. accepti et expensi, my ledger-bookj or journalj where 
my daily accounts are kept, and you'll find that you have had of 
me, reckoning every thing, (omnibus in rebus, comp. 1. 39,) fiye 
sestertia (about 40/. 7*. Id.) surely I owe you nothing I'' See 
AiNSW. Tabula^ No. 5. 

voj.. 1. A a 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

964 JUVENALIS SATIRiE. bat.ix* 

Omnibus in rebus ; numerentnr deinde labores. 

An facile et pronum est agere intra viscera penem 

Legitimuniy atque illic hestemse occurrere coenae i 

Servus erit minus iUe miser^ qui foderit agruin, 45 

Quam dominum. Sed tu sane tener, et pueriim te, 

Et pulchrum, et dignum cyatho cceloque putabas, 

Vos humili asseclse^ vos indulgebitis unquam 

Cultori, jam nee morbo donare parati ?^ 

En cui tu viridem umbellam, cui succma mittas 50 

Grandia, natalis quoties redit, aut madidum ver 

Incipit ; et strati positus long^que cathedr^ 

Munera foemineis tractat secreta calendis. 

Die, passer, cui tot montes, tot praedia servas 

Appula, tot milvos intra tua pascua lassos i 56 

Te Trifojinus ager foecundis vitibus implet, 

Suspectumque jugum Cumis, et Gaums inanis. 

4?, ^* My labours J*'] Labores — ^psuns, drudgery — ^^ now, reckon 
<* these," says Nasrolus, '' on the other side of the account." 

43. ^^ Is it an eastf^'*^ Sfc."] Here the poet, in language too gross 
for literal* translation, but well suited to his purpose, exposes the 
unnatural and horrid filthiness of that detestable vice, which it is 
the business of this Satire to lash, and to condemn, in the severest 
and most indignant terms. 

46. " I>e/fc«rfc," ^c] q. d. Perhaps you will represent yourself 
as so engaging, tiiat I ought not to have expected any thing for mi« 
nistring tq your pleasures. 

47. ^^ Heaven and the ctfp."] Alluding to the story of t^anymede^ 
the fabled minion of Jupiter, snatched up by Jupiter from mount 
Ida, and carried to heaven, where he was made cup-bearer to the 
gods instead of Hebe. See sat. xiii. 43, 4. AH this is ironical, and 
contains a mosf bitter sarcasm on Virro, now old and infirm, and 
almost worn out in vice. 

4B. ^' An attendant.^*'] A follower, an hanger.on, as the poor 
clients were, to rich n^en. — ^A like character is to be understood of 
the other word, cultori, which signifies a worshipper, one that makes 
court to, or waits upon another ; such as cultivate, by attention 
and assiduity, the favour of great men. The Italians, at this day, 
use the phrase padron colendissimo-— colendissimo padrone. 

If you are so sparing of your liberality towards those who mi« 
luster to your pleasures, you (vos, t. e. such as you) will hardly be 
generous to those who want your charity. 

49. ^' On your disease.*^'] Morbus, in a mental sense, denotes any 
odd humour, unreasonable passion, or vice, which may well be 
styled a disease of the mind. See sat. ii. 1. 17. and 1. 50. 

50. Behold kim^ Sfc.'} The sarcasm on Virro still continues. Sea 
this beautiful Ganymede, to whom you are expected to make pre- 
sents on his birth^day,. such as a. green umbrella to keep off the sua 
from spoiling his complexion, and amber toys and gewgaws^ whic^ 

Digitize! by 


siT.ix, JUVENAL'S SATIREi 35* 

'* In every thing*' — " then let my labours be reckon'd — 

'^ Is it an easy and ready matter to engage in so much filth, 

** And to rake into the recesses of the most horrid abomination ? — 

'' The slave that digs the field will be less miserable. — 4$ 

^* But truly you are delicate, and thought yourself young, 

^* And beautiful, and worthy heaven and the cup. 

** Will ye ever be kind to an humble attendant, to one who makes 

** His court, who are now not ready to bestow on your disease?" 

Behold him to whom you must send a green umbrella, to whom 

great . 50 

Pieces of amber, as often as his birth-da; returns, or the moist 

Begins : placed on a chair, bodi strowed and long, 
He handles secret gifts in the feminine calends. 
Say, apaiTOw, for whom so many mountains, so many Appulian 
Farms you keep, so many kites tired withiu your pastures i 5a 
A Trifoline field fills you* with fruitful vines, 
And the bill se^i aloft at Cumae, and empty Gaums. 

iroinen are so fond of.— *ttwas ttsual, among the Romans, to mak^ 
pi'esents on birth-days. 

51. Moist spring.'] Th6 birth of Venus was celebrated on the 
caleSnds of March, Xont March 1.) They then celebrated the Ma. 
tronalia, when the Roman ladies, dressed np, sat in chairs, or re- 
clined on couches, ahd received presents from their admirers. This 
^as imitated by the effeminate Yirro. 

62. Placed.] Seated, or reclined, like the women. 

Strowed and long.] Longa Cathedra, from its form, seems 

to denote a couch, on which a person can recline at length — these, 
among the fine ladies, were usuaJly strowed, or spread, with carpets 
imd other ornaments, such as fine-wrought and easy pillows, &c. 

53. Handles.] Fingers them, as we say. — ^I read tractat — ^not 
jtractas — ^which last seems not to answer the cui, 1. 50, or, indeed^ 
to make sense. See Britan. in loc. 

54. Sparfovo.] It is said that sparrows are the most salacious of 
all birds — hence he gives this name to Yirro. — A bitter sarcasm. 

54 — 5. Appulian farms.] Appulia was reckoned the most fi^rtile 
part of Italy ; though mountainous and barren near the sea coast. 
See sat. iy. 20, 7. 

55. So many kites, Sfc] He represents Virro's estate to be so 
large as to tire the kites in flying over it. See Persius, sat. iy. 
I. 26. 

56. Trifoline Jield.] A part of Campania, famous for producing 
Tast quantities of grass called trefoil, and some of the finest Tines. 

Fills you.] Implet. — ^This well expresses the vast supply of 


57. Seen aloft ySfc] Mount Misenus, so called from Misenus, 
the companion wd trumpeter of iEnea»---(sec iEn. ti. 234 — 6.)— 

Digitized by 


568 JUVENALIS SATIRiE* «at. ix. 

Nam quis plura linit victuro dolia musto \ 

Quantum erat exhausti lumbos donare clientis 

Jugeribus paucis? meliusne hie rusticus infans 60 

Cum matre, et casulis, et cum lusor^ catello^ 

Cymbala pulsaotiriegatum fiet amici ? 

Improbus es, cum poscis, ait ; sed pensio clamat, 

Posce : sed appellat p\[er uuicus, ut Polyphemi 

Lata acies^ per quam solers evasit Ulysses : 65 

Alter emendus erit; namque hie non sufficit; ambo 

Pascendi. Quid agam brum& spirante f quid, oro^ 

Quid dicam scagulis puerorum mense Decembri, 

Et pedibus f durate, atque expectate cicadas I 

Yerum ut dissimules^ ut mittas caetera^ quanto 70 

now Capo Miseno ; it hangs, as it were, otcr the city of Cuma, as 
if it threatened to fall upon it. It was famoas for good tines. 

57. Empty Gaurus,'] A mountain of Campania, near Pateoli. 
Some think that the poet gires it the epithet iaanis — ^void or empty. 
— on account of the roid parts of it, which were occasioned by nu. 
inerous ca?erns or hollows. — Hence Holyday rendered inanis Gau* 
rus — ^hollow Gaurus. /This also was famous for its wine. 

58. Stops upj SfcJ\ Lino signifies, literally, to besmear, or daub, 
and is applied to the manner of stopping up the bungs or mouths of 
their wine Tessels with pitch or plaister, in order to keep the air from 
the liquor. See Hon. od. xx. lib. i. 1. 1 — 3. 

— : — Likely to live.'] i. c. To be very sparingly bestowed, and 
80 to endure to a great age. Mustum signifies new wine, as it comes 
from the press to the cask. 

59. Hoxv muchj ^c] After mentioning the large estate of VirrOj 
Naevolus represents it as no great matter' for him to bestow a few 
acres on an old slave, worn out in his service. 

TAe loins,'] This insinuates the horrid services which Nae. 

Tolus had performed. . 

CO. Is it better, 4*c.l .The little sketch of rustic simplicity, in 
these two lines, is very pretty. 

62. A friend beating the cymbals,] By this periphrasis is meant 
one of the Guih, or priests of Cybelc. See sat. vi. 1. 510— 15* 
sat. viii. 1. 176. and 'Persius, sat. v. 1. 186. They were eunuchs, 
and most impure in their practices. Naevolus uses the word amici 
here, in order to denote the infamous and intimate connexion which 
Virro had with one of these. Would it be better, says he, to leave 
a, small farm, and its little appurtenances, to one of those lewd 
priests, that are living in sloth and plenty, than to me, your poor 
drudge, who have been worn out in your service? 

63. '^ You are impudeni,^^ ^c] In vain does Naevolus plead hia 
services, in vain does he argue the case, that he may get some reward 
for them. — Instead of this, Virro abuses him, and calls him an 
impudent fellow, for asking any thing more than he has alrea^ 
had. . . 

Digitized by 



For Mho stops up move casks with wine likely to live? 
How much had it beeii to present the loins of an exhausted client 
With a few acres? Is it belter that this rustic infant, 60 

With its mother and their cottage, and with the cur their play- 
Should become the legacy of a friend beating the cymbals ? 
** You are impudent when you ask," says he. " But rent calls 

" out, 
*' Ask : — but my only slave calls, as Polypheme's 
^* Broad eye, by which crafty Ulysses escaped : 65 

" Another will be to be bought, for this does not suffice-^both 
*' Are to be fed. What sliall I do when winter blows ? what, I 
" pray, [" of December, 

'* What shall I say to the shoulders of my slaves in the month 
*' And to their feet? — Stay, and expect the grasshoppers !'* 
But however you may dissemble, however omit the rest, at how 
great a 70 

63. " Bui reni,^^ SfcJ] q. d. You may call me what you please 
for asking, but my necessities force me to be thus importunate. — 
I have rent to pay — a slave to malutain — and soon must hare another 
•-—these things bid me beg on. 

64 — 5. " Polypheme's eye."] A giant of Sicily, and one of the 
Cyclops, who had but one eye, and that in his forehead, which 
Ulysses, by craft, put out, and escaped from hun. See iEu. iii« 
I. 635—7. 

g. d. As the anguish of Polypheme's wounded eye made him roar 
out for revenge against Ulysses, so the wants of my poor servant 
make him call out upon me for a supply. Appello sometimes signi- 
fies to call ^pon for a thing — to dun. Ainsw. 

Harvey has rendered this passage : 

My single boy (like Polyphemus** eye) 
Mourns his harsh fate, and weeps for a supply. 

tQ. ^ Another y^^ S^c.'] I must purchase another slave, then I shall 
jiave two to keep ; and when the cold winter pinches them, what 
flhall I say to their naked shoulders, or to their shoeless f^Qi^ if I 
get nothing for myself? Shall I bid them wait the return of spring? 
Kxpectate cicadas. Meton. — Grasshoppers here stand for the time 
of year when they churp, «. e. spring. 

70. Dissemble^ S^c.'] q, d. Dissemble as you please your sense of 
ny deserts for what's past ; nay, though you say nothing of the rest 
of my good services, what, if I had not been entirely devoted to 
jou and your interest, would have become of your marriage? You 
jknow full well, that if I had not supplied your p)ace, your wife, 
Ending yon impotent and -debilitated, would have destroyed the 
marriage-writings — tabulas (see sat. x. 1. 336, and note) : nay, she 
was actually upon the brink of signing fresh articles with another 
(signabat)---bttt I prevented it, by my assiduous services oh your 

A a3 

Digitized by 



Metiris pretioy quod, ni tibi deditus essem, 

Devotusque cliens, uxor tua virgo maneret ? 

Scis certe quibus ista modis, quam ssepe rog^ris, 

£t quae pollicitus : fugientem saepe puellan^ 

i^mplexu'rapui; tabulas quoque ruperat, et jam 75 

Signabat : totk vix hoc ego nocte redemi, 

Te plorante foris. Testis mihi lectulus, et tu^ 

Ad quem pervenit lecti sonus, et dominte vox. 

Instabile, ac dirimi coeptum, et jam pene solutum 

Conjugium in multis domibus servayit adulter. M 

Quo te circumagas? quae prima, aut ultin(ia ponas? 

Nullum ergo meritum est, ingrate ac perfide, ni41uiii. 

Quod tibi filiolus, vel filia nascitur ex me ? 

Tollis enim, et libria actorum spargere ga^dea 

Argumenta viri. Foribus suspende coronas; 95 

Jam pater es : dedimus quod famae opponere possis^ 

Jura parentis babes ; propter me scriberis haeres ; 

Legatum omne capis, nee non et dulce cadi^um. 

Commoda praeterea junguntur multa caducis; 

The whole of this passage is to set forth the dreadful debancherjr 
and profligacy of the times, when men, of Yirro's character, conM 
marry young women, Kberorum procreandorum gratia, as it was 
expressed in the marriage-writings, and then, to sare their state of 
debility from being known, to preyail on their wi?es to throw them- 
sehes into the arms of adulterers, that they might be gotten with 
child, and thus prevent also the dissolution of the marriage-contract 
for the husband's impotcncy, by which they would have lost the 
wife's fortune, which, after the divorce, she might give to another. 
The 79th and 80th lines speak the frequency of such horrid deeds. 
Barrenness and impotency were causes of divorce among the Ro- 

74. The Jibing girl,'] . Virro's young wife, who often attempted 
to elope, and was as often stopped by the blandishments of Naevo. 
lus. See sat. ii. 59, and note. 

75. Broken the tablesJ] Cancelled the marriage-contract, written 
on thin tablets of wood, by breaking them. See sat. ii. 58, note 2. 

81. Whither^ S^c."] Clrcumago is to turn roimd, or about, and 
here intimates the situation of a person surrounded with difficulties^ 
as Yirro is supposed to be by Naevolus, so as not to be able to an- 
swer his arguments, or, as we say in £nglish, not to know which 
way to turn himself, or where to begin his defence. 

84.' You bring them up.] See Ainsw. Tollo, No. 4. 

Books of the acisJ\ The public roisters, in which, by an 

ordinance of Servius Tallius, ail children were to. be set down, to« 
gether with their names and time of their birth. 

85. Arguments of a manJ] Though the child be mine, yet, being 
bom of your wife, it is registered as yours, and thus becoo^es an ar- 
gument of your manhood. 

Digitized by 



^rice do you reckon it, that, unless I had been to you a resignedi 
And a devoted client, your wife would remain a vii-gin.? [things. 
You certainly Icnow by what methods— how oft you asked those 
-And what you promised : how often the flying girl 
I caught in my embrace; she had broken the tables, and now 75 
Was signing. 1 hardly redeemed this in a whole night, 
You weeping without-doors : the bed is my witness, and thou, 
Who wast thyself ear-witness of every circumstance, [solved. 
Unstable wedlock, and begun to be broken off, and almost dis- 
An adulterer, in many houses, has preserved. 80 

Whither can you turn ? — ^what can you place first or last ? 
Is it therefore no merit, ungrateful and perfidious, none. 
That a little son or a daughter is born to you by me ? [to publish 
For you bring them up, and in the books of the acts you delight 
Arguments of a man. Suspend garlands at your doors— 85 
You are now a father : I have given what you may oppose to 
repoj-t. " [heir, 

You have the rights of a parent: by my means you are written 
You receive all the legacy : not to say some sweet windfall. 
Moreover many conveniences are joined to windfalls, 

85. Suspend garlands^ ^c] This was usual on all festal occa« 
sions, and particalarly on the birth of children. 

^6, I have given^ ^c] As I have occasioned your being reputed 
a father, I have conferred that upon you which will stop the mouth 
of all scandalous reports concerning your impotency. Dedimus 
(synec.) for dedi ; or dedimus may be meant to apply to the wife ai 
well as Naevolus, who together had brought all this to pass. 

87. Written heir^ Sfc.'] If a legacy were left to a single man, it 
was void by the Papian law ; and if to a married man having no 
children, he could take but a part of it, the rest fell to the public 
treasury ; but if the legatee had children, he took the whote. 

88. fVindfall,'] Caducum was a legacy left upon condition., as of 
a man^s having children, or the like ; on failure of whiph it fell to 
some person whom the testator had substituted heir — i. e% the person 
appointed heir, in case of the failure of the condition, in the room 
of the first legatee. — ^This was something like what we call a wind- 
fall. Metapii. from fruit blown off a tree by the wjnd — ^figuratively, 
a lucky chance, some estate, or profit unexpectedly cooae^ to one, 


89. Many con'oentences^ ^c.] Added to this, yoji wiB be entitled 
to many convenient privileges if I should have three children by 
your wife, for they will all pass for yours.'s— The Jus trium libero- 
lam exempted a man from being a guardian, a situation of much 
trouble, (see Kennett, Antiq. Rom«. book HI. c. 133.) a priority 
in offices^ and a treble proportioi^ of corn (see ib. c. 30.) on its 
monthly distribution. These, and othier conveniences, are joined — ^ 
junguntur — -t. e. are to be i:eckop4Ml, as annexed to the contingencies 
whieb acorue to the man Hfho lias three children^ 

A a4 

Digitized by 


860 JUVENALIS SATIRiE. «t.ix. 

Si nutnerumi si tres implevero.- 

- P. JiMta doloris; 90 

Kaevole, causa tui ; contra tamen ille quid affert ? 

N. Negligity atque alium bipedem sibi quaerit asellum. 
Haec soli commissa tibi celare lobmento, 
£t tacitus nostras intra te fige querelas.; 

Nam res mortifera est inimicus pumice lasvis. 9^ 

Qui modo secretum commiserate ardet, et edit; 
Tanquam prodiderim quicquid scio : sumere ferrum^ 
Fuste aperire caputs candelam apponere Talvis 
Kon dubitat. Nee contemnas, aut despicias^ quod 
His opibus nunquam cara est annona veneni. 100 

Ergo occulta teges, ut curia Maclis Athenis. ^ 

P. O Corydon, Corydon, secretum divitis uUum 
£sse putas i servi ut taceant^ jumenta loquentur^ 
Et canis, et postes^ et marmora : claudefenestras^ 
Vela tegant rimas, junge ostia^ tollito lumen 105 

£ medio, taceant omiies, prope nemo recumbat : 

This was where the parents lived in Rome : if they lived else* 
where in Italy, they were to have five children — if in any of the 
Roman provinces, seven; otherwise they could not claun the ad. 
vantages of the jus trium liberorum. 

In all this seemingly serious remonstrance of Njevolus with Virro, 
the old and impotent debauchee, Juvenal most seriously lashes all 
such characters as are here described^ with which it is plain that 
Rome at that time abounded. 

90. The cause^ Sfc."] The poet here interrupts Naevolus, by ob* 
serving that, to be sure, his complaints were just; and tiien, hy 
means of Naevblus, to carry on his satire against such characters 
as Virro's, he demands what answer Vlrro could all this. 

J)2. He neglects^ Sfc,"] The poet here shews the true spirit an4 
temper of these wretches towards the drudges of their infamous 
pursuits and pleasures. When they begin to be importunate for 
money, and upbraid them with their services, they cas4;. them off, 
and, on the least surmise of their revealing what has passed, wiU 
not scruple to assassinate them. . 

— — Another two-legged. ass, 2 i^ e* Another poor drudge, who, 
like me, will be fool enough to be in the situation in which I have 

05. Smooth zoitk pumi<^^ S^c*'] T;hes^ effeminate wretohes, in or« 
der to make their skins smooth^ rubbed themselves with a pumice* 
stone, to take off the hair.— By this periphrasis Naevolus describes 
such as Yirro, whose means, as well as inclination, to revenge^ 
would make them dangerous enemies, if provoked» 

96. He who lately^ 4"^] Virrp5^;who made me pr4vy to his secret 
practices, is full" of fear lest I should discover them, and therefore 
burns with anger and hatred against me, almost as much a^jf. I had 
betrayed lum-<«»tbercfor6 1^ care that you don't reveal wliAt^l hay« 

Digitized by 



If I should fill up the number, the namber Atee. — 

J u V. The cause of your giiefy Naevolus, 90 

Is just. But what does ,he bring against it ?— [himself. 

NiEV. He neglects me, and seeks, another two legged ass for 
Heniember to conceal these thii^ committed to you alone. 
And silent fix within thee my complaints ; . 
For an enemy, smooth with pumice-stone, is a deadly thing. 95 
He who lately committed the secret, bums, and hates, 
As if I had betray 'd whatever I know : to take the sword. 
To open my head with a club, to put a candle to my doors, 
He doubts not. .Neither contemn nor despise, that, 
To these riches, the provision of poison is never dear. 100 

Therefore you conceal secrets, as the court of Mars at Athens. 
' Juv. O Corydon, Corydon, think you there is any secret 
<3f a rich man? if the servants should be silent, the cattk witt 

And the dog, and the posts, and the marbles : shut the windows, 
Let curtains cover the chinks, close the doors, take the Ught 10.^ 
Out of the way, let ail be silent, let nobody lie near : 

6aid, for he will stick at nothing to be reveiiged. See sat iii. 1. 49 
—52, and 113.' . 

99k Neither contemn^ ^c] Don't make light of what I am go^ 
Ing'to say; but such rich meti as Virro, if offended^ never think, 
th^y buy poison too dear to gratify their revenge. 

ioi. Conceal secrets^ 4*^.] q, d. Therefore one i3 forced to be as 
secret as the Areopagus. The judges of this court gavfe their suf- . 
f rages by nighty and in silence, by characters and alphabetical let* 
ters ; and it was a capital crime to divulge the votes' by which their 
aentence was past. See Areopagus. Ainsw. 

102. Q Corydon^ S^cJ] Juvenal humorously styles Naevolns, thi» 
paratQOur of old Virro, Corydon, in allusion to Virg. £c1. ii. 1, 2* 

— -^^ Think you^ S^c."] Do you think that any thing which a man 
does, who is ridi enough to have a number of servants, can be kept 
secret ? If it can't be proved that the servants have been blabbing^ 
yet every thing will be known by some means or other, however 
unlikely, or remote from our apprehensidn. 

. 103. The eaitle^ S^c.y By this, and the following hyperbolical 
expressions, is held forth the nature of guilt, which, however se« 
cretly incurred, will yet, some how or other, especially in persons 
ef high stations, come to be known. So the prophet Habakkuk, 
■peaking of those who build fine houses for themselves by rapine 
^od destruction, says, ^^ The stoiie shall cry out of the wall, and 
¥ the beam out of the timber shall answer it." Gh. ii. 9 — 11* 

A like sentiment occurs, £ccl. x. 20. 

105. Tak^ the Ught, ^c] That nobody may see what is doing. 

106. Let all b^ silent.^ Every thing hushed into midnight silence. 
Borne read clament here^ but surely taceant be&t agrees with the rest 
of the passage* 

Digitized by 



Quod tamen ad cantum galli hcit iOe seciindi, 

Proximus ante diem caupo sciet, audiet et quae 

Finxenint pariter librariuft, archunagiriy 

Carplores : quod enim dubitant compcmere crimeii } 10 

In dofiinos i quoties nunoribus ulciscuntur 

Baltea ? nee deerit, qui te per compita quaerat 

^olentemi et miseram vinosufl ineSriet aureni« 

lUos ergo roges, quicqui^Ntulo ante petebas 

A nobis* Taceant illiy sed prodere malunt 115 

Arcanum, quam subrepti potare Falemi, 

Pro popido facien9 quantum I^ufella bibebat 

107. What he does^ 8ic.'\ What the rich man does in secret, nn* 
der the darkness and coTert of the night, will yet be known before 
it is quite day. Holyday has a long note on the crowing of the 
cock, io which I refer the reader.: — ^Juvenal seems to be the best 
commentator on this cantam galli secundi, and directs us to under* 
stand it of the season jnst before the day breaks — ante diem, 1. 108 ; 
intimating the small space of time between the act and the know* 
ledge of it. We often meet with mention of the different times of 
Cock^crowing, to mark different periods between midnight and day. 
break. Comjl. Mark xiy. 30, 7%. with Mark xt. 1. 

Shakespeare marks an early season, after midnight, by ^\ the first 
*< cock." 1 Hen. IV. act ii. scene i. It is certain, howeyer, that 
cocks crow, earlier or later, at different times of the year. — See 
Hon. lib. i. sat. 1. 1. 10. 

108. The next mntner.'] The tarems at Rome were not only placet 
of public resort, but, like our coffee-houses, the marts for news 
pf all kinds. These were opened very early, and probably were 
the resort of serTants ii^ great families, before their lords were stir* 

1()9. The steteard-'] Librarins signifies a book.writer, a tran«. 
scribcr — ^aUo a keeper of books of accounts.--^As this is the occu. 
pation of the steirard in a great family, I have yet therefore so ren. 
dercd it 

Master'COok8»'\ Or head-cooks, from Gr. ct^x^, the prind- 

pal or chief, and /uayci^o^^ a cook. 

Correr*.} 'Carptores — these were also servants in great fa* 

milies, whose occi^pation it was to help to set the dishes on the 
table, and then tp carve for t^e company.. See sat v. 120-T-4. 

We are to suppose these head servants of a rich family getting- 
together at (he tavern to take a morning whet, and there inventing 
lies against their master. 

111. Straps J] Baltearr-rbelts, or straps mai& of leather, with 
which the masters corrected their slaves-r-tn revenge for which, 
there was nothing which the slaves would noit iuv^ajt ^gaJUist tiiei^ 

112. The streets,"] Compitum denotes a crosSnway, or street 
where several ways met ; here the country people met together to 

Digitized by 



Ifet what he does at the crowing of the second cock, 

The next vintner will know before day, and will hear what 

The steward, the master-cooks, and carvers have togetlier 

Indented : for what crime do they hesitate to frame against 1 10 

Their masters ? how often are straps revenged 

£j rumours i Nor will there fail one who will seek th^e thro' the 

Unwilling, and^lanelling of wine, will inebriate your wretched ear, 
Therefor^ you should ask them, what a little before you sought 
^>pm m^ : let them be silent : but they had rather.betray 11 J 
A secret, than drink of stolen Falernan, 
As much a$ (jaufella, sacrificing for the people, draiik. 

Ikeep thelf wakes after they bad finished their husbandry. Sb» 
sat. XT. 1. 42, and note. The greatest concourse of people being in 
«uch places, the fellow, here mentioned, was most likely to fin4 
BOPHebody to tell his tale to. 

113. t/nzeilling.'] u e. However unwilling you may be to. listen 
to him. 

-: SmeUing of wrne.] Vinosus.- — Some drunken fellow will 

think it a good frolick to find you out, and attack you m the street. 
Comp. sat. iii. 278. 

JV^ inebriate^ 4'^*] The ear is paetaphprically said to drin)^ 

the sounds which are poured into it. Pilopeut, eleg. vi. lib* iU* 

•rr— Suspens^ auribus ist^ bibam. 
^nd HoR. ode xiii. lib. ii. , ' 

Densum humeris bibit aure vulgus. 

When the ear is filled and overcharged with impertinent disconrseip 
it is said to be inebriated. ThePrench say of a talkative person, tt 
m'enyvre de son caquet. 

114. Askthem^ ^-c] My being silent will, do you little service, 
tmless you could silence these slanderers. — Enjoin these to silence,' 
as just now you did me. 

116. Stolen Falernan,'] Filched from their masters, and there- 
fore the more delicious. See Prov, ix. 17. 

117. Laufella.'] A priestess of Vesta, who in celebrating the ritea 
of the Bona Dea, together with the women worshippers, drank her* 
self into drunken fury. Se^ sat. vi. 1. 313 — 20. Some read Sau- 

— - — Sacrificing.'] The verb facio, to do, standing singly, in this 
connexion, has always this sense. Virg. Eel. iii. 77» 

Cum faciam vitul^ pro frugibus, ipse venito. 
Xhe word saqr^ is understood. 

So operari, ViRo. Geor. i. 339. — Laetis bperatus in herbis — i. e* 
sacrb operatus. * See sat. xii. I. 92. 

, So the Greek ^i^ti, and the Heb. TW^ — which, in. their prunarjr 
sense, signify to make or do, are also used for sacrificing. 

Digitized by 



Vivendum recte^ cum propter plurhna^ turn hk 

Praeciipue causis, ut linguas mancipiorum 

Contemnas: nam liogua mali pars pessima serfi. 120 

Deterior^tamen hic^ qui liber non erit^ illis 

Quorum animas et farre suo custodit, et acre. 

N. Idcirco, ut possim linguam contemnere servi. 
Utile consilium modo^ sed commune^; dedisti : 
Nunc mihi quid suades post damnum temporis^ et spes 125 
Deceptasf festji^^at enim decurrere velox 


Port ID : dum bibimus, dum serta, unguenta^ puellas 
Poscimus^ obrepit non intellecta seaectus. 

P. Ne trepida : nunquam pat^us tibi deerit amicus^ 130 
Stantibus et salvis his collibus,: undique ad illos ^ 
"Cbnv€»iimt, et carjienfis et navibiis, onlnes 
Qui digito scalpuut uno caput : altera major 
Spes supereit, tu tantum erucis imprime dentem. 

N. HaBc exempla para felicibus : at mea Clotho 135 

Ef Lachesis gaudent, si pascitur inguine venterf 
P parvi, nostrique iJsires^ quos thure minuto^ 

118. Live rightly J\ This is the best way to silence slander, or to 
despise its malice. See 1 Pet. ii. 12 ; and ill. 16. 

119, Tongues of slaves,"] Coinp. 1. 109 — 11. 

121. He is worse^ <^'c.] The tattling of servants about the mas* 
ter's secrets is bad enough ; but worse still is that master, who, by 
deliyering himself up to the practice of secret vices, puts himself into 
the power of his servants, and lives under a perpetual bondage, for 
fear they should discover what they know of him« 

122. Whose lives, Sfc] i» e. Whom he maintains and nourishes. 
Corn."] Far — ^signifies all manner of corn, meal, or flour ; 

and here may stand fbr the food in general which the slaves ate, 
and for which the master paid, as for their clothes and other neces- 

123. N^v. Therefore, Sfc,"] The poet represents Naevolus as con. 
fessing the goodness of his advice in general, but wants to know 
what is to be done in his particular case, who is growing old under 
loss of time and diss^ppointment. 

126. TTie hasty little flower, 4*0.] See Is. xl. 6, 7. James i. 10, 
11. 1 Pet. i. 24. 

128. Chaplets, ointments, S^cJ] In the midst of all our festal 
mirth. See Hon. lib. ii. ode vii, 1. 6 — 8. Wisd. ii. 1 — 9. 

130. Fear not, i^cJ] The poet, in his answer to what NacTolus 
had said, aggravates, if possible, his satire on the lasciTious Ro^ 
mans, by representing Rome as the common rendezvous of the lewd 
and effeminate from all parts ; not only of Italy, but of regions be- 
yond the seas : the former are represented ad coming in Tehiclei 
hy land i the latter, in ships by sea* 

Digitized by 



One should live rightly^ as on many accounts^ so especially 
For these causes, that the tongues of slaves you may 
Contemn : for the tongue is the worst part of a bad servant. 1§0 
Yet he w worse, who shall not be free, than those 
Whose lives he preserves, both with his corn and money. 

NiBV. Therefore, that I may despise the tongue of a servant. 
You have just now given useful, but common, counsel : 
Now what do you persuade me to, after loss of time, and hopes 1 25 
Deceived? for the hasty little flower, and very 

SH09T portion . 

Of a miserable life, hastens to pass away: 
While we drink, and chaplets, oijUments, girls. 
We call for, old age, unperceived, creeps upon us. 

Juv. Fear not: you will never want a pathic friend, 130 
These hills standing and safe : from every where to them 
There come together, in chariots and ships, all 
Who scratch the head with one finger : another greater 
Hope remains, do thou only impress thy tooth on rockets. 

NjEV. Prepare these examples for the fortunate; but my 
Clotho 135 

And I^chesis rejoice, if I barely live by my vices. 
O my little Lares ! \vhom with small frankincense. 

131. These hiils,'] Rome was bailt on seven hills^ which here are 
put for Rome itself. 

132. There co,me,'\ Con veoiunt— come together, convene) meet* 

133. fVho scrittdij Sfc,'] By this periphrasis are described those 
mmataral lif retches, who dressed their heads like women ; and who^ 
if they wanted to scratch them, gently introduced one finger only, 
for fear of discomposing their hair. This phrase was proverbial, to 
denote such characters. 

133 — 4- Greater hope^ Sfc,"] Fear not, Naevolns, of meeting with 
a. pathic friend, more generous than Virro, among these strangers--^, 
only qualify thyself for thdr pleasures by stimulating food. 
, 134. Rockets,'] Eruca signifies the herb rocket. Ovid, Rem. 
Am. 799. calls them erucas salaces — by which we are to suppose it 
an herb which had a quality of iavigorating and promoting the pow- 
ers of lust. — ^^ Only eat rockets," says Juvenal, " and fear not 
^^ success :"-— a most bitter sarcasm on the visitants of Rome above, 
mentioned, 1. .132, 3. 

135. Prepare^ Sfc.'] t. e. Tell these things to happier men than I 
am — for my part, my destinies would have me contented with, a 
very littl^, glad if I can pick up enough to^ keq) me from starv* 

135 — 6, Clotho — Lachesis,'] These, with Atropos, are the names 
of the three fates, or destinies, which the 'poets feigned to preside 
ever the lives and deaths of mankind. 

137. Little Laresj S^c.^ The Lares, or household gods, were 

Digitized by 



Aut fiure, et tenui soleo exornare corond, 

Quando ego figam alicjuidy quo sit mihi tuta senectus 

A tegete et baculo P viginti miliia fteniMy 140 

Pignoribus positis i argenti vadcula puri, 

Sed quae Fabricius censor iiotet ; et duo fortes 

De grege Moesorum, qui me cervice locate 

Securutn jubeant clamoso insistere circo f 

Sit mihi praeterea curvus cadator^ et alter> 145 

Qui muhas facies pii^t cito^^suffieient hdse^ . 

Quando ego pauper ero, votum miserabile^ nee spes 

His saltern ; nam cum pro me Fortuna rogatur, 

Affigit ceras ilia de nave petitas, 

femall images, placed on tlie hearth near the ^re-side, and were sttp« 
posed to be the protectors of the house and family ; they were 
crowned with small chaplets, and cakes made of pounded frankin^ 
cense, meal, akid the like, were offered to them. See Hor. lib. lii. 
ode xxiii. ad fiii. It was the custom to fix with wax their vows' to^ 
the knees of these images, in order to have them granted. See sat. 
z. 55, and note. Therefore Naeyolus is supposed to say^— Whea 
shall I &x any things — ^that is, present a petition, from a favourable 
answer to whkh I may be secured, in my old age, from rags, and 
begging with a crutch ? Teges is literally a coarse rug«^and bacu- 
lum, a stick or walking staff. 

140. Ttcent^ thousand interest.^ When shall I be so rich as to 
receive annually twenty thousand sesterces, that is, twenty sester« . 
tiums (about 156/. 5^.) for interest on money lent? The numeral 
nouns viginti miliia must be understood to apply to sestertii, here ; 
for applying them to scstertia, would make a sum too enormous to 
^ree with the rest of what Nsvolus is wishing for. 

141. Pledges set down.'] u e. With good and sufficient sureties^ 
>et or written down in the bond, to secure the principal. 

143. Fabricius,'] It is said of C. Fabricius, that when he was 
censor, he accused Corn. Ruffinus of prodigality, and removed him 
from the senate, because he found, in his house, silver vessels of ten 
pounds weight, esteeming it as a notorious example of luxury. Nas. 
Tolus is wishing fqr vascula, small vessels of pure silver, but not so 
troall as to be below the notice of Fabricius. 

143. Herd of the Mxsi.] Fot Moesia, see Ainsw. The M oesiana 
were remarkably robust, and therefcre in great request at Rome, as 
chairmen or carriers of the sedans and Utters in which the fine peo* 
pie rode along the streets. See sat. 1. 1. 64, and note. 

-^ — Shoulders,] Cervix — ^lit. means the hinder part of the neck 
••^the neck — and sometimes, as we may suppose here, the shoulders. 
Ainsw. Naevolus, among other things, is wishing to afford two 
stout Moesians, who, by putting their shoulders under him, might 
carry him through the crowd at the circus, to some safe and conve- 
nient situation, where he could enjoy the diversion, at his cfl^e and 
quiet^ aqaid aU the tumult and uproar of the \i\3Lce^ 

Digitized by 



Or with mealy and a slender chaplet, I use to adorn, 

When shall I fix any thuig, by which old age may be secure to me 

From the rug and staff? — ^Twenty thousand interest 140 

With pledges set down ? — ^little vessels of pure silver. 

But which the censor Fabricius would note — and two strong onesi 

From the herd of the Moesi, who, with shoulders placed [under 

May command me to stand secure in the noisy circus ? — 
Let me have besides a skilful engraver — and another 145 

W^ho can quickly paint many faces : — these things will suffice. 
Since I shall be poor, a wr€jtched wish !— Nor is there hopQ 
Only for these ; for when Fortune is petitioned for me, 
She affixes wax, fetched from that ship, 

Where on their brawny shoulders mounted high, *^ 
While the brave youth their various manhood try, > 
I would the thrones of emperors defy. } HaRtbt. 

144. Matf command.'] Jubeant — may command, or order— ^hn- 
plyiog the superior strength and power of these fellows, who could 
80 make their way, as to place their master wherever they chose. 

145. Skilful engraver.'] Curvus signifies crooked — ^that hath 
turnings and windings — and this latter, in a mental sense, denotes 
cunning, which we often find used for skilful, in our older English* 
See £xod. xxxviii. 23, and several other places of our translation of 
the Bible. Some are for understanding curvus, as descriptive of the 
bending or stooping attitude, in which the engraver works at hb 

146. Quickly painty Sfc] An artist, who can soon paint a num- 
ber of portr^ts, which I may hang about my house, as pictures of 
some great men who were my ancestors. Comp. sat. viii. 1. 2^ and 
note. '^ 

These things zcill suffice^ Sfc] All this would just serve to 

make me as rich and happy as 1 could wish. Here I think this part 
of the subject comes to a period. Naevolus then recollects himself — 
his evil destiny occurs to his mind, and he breaks out in an excla- 
mation on the vanity and misery of his wishes, since poverty and 
want are the only lot which he can expect. — ^l*his seems to unite thft 
four last lines, with the utmost consistency and propriety. 

147. A wretched wishj S^c] Since (quando) I am doomed to po« 
verty by my destinies, (comp. 1. 135, and note,) my wretched wishes^ 
and all my hopes, are vain, and 1 cannot expect even what I havQ 
Jiow been wishing for, much less any thing farther. 

149. She affixes wax, Sfc] i. e. Fortune is deaf to all petitions 
on my behalf. This is expressed by an allusion to the story of 
IJJysses, who, when sailing by Sicily, and being forewarned of the 
danger of listening to the Sirens on the coast, stopped his mariners' 
ears with wax, and so sailed by them securely. He commanded that 
he himself should be tied to the main-mast. Homer, Odyss. xii. 

Jhns j^ the complaints of this miserable wreteh I The poet has^ 

Digitized by 



Quae Siculos cantus efiiigit remige surdo. ' 150 

under the character of NasToIus, strongly marked the odionsnes^ of 
vice, and has set forth the bitter, consequences which attend those 
who look for happiness and prosperity in the ways of wickedness^ 
that they will fail in their expectations, and, at last, be consigned to 
the sad refiige of unayailing petitions for delircrancc from that 5tat» 

■^ ♦ 

Digitized by 



Which escaped the Sicilian songs, with a deaf rower. i > 

of irremediable want and misery, into which they have pIuHj^^i 
themselres, and which they find, too late, to be the sad, but just re« 
compense of their obstinate perseverance in evil-doing. 

We may see this alarming and awful subject adequately treated 
in the sublime words of heavenly wisdom, Prov. i. 24 — 31. 



Printed by Nathaniel Bliss* 

Digitized by 


.. . /■? 



Digitized" by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


This book should be returned to 
the Library on 09^^efore the last date 
stamped helow^ — ^ 

A flngjifLliliy Uyjits a day is incurred 
by ret^o^ig it beyond the specified 

Please return promptly. 

i JAN 11 '57 li 

i ^ 

I 'J 

FEES '"^J 

Digitized by 


Digitized by